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Full text of "Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic war, with a vocabulary and notes"

TWEASUKr- KtKJM 



COL. GEORGE WASHINGTON FLOWERS 
MEMORIAL COLLECTION 




DUKE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 
DURHAM, N. C. 



PRESENTED BY 

W. W. FLOWERS 



Ol ^ - 



H 



.COMMMTAR.IES. 



GALLfC WAR, 






iOT; 



m 






i • 
Bi STERLING, CAM 

IS 






• Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 

By WILLIAM BINGHAM, 
In the Clerk's Office of the .District Court of the Confederate Sta; 
for' the District of Pamlico, North Carolina. 



m 




W ROVERS COUrXTfOlf 



P R EFACE. 

This edition of Caesar has been prepared with reference to the 
wants of pupils a? ed in the recitation room. 

The not. inpipally grammatical, the intention being to 

1 • student such assistance mly as will enable him to find out. 

1 11 thor's meaning f f, while that pernicious help which 

i diligent effort unnecessary, has refully withheld. 

to rcuder the vocabulary sufficient for 

* of the text, and to remedy the defects 

win-. een found to exist in the vocabularies attached to the 

''je classics heretofore most generally used in our 

schools. Each word is traced hack to the ultimate radical on which 

formed ; the original signification is given, as far as practica- 

and the n^oro diflicult phr ' ich it occurs are explained. 

jfcpw far the editoi it is left with 

i the wor' their hands 

that it n nan 

lly. 

Dec, 1863. IL 



3a.'}- 



JUL RIS 




|imentario.r:um 

DE BELLO GALLTCO 



LIB 



i. ;:•'■:• luarum unam' iueo- 

tani, tertian), qui- rpsorum 3 lingua CeltJe, 

■;: Ga 1 ' ; Hi omnes 1 ingua, 4 ins^itutis, legib.us inter 



Belc 



I 



i TenintaHBaii sis Garumnn fiumen, a Belgis Mat- 

iq '••.-.; -uiii omnium fortissiini sunt Belgsc,- 

propferea quod a eultu atque hi i provincial longissime ab- 

que ad eoa mereafcores szcpe 6 commeant, atque ea, qmo 
amnios pert' 1 important : proximiqtfe sunt 

qpiibliscuni c ntiuenter bei- 
ge runt : qna°'de Causal ; uoquo reliqu 
pnccodu ere quotidiani GerAnis contendunt, 
q'uunj aut suis finibua 11 ( os.prolubent, aut ipsi in corum finibus bel- 
lum , quam ncre dictum est/" ; 

ia'ruiuna flunnne, 
isMetHelvi 
Belgre ab extremis Gal- 






. ■ 
iioo 

11 

• ' ot here included 

ie torhi t>V. 
-■ Q" .Viio : "' \ 129, /T 

'. "their own ;" rntlic" 

than sua. 
. ■ I . 

utary 
■ 
boundary .- hence th 

■ 
■ I • ■ •■ 



8. Qern anis, J 14: 

9. Qua. I 129. AVm 9. 

10. Yirtute, 3 :■ 
I 88. 

nts of 
lentiy 

Ml. 

I 



* 



30940 



DE BELLO GALLICO 



liaifinibus oriuntur; pertinent ad inferiorem partem fluminisRheni: 

spectant in septemtriones et orientemsolem. Aquitaniaa Garumna 

Sumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et earn partem. Oceani, qua? est ad His- 

pauiara, pertinet ; spectat inter occasum solis et septemtriones. 

i 

II. Apud Helvetios longe nobilissimus et ditissimus*fui.t Orget- 

orix. Is, M. Messala et M. Pisone Coss., 1 regni cupiditate induc- 
tus, 2 conjurationem nobilitatis" fecit, et civitati 3 persuasit, ut de fin- 
ibus suis cum omnibus copiis exirent : 4 perfacile e&ieAa^ftS virtute 
omnibus prcestarent, 6 totius Galliee imperio 7 potiri. 5 * pi hot 3 facilius 
eis persunsit, quod undique loci natura Helvetii edntinentur : una 
ex parte 10 flumine Rheno, 11 latissimo atque altissimo, qui agrum 
Helvetium a Germanis.dividit ; altera ex parte monte Jura 11 altis- 
sim'qy qui est inter Sequanos efc Helvetios; tertia lacu Lemanno et 
flumine Rhodano, qui provinciam nostram ab Helvetiis dividit4 His 
rebus fiebat, 1 ? ut et minus late ragarcntur, 4 et minus facile finitiiiii? 
bellum inferre pqssent : 4 . qua ,de causa haraines bellandi 13 cupidi 
magno-dolore afficiebantur.* Pro 14 muititudine autefji homiflum, et 
pro gloria belli atque fortitudinis, 15 angustos se fines habere arbitra- 
bantur, qui in longitudinem millia 10 passuum CCXL, in latitudinem 
CLXXX patebant. 

III. His rebus adduoti, 1 et auctoritate Orgetorigis permoti, 1 conJ 
stituerunt ea. qujc ad proficiscendum pertinerent,?tcomparare; s ju- 
mentorum et carrorum quam 4 maximum numerum cfcemere: !: semen- 
tes i • >• faeorr." 1 nt in itinere copia frumenti supneter- 
et ; 5 cum proxiruis oivitatibus pa»em et amicitiam confirmare. Ad 



II. 1. Consirfibus^lSu, Bern. 1. 

2. Inductus, |185, 2, (?, .) 

3. Civitati,- $141. 

4. Exirent, §193. 

5. Perfacile esse, "That itjras'a very 
easy thing;" — an impersonal ex- 
pression, ace. T?ftl> infinitive depeud- 

' ing on the verb of saying implied in 

uura— prtBstarent. "i?ince they ex- 
celled ,-" §205, a. 

tperio, $15.9, Rem. 6. 
8. Potiri, §173. 
?. Hoc, §159. 

'it. Una tx parte limits eontintutur un- 
derstood. 

'lumine Rheno; &e. Observe th« 
difference of idiom : 

English. By ttie Shine, a very 
. ' brond and deepfrivtr. 

Latin. By the river Rhine, [which 
k) very broad and deep. 

, '*It came to pass," " it 



peti»d." Fit is frequent!; 
impersonally in the sense #f ; . 
pens. 

13. Bellandi, $136, Rule IX. ft. 

14. Pro, '-In proportii 

15. Gloria belli atque fortitudinisj, 
" Their renowiBp war and reputa- 
tion for couragej*,' The ffittin peni- 
tive must not always be 

'03' of, as it expresses ot!; ■ 

than those expressed in English bj 

that preposition. 

16. Millia, §153. 

Ill 1. Adducti, §185, 2, a. 

2. Pertincrent, §210, Rule XL7I, e, 

3. Comparare, §171. 

i. Quam maximum, "As great as pos- 
sible;" §20o, Bern. 1 •• psssent is here 
omitted. 

5. Suppeteret, sc. iis, . " ' ! 
wight have a- plenty of corn ;" ' 

6. Ad eas res conficiendas, §17 7. 



LIBER PRIMUS. 



■as res conficie das 6 biennium si);: 7 satis esse diixerunt, in ter 
muumlprofecti »nem lege cnnfirmant. Ad eas res conficiendas Or- 
<>r'ix deligitur. Ls sibi 9 legationem ad civitai. it ; i B go 

tine're persuadet Caaticq, 9 Catamantaledisfilio, Sequano, cujus paler 
•egnum in Seqaania multos annos obtinue'rat, 10 ct a senatu Populi 
Ionian i amicus 1 ! appellatua crat, ut fregnum in ciyitate sua occupa- 
et, 11 ' quod pater i : aerat : itenique Buninoriei' J iEduo, fratri 

Divitiaek^i eo tv\nv,nrc' pv ; ;,! in oivitatc dfctv: 

nax.ir o p^JBL'iccv'tus cviit. u' 

iliaiii suannH^atrimonium dat.^ Perfacile faotu 15 est p TO . 

>at'cona : .; ur . 

>btemu: ion rsso dubium, quin tortus Gallise plurim- 

im 50 I se suis copiis suoque exercitu illis regnacon- 

•iliatuxu' itione udducti, 1 inter se fidem el (us- 

urandui ._£ 

^'J/Mm' •' - : :'-i' ; :e* s.eso :aT! t. 

TV. • IjJa^H^H^rfelvctiis per 
•ui* Orgojp^ci^x vinculiscr.' IUJ :. 

dktiuni; : f*uau)'faaii)iiini ad i 

millia dec 
quorum n 

oavr?a;:i <;■ 

M^rnis jus suum r.^puni (.•( i 

ngris ma 









or against, 



The 

■ • 

; :p:ice an hi 
(he depei 

ip 11,0. 



Regno occn] 

tiri \3 [he ecpij 
IV. I 

I 2. m i 

■)». 

nnatui 

agrees with tl. ,-,. tuni 

ood. 
j4 tk igni cremaretur, barn- 

o<l v ith firo :" n (ii .1 dou 
• 

I 



BLLO ■.LICO 



. r, quin ipse sibi mortem eousciverit. 9 

V HeWetii id, quod constitu- 

it, facere conantur^ ut •.• frnibuB :<ais epteant. 2 Ubi jam se ad earn 

rati sunt,'.oppida sua omnia ciimcro ad duo- 

.-■-, rcliqua privata aedificia incendunt ; 

f rumen turn omne, pra >i sectliu portatmri 4 eraht, comburunt, 

inn* reditionis. spe sublata,* paratibres ad omnia pericula 

"*,■ molita cibtu-ia^-r^M*. quemque 

Ti|p et Lato- 

. ■ ■■ ieisque ex- 

iroficisoatitur : Boiosque., qui tran* llhenum 

n '•••rant, Nofein '-.quo oppug- 

septos »d-se socios 14 sibi adscis&unt. 

Grant oicr.ino itinera dao, quib : leribiii >\ao l exire 

.. - is. amrustum i monten; 

•r:i, vix qv iucerentur : ; 

■ohibere pos 
[ue expe- 
,][*- ram inter ! Ajloferogum, qui 

, ' . . lullia locig 5 vado 6 tran 

proximumque Helve- 



'.«. Qnii cods 

;io8. 

: : ' — :\ finn.l 

po iilion with 

rgion of 
rntur 
but 
. 

'• force; — 
eruselvea." 
) '-tbat the: 

: 

i were goin 
■ ■.. The 

definite (§123, Rem. 

■ omen a n»nn H the, [jfcj#ct of 
mtntv 

• I •■ • 



ppido pons ;u'' SfelvetioH pertirieffl 

os, e quod ].■.;■! ;»ju be 

. 2 ». 

■■ 

13. Ii.«, "Them," (lie ITetTcri^ns; 

ttUtil ' I LSI ; 

person-: sp 

pci-tom - bee asej t':« 

* and nol s 

. ' 

VI. 1. 

2. iP«s</i ' : "i 

iliL-ir view ; 
bis ov 

3. Qm<i — durerfn/er, 

<)t tllC I'll!'!' 

LVI, a 

4. Multo 
■ ' 
. :.. . :■■ . 

i.ibus, 3V* 

5. 411ol 'JMI 
9 Persua •- ■ 

Ld o1 MM 

:t. ; : l£>e par- 
perfect-. > 









:uey 



L1UER PRIMUS. 



i! vidcrentur, 11 existimabant ; vel vi -, ut 

lines eos 13 ir<2 patercntur. Oinnibus nera 

oomparatiSj 18 <li f .m dicunt, qtla die ;id ripam Rbodani omm B con- 

veuiant: 14 is dies er?t a. d. V. Ka!. Apr., 15 L. Pisone et A. Gabi- 

nio, Coss. » 

YTL Caesari quum id nunciatum ess eos j inci&ia noa- 

trani ite rjac ^ iri, 2 maturat aburbe prbficisci;*et : max- 

imis pritgflflfie: '!en- 

■i pwr^Ri : prcvi quam m aiilituni 

mer 'ore logic una) ; ] 

t» rescindi. Ubi de ejut advent'u 
tk'a facti sunt, legates ad 

JSameius et Verudoctius pri 
■ *'■' : . ineullo in 

propterca quod aliud iter haberenl 
te id sibi fac< re 3 lb sar, quod nicru- 

um consulern occLum, 1 - excrcruiuque ejus ab 
•et sub jugum d durii 10 non put- 

ininiico aninio, 1 * d.-ta facnltatc 15 per provinci- 



, qui e 



am fa 




10. Bonoai r .od disposition," 

Rule. 
Helvetians. St, 

vat would 
staid 

• ands, 



| 

y al 1 

• v as- 

. LVI, a 

as A- 

e Ka- 

ih «f 

■ 



. LI II, 



b. 

•:ari if s, noun i euteuce, in 
■ 

" By »• (toaI 

R nltrii to 



the proTince, (i. r. demands cf the 
pioTince) as gr ber of sol- 

ued Yith a : in ths 

141,) and d 

live expressing the bu! i i met of 
v lie 0] 

l):il th« 
■brk?, 

■ 
t:\ry 

. I 
. 
itis, § 134. 
7 Qui (iicorem, .'. n. 

6. Bll i eftse iu :> r ii mo, "Th 

it in inind," "that it wah tb(\> 
pose 143. 

9 Uaberent, 

1 1. Mi-iunria tenr.'ba;. 

^•ijuni (fr'-o.) " T 

14. In 



10 



DE BELLO GALLTCO 



am itineris facieudi, 16 temperaturos ab injuria et inaleficio exiathfflj 
abat : tamen, ut spatium intercedere posset, dum milites, quoa im? 
peraverat, convenirent, 17 legatis respondit ' diem se ad deliberandum 
sumpturum ; 13 si quid vellent, 18 a. d Idus Apr reverterentur.' 19 

VIII. Interea ea legione, 1 quam secum babebat, militibusque, 
qui ex provincia convenerant, a lacu Lemanno, qui in fiumen Rhoe- 
anum iufluit, ad montem Juram, qui fines Sequanorura ab Helvetiis 
dividdt, millia* passuum decern fovem murum in altitudinem pedu;; 
.sedecim fossamque perducit. Ed opere perfecto, 3 praesidia disponit, 
castella communit, quo 4 faciliiis, si se invito 5 transire conarentur," 
probibere possit. Ubi ea dies, quam constftuerat cum legatis, venit, 

• ' legati ad eum revcrterunt, negat ' se more et exempJo populi Ro 
posse iter ulli per provinciam dare ; ' et, ' si. vim facere con- 
entur, 7 prohibiturum ' ostendit. Helvetii, ea spe 8 dejecti, navibn: 
junctis, 9 ratibusque compluribus factis, alii vadis Rbpdani, qua min 
ima altitudo fluminis erat, nonnunquam interdiu, saepius noetu,. -i 
perrumpere possent, 10 conati, operis munitione et militum concur, u 
et telis rcpulsi, boc conatu 11 destiterunt. 

IX. Relinquebatur una per Sequanos via, qua, Sequanis iuvitis, 1 
propter angustias ire non poterant. His quum sua sponte persua 
dere non posseut, 2 legatos ad DumUorigem ^Eduum mittunt, ut, .eo 
deprecatore, 3 a Sequanis impetrarent. Dumnotfra: gratia ct larg't 
ione 4 apud Sequanos plurimum 5 potcrat, et Helvetiis erat amict , 



•16. Faciendi, §177. 

17. Duru — convenirent. §207. 

18. Voilent, §197, Rem. 4. 

19. Reverterentur, §217,jRe*i. l."They 
might return on tho day before the 
[des of April. ' : i.e., ou the 12th of 
April. For the expression ante deem 
Idus, see VI, 15; §234. 

VIII. 1. EalegU.no, "With that le- 
gion.'' §159/ 

2. Millia, §158. 

.". Perfecto, "Having finished this 
work," §186. 

4. Quo, §193, Ilem.Z. 

6. Se invito. " Without his consent." 
§186, Rem. 1. 

fl. Conarentur.'§197, Rem.'l. 

7. Conentur, §197. 

8. Spe, §163. 

9. Navibua, &c, -'Some, by means of 
boats joined together and a great 
number of rafts (which they had) 
made; others, by the fords of the 
Rhone where the depth of the river 



was least, sometimes by day,ofter r 
by night, trying whether they cm 
break through, having been repul 
&c." Jllii may be supplied b?fi 
navibut (though not necessary to I 
construction.) and, with alii 
pressed, is in partitive appositi 
■with Helvetii. See §127, Rem.- 6. 

10. Si — posxent is rather interrogat 
than conditional. 

11. Conatu, §163. 

IX. 1. Sequanis invitis, "Withou! 
consent of the Sequana." §186. : 

1- 
2* Quum — possent, _"Since they were 
unable by their own influence, &c. r" 
§205. 

3. Eo deprecatore, " By his interces- 
sion," (he being intercessor.) £ 
Rem. 1. 

4. Gratia et largitione, §159. 

5. Plurimum poterat, "Was very pow- 
erful";" §150, Rtm. 3. 



LIBER PRIMUS. 



!• 



quod ex ea civitate Orgetorigis filiam in matrimonium duxerat, et, 
cupiditate regni ftdducttis, novis rebus 6 studebat, et quam? plurimas 
civitates suo beneficio habere obstrictas volebat. Itaque rem sus- 
cipit, et a Sequ'anis impetrat, ut per fino^ suos Helvetios ire patian- 
tur, obside.sque uti inter sese dent, 8 perficit : Sequani, 3 ne itinere 
Helvetios prohibeant; Helvetii, ut sine maleficio et injuria transeant. 

X. Ciesari renunciatur 1 Ilelvctiis esse in animo 2 per .agrum Se- 
quanorun^t 2Eduorum iter in Sautouum fines facere, qui non longe 
a Toloyatiwm finibus absunt, quae 1 civitas est in provincia. Id si fie- 
ret, 8 intelligebat aaagno cum provincial periculo futurum, 4 ut hom- 
ines bellicosos, populi Romani inimicos, locis 5 patentibus maxime- 
que frumentariis fiuitimos 6 haberet. Ob eas causas ei munitioni, 7 
quam feccrat, T. Labienum legatum praefecit : ipse in Italiam mag- 
nis itineribus contendit, duasquc ibi legiones conscribit, et tres, quae 
circum Aquileiam hieinabant, ex liibernis educit, et, qua 8 proximum 
iter in ulteriorem Galliam per Alpes erat, cum his quinque legion- 
ibus ire contendit. Ibi Centrones et Graioceli et Caturiges, locis 
superioribus occupatis, 9 itinere 10 exercitum prohibere conantur. 
Oompluribus his proelii.s 11 pulsis, 12 ab Ocelo, quod. est citerioris prov- 
incia; extremum, in fines Vocontiorumulterioris provincial 1 ;' die sep- 
timo 14 pervenit : inde in Allobrogum fines; ab Allobrogibus in Se- 
gusianos exercitum ducit. Hi stmt extra provinciam trans KUod- 
anum primi. / 

Xf. Helvetii jam per angustias et fines Sequanorum suns cepias 
transduxerant, et in iEduorum fines pervenerant, eorumque agros 
populabantur. JEdui, quum se^suaque ab iis defendere non pos- 
sent, 1 legatos ad Caesarem mittunt rogatum* auxilium : ' ita se omni * 



6. Novis rebus, "A revolution." §141. 

7. Quam plurimas, $203, Kim. 1. 

8. jObsidesque uti — dent, '■ And be 
causes that they give hostages to one 
another." 

9. Sequani — JTrlvctii are in partitive 
apposition (§127, Rem. <i) with the 
subject of <icnl ■ and the Onal clau- 
ses, nr — profiibtant and ut — traniecMt, 
express the purpose of the giving. 

X. 1. Renunciatur, "It is announced." 

Tito pubject is the noun-sentence, 

II rive nit fnt, .' 
2. BelvttiM I i;14: J .) et.u in anim; "That 

the Helvetians intend," (that it is in 

mind to the Helvetians. ) 
8. Id si fiVrct, "If this should happen," 

§107, Rm, 1. 
4. Futurum (ette) is impersonal, ut — 



haberet beiu^ the subject; — "That it 
would be with great danger of the 
province, (t. e. a Tery dangerous tiling 
to the province,) that it should have 
&c." 

5. Loch limits finitimtt. §142, Rem. 3. 

6 Finitimos, (151, XVIII, b. 

7. Munitioni is remote object of 
fecit. 

8. Qua (parte,) " Where," (usually 
called an adverb, but really an ab- 
lative of place; $166.) 

9. Occupatis, g 186. 

10. Itinere, §163. 

11. Cnnij'luribus nrosliis, g ICG. 

12. Hi* puis!*, ;-; 

13. Ultcrioris provincial §132 . 

14. Die septimo, §167. 

XI. 1. Quum — non poi6ent, " Since 



L* 



L>£ BELLO GALLICO 



de populo Romano meritos esse, 4 ut pc-ene in conspectu cx- 
ercitus nostri agri vastari, 6 liberi eorum in servituteni abduci, op- 
pidi expngnari 5 non debuerini."' Eodein tempore iEdui Ambarri, 
necessarii et consanguinei yliduorum, Ctesarem certiorem faciunt 

ile ab oppidis vim liottiuia proLi- 
bere : ' item Allobroges, qui trans Rhodanuin vieos possessionesque 

hi recipiunt, et demonstrant 'sibi 8 prte- 
ilum nil U esse reliqui.' 9 Quibus rebus adductus Ctcsar 
ituit, dum, omnibu ciorum 

consuniptis, 11 iu Santuues ilelvetii pcrvei 

XTT. Flumcn est Arar, quod per fines iEduorum et Sequauorum 

num influit, incredibili lenitate, 1 ita ut oculis, in utraci 

partem fluat,* judicatri non possit. 3 Id Helvetii ratibus acliatribus 

juncti >Jbi perexploratores Cresar certior factum est 

j tin eopiarum partes Helvetios idflunien 4 transduxisse, quartani 

partem eitra tinmen Antrim reliquam esse; de tertia Vigilia 5 

cum tegion ibu ' ris profectus 0, ad earn partem pervenit, 

impedi'tos et inopinantes . 

artem concidit : reliqui fugse sese manda- 

runt, atque in proximo silvas abdiderunt. 7 Is pagus appellabatur 

, 5 civitas Helvetia in quatuor pagos divisa est. 

Hie ] • domo exisset, patrum nostrorum memoria 8 

L. C ' m iuterfecerat, et ejus e,xercituin sub jugum mis- 

• .'-' t-aiBU hive oonsilio deorum iinmortalium, qutc pafs 10 

civit. insigncui calamitateii populo liomano iutulerat, 

ua pri.iceps 11 poenas persolvit. Qua in re Csesar non solum publieVs, 



they :205: 

Ltl, a. 

4. Meritos esu depends ou dictnte* un- 
derstood. The ^Bduana liad for 

many ycarsbeen faithful allies of the 
ltonir.n». 

■ start, .ye. limits debuerint ; §1 74. 

6. Certiorem faciunt.rf'Infprtn," (make 

re certain, §151, XVIII, b.) 1 

7. 1>< i :_'ris, §1 8G. 

,i— esse, §148. "That they had." 

:liqui, "Nothing left,"(noth- 

in.r of n m under,-) §134, Rem. 1. 

Ion pxpectandum, "That he ought 

ait" — £178. Sibi, §145. — 

Esse ia here <ni '.'I, 9. 

11. Omnibus furtunis apcioruru con- 
aimptis, "A-fter all the resoiirfces of 
his allies had been consumed. "§186. 

12. Dam— pervenirent, §207. 



.XII. 1. Incredibiii Imitate limits flu- 
men ; §164. 

2. Fluat, §2H. 

3. Ppssit, "So that it cannot be deter- 
mined with the eye.". The .subject 
of possit is the poun-8entencc prow- 
ding. 

4. Flumen, QlfaflUm. 2. 

5. De tertia yigilia, "After midnight;" 
after the beginning of' the third 
watch, and before ita expiration. 

C. Profectus, §185, 2, a. 

7. Abdiderunt, " Ran to, and hid iu. 
the nearest woods;"-^-an instance of 
the pregnant construction 

8. Memoria, §167. 

9 Sive — sive, Eitiier, or; §128,£«»!.9. 

10. Quae pars, "The part which," 
(what part; §129, Rem. 1, a.) Tho 
relative sentence is placed first for 
the sake of emphasis. 



LIBER. PRIMUS. 






id i ultus est, quod "ejus soeeri L. Pieonis 

avum, L. turn, Tigurini epdei i ; rceli 

rfecerant. 

XIII. Hop prcciio facto, reliquaa copiaa Helvetiorum ufe conse- 
posset, pontem in, Arari faciendum 1 curat, atque ita exeroitum 
>ducit. Helvetii repentino ejus adventu commoti, qutim id 2 
1 ipsi diebus xx aegerrime confecerant, ut flu-men trans irent, 3 

uuo illum^^^p^u^ i'ntelligerent, 4 legates r.d cum mittunt : o 
V"gatio)ii^^BHBBB«c£ps fuit, qui bello Cassiarjo dux Helvetic - 
WL^^PPi Csesare' agit : 'Si paccm populus Romanus 
eret,in caan partem iturbs,8 atque i^i futures 8 - 
Ivetios, ubi eqs Cse?ar c atque esse vo-luissct : ,() sin 

lello'per rscvrerarefc,. 11 reminiaoeretur 13 ct veteris inoommo- 

populi llomani, ct pristine virtutis Halvetiorum. Quod im- 
uui adortus esset, 1-1 quu'm ii, qui flninen transis- 
uxilfum ferro non possent, ne ob earn rem aut suae mag- 
re virtuti tribuer t, aut ipsos despiceret : se ifa a patribuB 
j|j|HRdicisse, ut magis virtute quam dolo contendc- 
'. ' lii> niterentur. 17 Quare ne cominittoret,, 18 ut is locus, 
calamitate 20 populi Romahi et intcrnecionc 
i.eerei en caperet, aut menioriam prodcrct.' 



-JfVincop' 



bject cf »'n 



III. 1 in Arari facie:. 

■ a. bridge built, (at- 
iends to building a bridge?) over the 

is the object of fecisie, and is 
o announce the 
felai bich follows. — 

Thin is a Tory common use 

flninen transirent, •♦To cross the 
river, ' or'-thc crossing of the ri ■■ 



wonld be constituent in direct dis- 
course, §210, Rem. 3. The perfeel 
is used ber appointing must 

bo completed before the Helvetian? 
could act upon it. 

10. Voluistet ia in the same construe- 

constiiuiiset. \ 

11. Sin bello persequi persevei 
"But if he should persist in follow- 
ing them with war. 

12. Reminisceretur, "Let him remem- 
ber;" §217. Hem. 1. 

13. Incommodi, |135, b.i 

|uod adortus eesel 



(foal noun-sentence, in apposition 16- Qui transissent, §217 



with !</. 

ira— iiftelligcrci 
is legationis. ." l'_ M .'. Rt 
ello Cassiano. £167. 
Si— facerct, $187, Ktm. 4. The re 
maiuder of the chapter is in the ora- 
tio *khfU€, depending upon agit, 
whioh, though present in form, is an 
historical tense. 
Ituros, futuros, (at*,) {217. 
0. Ubi eos Cesser oonititniatet, 4x., 
"Wherever Cesar should appoint 
and wiBh them* to be." Oirutitvitttt 



It',. Ne— trlbaeret, §217, Rem. 1. 
him not, for that reason, either give 
iOo much credit to Ids own valor, or 
despise them." The direct object of 
tributret, being indefinite, is omitted. 

17. Ut magis, Ac — niterentnr, "That 
they contended by valor more than 
they contended by strategem or re- 
lied upon snares'." 

18. Coamitteret,§2l7, Rem. 1. 

19. Constitissent, §217. 

20. Ex cttUnitate limits both etperet 
and prodtrtt. 



B 



> 



DE BELLO OALL1CO 



XIV. TTip Caesar ito respopdit : v Eo 1 sibi minus dubitationis 2 

petii corai . ; memor- 

uiimis, nitrite 8 popnli. Ro- 

npcius fuisset, 

elligeret, 16 , 

■ vellet, 

■ 

■ 
a ■ vil itione rerum dob 



The less,' 1 
' sb;" §168. 

'. 1. 
. ■ ■ . • 
menibered;" i e because he ret! 

ent, for comr.emora-' 

■ j 

. . o gravius " And 

was the nil : ant, the 

. ■ .) ed by the desert 

7y,aml 

. de ..■ r in which. &o. ) 

:. j; .—Quo, §n 

[erito if abl. of cause. 

:;'. 0, C. 

10. Qui is subj< ct of fuisset, and refer- 
ring to populi Romani, mart be trans- 

I thm; \Y ■ 

11. Alkujutia more emphatic than the 

, | >ia cujus, which w e • would ex- 
r si §89. 

12. i 135, a. Siit aleo limits 
conscius, }\ 4 2, Rem. 8. 

. &c, " That it would 
not ■ difficult to avoid (the 

calamity.") Fuisst in the direct'dis- 
courso would have been/ueruf.$197, 
Rem. 3. 

14. Sed eo deceptum (esse,) "But that 
they (populum Romanum,) had been 
deceived by this (circumstance.") 

16. Commissum a se, "Anything com- 
mitted by them," »'. e. any crime on 
their part. 

16. Intelligent, §217, §190. The sub- 
ject is i'« understood, referring to 



" 






ace 
ha . Roma!' 

Juarc ■ 

would 



L 



1. Fo 






pr.pulus Romanus, and i 

\~. Quare timeret, '-' m 

■id fear." 
cause (qua 
the aau 
a. 

am, 1 !78. 
19! Quod si, If howevefi 
19. 

tt'tumellae, §133, t>. 
21. Vellet, §197, LsHfc, 
t 22. lo Invito, §186^ 
inste 

The repetition of the 
jivr.e^ion gives i_; 
21.*W?ssc, &c, '• '.'■■ . 1 ;. 

tn»*i:ecollection, &c." This is apriti- 
'cipal sentence in«the oratio obliqv*. 
17, AV™. 5. 
25. Victoria -is a causal abl. 
20 Eodem pertinere, "Tended in. the 
same direction," "hr.J the same ef- 
fect;" t. c. to make it impossible for 
him to forget their recent injuries. 
The subject of pertinere is the uourt 
sentences preceding quod — glorie- 
renlur, gc, — "that their boa^tin 
impudently of their viotorj 
their wondering that he - had so long 
borne their injuries without revenge. 
tended in the same direction.'' 
27. Quo, §193, Rem. 3.— Tne reader 
will observe that primary tenses are 
used in the remainder of the speech; 
(doleant, velint, tint, $e.) The latter 
part of a long discourse in the orati* 
obliqua, is usually shifted from the 
past to the present, to give greater 
animation. 



LIBER PRIX] US. 



16 






i 
; .'(lore. Qi , 
tatnei itur, 30 uti ea, qi ur, 9 fac- 
tum- injuriis, quas ' nm 

atisfaci em 

LI mi:.' Di I it : t It a Hel\ ■ UM 
insti 

• 







■ .■ ., • at, • 

I 

. 

. ; 









. 



• 






c or 



• 






Ifl 



I 



confer; isse dicere. :: Ubi Be diuiius duci intellexit, 

?{ diem instare, quo die fru me a turn militibug metiri oporteret, 7 con- 
vocatis eorum principibus, quorum magnam copiam in castri 
ba*, in bis $ Divitiaco et Lisco, qui summo magistrate. 9 prseeroj 
(quem 10 Y< am appellant JEdui, qui efireatur annuus, < fc vitro 

necisque iu sues habet potestatem) graviter ' -at, quod.'quutn 

ne^ue emi.. uequo ex iagris sum! posset, 11 tam Decessario tempore, 
bam propinquis hostibus, 13 ab iis non sublevetu Dsertim 

(juum magna ex parte eorum precious adiuctus sperit ; 

multo etiam gravius, quod sit destitufeiis, 1 * queritur. 

XVII. Tum:demum Lisc'us, r o ratio aria adduetus, quod 

antea tac'uerat, proponit : ' Esse nonnullos, quorum anctoritas apud 
plebem plurimum 1 vi qui privatirri plus possiut, 2 quaui ip;i 

iosa atque improba cratione mu) 
dcterrere, ne frumentum conferant, 3 quod prsestara dtbeant. 
jam principatum Gallia; obtinere non possint, Gallorurn quam Ro- 
manorum imperia perferre satius esse, neque dubitare/ quin,si [iel- 
• superaverint 5 Romani, una cum rcjiqua 6 Gallia Jffilduis T 'liber- 
tatem sint 8 erepturi. Ab iisdem nostra concilia, quEeque iu castri? 
gerantur, 5 bosl 1' ciari : Los a so coerced non pjQssc : quirt 

etiam, 9 .quod necessaiio rem coackis Cassari enuneiar 
sese, quanto id cum periculo fecerit," 11 et ob cam causam, qua 
potuerit, tacuisse.' 

s ' 

[II. Csesur hac ovationc LiseUDumnorigem, Dimt : 

>'> f ■ sed, quoaT pluribug prmser.ticSfc ea.s res 

jactari noleraMplariter concilium diifStttit, Liscum retinet : qucerit 




■..orteret.. "On which it wa.3 
> 
iers;"gBli 

r received bis rations in grain, 
oh he was require I I :■ ■ ■ 

■ elf. 
his (principibus,) -A,ii. 

gistratu, ^48, Rem. 3, §141. 
10. Quern. The antecedent ig implied 
"i:c:Mrutu; it was the person.not 
1 Vergqbrc 

las. 

'osset, supply frumentum. 



3. No frumentum conferant 
collecting the corn;" § 1 93. 

ius esse depends on dicaJh 
f plied in orali*ne abi . 

Bu'pcraveriu 

6. IUliqua Gallia, •'! 

8, Rem. 8. 

duis, "From the -/.''luans;".' 
§163, Rem. 3 

erepturi, ^ 193, 2185, 0, a. ' 



M etiam, ''Moreover. 
ocabulary. 
]nunciarit, i\ 
averit; §224, 5; 8217, 
cerit, \2 4. . 






I tarn diu potuerit, .".', 
ivetar, deslitutussit; jl*0. Lble; : '— a cooiparat'iTe sent 

03, Rem. 1. For the Babjuucl 

'< XV 1. 1. PlupibuBpraesentibas/'Inthe 

presence of tor» many;" ll§S,Rem 1. 



LIBER PRIMUS 



17 



t 



ex s ■.>! o •■•. i i :„• ; carat. Dicit liberius al -ius. 

Eadein secr^to ab aliis \ • Ipsuru esse Dum- 

Q^summa audaQia,* magna, apud plebem propter liberalita- 
.. cupidum rcruin novaruai \ complures annos 4 poi 
reli | iraaia ASduorum vectigalia parvo prctio redempta hab- 

ore 7 ,* priip.tere.t ..u^d, illolioente, 6 contra liceri audeat 7 nemo. His 

i facultates ad largiendum 
wag nunierum equitatus suo snmptu .sem- 

per al» re et oircutu .se habere: neque solum domi, 3 sed ctiam apud 
liuuin:;.? rivUaun largiter posse; 9 atque hujus potentiae causa mat- 
re m imiui illic 1 '' nofeilissimo ac potentissimo collo- 
.. ! habere, sororem ex matre 18 et 
es colloca&s re et cu- 
m nfSnitatem : odisse etiam suo nomine 18 
dreorum adventu potentia ejus diminuta, 
<•: Di intiquum loouw gratia; a tqne honoris sit re- 
i accidat -iujiiiam in spetn regni per 
popnli i. on modo 
,*° gratia desperarc* Ilep- 
;uod prOilium euuestre *dver- 
*a:n . ■' initium 



™x facium 






Dai [*. Illic, "There," i. t. in thai 

'. Uxorem. i.e thejfci OrRtt- 



part of 
■ understood, 
is (a man) of tl • 



. luans at a 
8.' 1 It w.is tlie custt 
it the n . 
ir, who then 

ic taxes on his own private 

I br>in ■ 

ient fur the amount i 



12. Ex niatre, "On his mother's 
i. e. his mother's daug 
\ upturn, §179. 
14. Fnvere et ci;pere Ilelvi 
he ravore . 
Helvetians j" ^ 1 41!. 
: ' : uo nomine, "On his owd account.'" 

he Mad ior a number of years ;,-,. sit restkutus. j 190 It will be ob- 

.,m1 that the leading verb, r.ycnt. 
is present. 

cidat, 311)7, b. 
,-ni obtinendi §1 77. 
iDerio, "Under the commi 

tO. Ii 

tod proelini turn. 

" In what 

d few 
days before," — " ai 

. 4c. 

Mve. ace. of limitation, \\- 

abj see J 190. Tor paucit 

an!c 



bid 



"Whoa lie bid." Jlle is 
■ bore, cpreea 

thai gnat man 

in his own state. 
i. 1. 

. "That he Lad great 

in tin- 

b2 



IS 



DE BELLO GALL1C0 



Duninorige atque ejus equitibus, (nam equitatu 22 tjuem aajdlia 2 ' 
Cassari iEdui ruiseraut, Duinnorix praserat"} eorumque fuga reli- 
quum esse equitatuui perterrifcuta. 

XIX. Quibus rebus eognitis, 1 quurn ad has suspicionqs- c< 
simse res accederent, 2 quod per fines Sequauorum Helvetios tradux- 
isset, 3 quod obsides inter eos dandos eurasset, quod ea omnia non 

do injussu suo et civitatis, 4 sed etiani inscientibus.ipsis, 5 fecissct, 
quod' a magistratu 6 ^duorum accusaretur : satis esse causae 7 arbit- 
rabatur, quare in eum aut ipse aniraadve'rteret, 8 aut civitatem ani- 
madvertere juberet. His omnibus rebus unum repugnabat, quod 
Divitiaci fratris summum in populum Ttomanum 9 studium, suniinam 
in se voluntatem, egregiam fidem, justitiauij temperautiam cogn> 
rat : nam, ne ejus supplicio Divitiaci amnnum offenderet, 10 ver 
tur. Itaque priusquam qnidquam conaretur, 11 Divitiacum ad se vo- 
carijubet; et, quotidianis interpretibus remotis, per C. Valeri'um 
Procillum, 12 prjncipem Galliso provincko, familiarem suum, cui huiii- 
mam omnium rerum 13 fidem babebat, cum eo colloquitur: &imul 
cotomonefacit, q use, ipso* p.raeaente, in concilio Grallorum.de Bam no - 
rige Bint dicta, 14 et ostendit, qu«> separating quisque de ep-'apud j-o 
dixerit: 1 * petit atque hcrtatur, ut sine ejus offensione aniini' 1 " vol 
ipse deeo, causa cognita, statuat, re\ civitatem statuere jubcat. ! 

XX. Diviti&cus multis cum lacrimis, Cassarem compfexus, 
crarc coepit, f BKuid gravi'us in fratrem statueret : l scire se ilia. 






212. EcftiiUtH, §48, Rem. 3. 
23. Auxilio, §14-1. 

I. Quibus rebus cognitis, '-Whan 
■ things were ascertained." 
'2. (juuin — accederent is a caudal sen- 
tence ; £-05. 

3. Quod — traduxisset, "#b»t ho bad 
led. Sue," or, " his leading, &e." — 
This and the following noun-senten- 
ce-; \,quod — eurasset, quod — fecisset, 
quod — accusaretur,) are inappositiou 
with certtssimce res. 

4. Injussu buo et civitatis, " Without 
his order and that of the state." Sv,o 
is here equivalent to a subjective 
genitive. 

sit agrees with civibus implied in 
oivitate; — " Without the knowledge 
of the citizeus themselves ;" §186, 
Bern 1. 

6. Magistratu, i. c. Liscus the Vergo- 
bretus. 

7. Causae, §134. 

8. Quare — animadvevteret. §214 ; or 



' perhaps better, §210, a. "He thought^* 
the're was sufficient reason 
which he should punv-h him, — to pun- 
ish -kirn for " 

9. In populum R,ofQanum,3J 

10. Ne— offenderet, |193, Rem. t 

11. Priusquam — conaretur, $206, L1Y. ' 
b. 

12. Per C. Valerium Procillum. g 1 5 9 . 
Rem. 5. 

13. Omnium rerum is subjective , — 
"faith in 'all respects, pertaining to 
all things." Cui is remote object or 
habebat : — "In whom, ^c.'' 

14; <^u» — shit dicta, §214. 

15. Ejus off«n*ione auimi, '■ Violehc* 

to his feelings." Animi is objective. 

and ejus subjective, limiting it. 

XX 1, Ne quid gravius in fratrem 
statueret, 'Not to pass too severe a 
sentence (determine anything too se- 
vere,) upon his brother ; : ' §217,i£e»j. 
1. 



LlttftK P..1MU&. 



esse vera, uco qucnaquam : ex eo plus, quam se, doli r;s a capere, 
j ropterea quod, quura ipse 4 ; ratia plurimum domi 5 a-tque in reliq 
Gallia, ille 6 ltfinlmuni 7 propter. adele^centiaro posset, per so erevis- 
h t ; s quibus ppibias 9 ac nervis uon solum ad minuendam gratiatn, 
liep paene ad pernicieni suam uteretur : 10 seae tamen et amore fra- 
tdrni imatione'vulgi coinmoveri ;' quod, si quid ei a Cae 

ius rfceioMsset,' 11 i|uura ipse cum 1 - 1 locum amicitrae apud < u 
. : ne'miDen oxistimaturuni, 14 non sua voluntate factuu : qua ex 
re futurum, uti totius Gal Hee aiumi a se averterenttir " Bsec quum 
bus verbis flena a Caosare pete ret, Caesar ejus dextraai prendit: 
olatus rogat, fin em ■•ran;:: faciat : 15 tanti 16 ejus apud se gratiatn 
<\sse ostendit, uti et reipublicso injuriam et suum dolorem ejus vol-; 
■ i ac precibu: <\>n<ir--: t. ,: Dunmorigiem ad se v.ocat ; fratrem 
■et : quae in eb reprebendat, ls ostendit; quae ipse iati 
i v:!.t> (|iieratur, 1s prnponit : uaouet, ut in relinquum 
ram • i. i.mes vitet ; praetorita se Divitiuco fratri coudo tare 

frigi custodes point, ut, quae agitt, 1? quibuscum loqua- 
-sit. 

b :pl ceftior factus 3 boste* sub 

ssuuiu ab ipslus castris i -.to, [u: li 
cuialis in circuitu 
rent; 9 misit Recunciatum est, • '!'. 




!. N«- n no one." 

•; ' ' • • 

t Ipse i t Diviri&cas. 
.-, 
' Dtunnoiix. 

II .imilli. til -rm.:). 

grow 

K Qij The 

rel ■■ - with opiOus \ 

g im 

17. 
ifd -i quid graTiue, ic. accidis- 
■ thing too scTere 
uld befall him ;' : J197, Rt 



;;: 









_ Iiini Ihctim, ('That , 

- 
I'. JSum r<-ter-< to Caesar 

n eminent r.n>tirtaturum if 



I 
16 Tnnii. •'• 

the injury done ti 
bis ■ 

tha( ■ . • 

jnrv, &0., lO liia gd 
ers. Jk 

18. Repreuenfcat, inttr] 
&c . §214 So ulsf ozti and /c. 
below. 



I 



I D 

tior factua, " i ■.. 

• net, „ f <c . 
character of the rm 
y to esittv.ia- .">. !:, cifcuitu, ' i _. 

- the ran*. 
fluenced bj public tp 

ion. For tho use i f the infinitive 
. i (if the subjunctive, • 

' rr Juiurum In-low. s*c (217. 7. Fa MB. 

Hem ',). An epiallygood itnsc ia 



DE BELL.0 GALLIC- 

,i, ■•: ro p rap-tore,* cum duabua legionibus. etiis dtlcL- 

iter &»gnoverant, suuiinuni jmguin montis ascender? jubet- 

| sn i C onsi pee de quarta vigilia eodem itiu- 

. .-. eos contendit, equitatumqtie ornuem aute 

• it, P. Considius, qui rei militaris 11 peritissirr.ua Jiabebatur, 

. L. Bullae ' in M. Crassi ls fuerat, cum explor- 

atoribua praamittit 

.\[I. Pmca lv.«r, qaaui sunwnus 1 mom? a T. Labienb taneretur, 
ab hfistiurj udn longius milie et quingeutis passibus* ab- 

i ;tea ex captivia cornperit, aut ipsius adveut^s aui 
Lrtbieni cognitns esset, Considius, cquo adausso, ad eum aceurrjt ; 
. .|uem a Labieno occupari volnerit, 1 ab bostibus terpen • 
in ;irmis atque insignibus* cognovisse. Caesar suas cb- 
ig pToximuui collem. subducit, aoiem instruit. Labienus, ut B 
■i praeceptuni a Caesare, lie pr«lium commit tcret, 7 nisi ipsiuj *..•! 
ise pro^e hostium castra visas essent, 8 ut undique uno tempore in 
us floret, monte occupato, Dcstros exspectabat, proolio- 
; .. • Mnlto deuique 1 '' die per e^plorati cog- 

et Helvctios c; TJP^et Con- 

. 

, ..ik, consuerat intcrva seqcitur, et 

isuis castra ponit. 



XXIIL 




idie • erat, 






,♦.- "iaHhe place 

1 . .. i»t is his 

(214 We w'ouUjLfxpcct*iiM7?» 

m-.- pronooffis a'tragted 

into til ftse uf consilii for the sake 

hoiiy. For consilii see %\$l,Rem. 

! 1. Rei, L lift, a. 

■ ., sc. exeiciiu 

us, §128, Rei 
■ 
i tJi - Ex. (e.) The auU- 

8ed| in what foil 

LO, c. 
'). In if theGaulg 

wei us or heads of wild 

beasts, &d; those ol the Romans 
were plumes or crests. These were 
wciti on the helmet. 



('. f/f is ' t-i-a causal, — 'f s 

cause 
7., Ne i '- : te.ret,. " Not to 

commence the fight." This noutt 

ser.' ■ . ,■ -a:. 

8 Nisi -visre essent, " L r iilrs - hi* 

fCajsai-'?.Oforces should be seen,&c£" '«■ 

gl&7, Arm. 1; 2198, a. 

9. JProeUo, §16S\ 

10. Multo detiique die, sc. coasumpto. * 

11. Et — et, '-Both, — and." 

12. Vidisset, 210. c. 

13. Quo consuerat intervallo, "At the 
usual distance." The abjativfjltore 
expresses the measure of de$ct-$m^ , 
— lie is behind then by the iniirveii by 
which, <yc. 

14. Millia, g 1 5 ^ . 

XXIII. 1. Dili is a subjective genitive 
limiting •posiridje (-poster) d'u .■) — 
"On the successor of (tho day after,) 
that day." 












m si-mri ■ ;;cte, 

i mplius milli- 

n 5 exist- 

. it ; iter ab I! ' adit. -En 

tibus 
nunci;; ; r, ■. perterritcii Romano 

iuperioribus locis 
uen- 

. .. . 

in- 
. 
Gallia citeriore proximo oonsc 

, totutu ruontem \ omiuibuy' com- 

in unum locum cotiferri, i b hit, 

cie co; - muniri jr.- . cum 

nta in unu. atulerutlt : 

: balange facta, sub 

. 

suo. 1 dc: • 

j*i ( i»; •, 




11. R» 'ruaeni 
I . 
timt lie V^f 

• 

lentai .♦> •picier.tluto, Id ta 

k u .,t K I (i« oug 

i , * 

\ uti etprs jo 
such a wa » » » 

narjnt, gl! 

•conimiiMS'iK i* i ■ 



mM^B^R" '.ami 

i 

.• - • » 

- 



i 



DE 13ELL0 GALL1 

d 

o ictu pi'l 

■ 

;vui claudebant, et 

i receperu _u., 

it. Nam hoc toto proelib, 5 

:ura 









i 

■ . 

i 



! ! "7-4l 















11. Pi 






ii i 






i 






' 






1-3 Ut— 






\rao 






aw . .: 







XXVI. 1. Ancipitiproelia, 
be Romans b • 

both iii front aad rear ' 
2. Pugnatum ost, '-ft ».:■ 
tiy;ht went on." 

<'./. tlw II 

ii 

lam 



LIBER PRIMUS. v 

[ ta 

i 

; 

■ 
'■■''■ 



mi 



[. Hoi in adducti, legatos 

l ! quam emu in i( 

: 

m ex- 

- 

ten 




I mujtam noctcm, "T > a late hour 
of the night." 

|1 pugnatnm, £205, b. 

; uc, 1 159, 
Rtm 

14. 

Priduutn, $ 

16. Nc — juvarent. "Not to k lp, Ac." 

17. Qui fi juvie^ent. " If thev should 
help them;" J197, Rem 4 .-"$198, a. 

18. Sc — habitnrum, "That he would 
hold them in the same place in which 
(he held) tbe Helvetians;" i e. would 
treat them as enemies. 

XXVII. 1 Qui refcrt U> Ugmtot, and 



Vtnitttntx -; 

ppliciterque locuti flei 
petisseht, " A| 

ly had hejrged for ] 
tears-" 

. c. 

6. Sive— sivc, §128, Rtm. 9. 

7. Ne, 1108, Rtm 2, 

8. Armistraditis, "If their arms should 

be delivered up;" §186. 

9. OccuZfan.complcment of pone, which 
h&afugam for its subject 

10. Existimarent, {190, Rem. 1. 

XXVIII. 1. Quod. §129. £,m.<i. 

2. Hit is placed after the relative sen- 



DE BELLO 



1 t 

i 

i 
ris traditi mem acpep.it Helvetios, 

■ •' ; 

PrSeti.bm.ami33is,do»i 7 nihil ,erat, quo 
bus imperavit, tit his frurneuti copiara 
usque, quoa incenderant, restlfuere jussit. 
Id ea maxime . j jit, quod nolult cum locuxn, uade 6 ,Helvefcii 

disce93erant, vacate ; ne 10 propter boi ag.rorum #«* raani, qui 

s Rhenum it, esuis-fiuibu yetiorum., fines trans!-: 

iviueiee 11 Mlobrogibusque csseut Boi 
• ]. • ■ ,. - /Eduis, quod egregia virtute 1 " erant coguiti, ut in 
Unibus suls :, concessit; quibus ill l agroa dederuvst, quos* 

>a ia parem u juris libsrtatisque coudr^iouem, atque' 5 
t, receperunt. 

XXIX. In castris Helvetiorum tabula) reisertaa sunt Uteris GraR 

a relatae, quibus i < Lis noaiinatira 

ratio confecta erat, 1 qui numerus domo exisset 2 .eorum qui uvma 
ferre possent : 3 et iieu* separatim pueri, sene.s. niulieresque. 4 Qua- 



tencc which limit* in. for the sake of 

emphasis. '■ Mo commanded those 

b whose country they and 

(o hum them up, 

Observe i'u±i. imprro l* construed 

Hid a boti ■ (equivalent 

■• ;) while ju ffrer 

tonsil object in the accusaiiv ■ 
u, complementary infinitive. 

i. "In his ooinion;" o\ 12 Rem. 
3. 

. §197, Rem. -1. 
"i. Re lastiutn nuiaer«habait, 

"When they had been br'ouj 

:i a3 enemicj,(2«£< 
he hold tium. when brought back.in 
□ ••"'.or of enemies ;" ) t 
her killed them or sold them as 

85, 2, a. 
idi '-From which;" §129, Rem. 

7. Uumi, §!66 k Etc. 

8. Quo famem tolerarent, " To bear 
hunger with," t. t. to live npou ; 
§210, a. 

9. Ut his frumenti oopiam faoeren", 
" To furnish them with com." Lit- 
erally, "that they should cause abun- 
dance of corn to them." 

10. Ne—traruirent, tfC, depend* on 



Veritas a' ■ : l. j i"? to dafe 

11. ProvincisBj §14-2", Rem. '■',. 

12. B-tiot is object of eollq^arent — 
Translate in the following', order i 
concessi ."' is petcntibus uttolltce^ 
rent Boies in fmibus tuit, quod • 

arent 
is b ■ l I the thing 

granted; il is 9mitted after concetti/. 
having .beeu ouce expressed. 

13. Egregia mrtute i* an adjectival e\- 
- prcssion. forming part of the pre.dT! 

cate ; §164, Rem. 1 : or homines may 
be supplied. 

14. Pa.-oni, "The saase." 

la. A.tque, ' J As," "in which.'' §203. 

XXIX. 1 Nomi 

era;. "A been made 

out I giving the name 

of each person. 

2. Qui Humerus dome eziszci is a noun- 
sentence (§214) in thd accusative, — 
equivalent accusative after the com- 
pound verbal expression rqtio con- 
fecta erat. §150, Rem. 4. 

i. Posttnt, £210, c. 

4. Pueri, senes, mulieresque, &o. Nom- 
inal* sunt may be supplied from ra- 
ti* nosiinatim eonfeeta erat. 



LIBER. PRIMUS. 



rum omnium rerum summa crat, capitum Helvetiorum 5 millia 
CCLXTII, Tulingorum millia XXXVI, Latobrigorum XIV, Raura- 
corum XXIII, Boiorum XXXII: ex bis, (jui anna ferre possent, ad 
millia XCII. fi Summa omnium fuerunt 7 ad millia CCCLXVIII. 
Eorum, 8 qui doraum redierunt, censu habito, ut 9 Csesarimperaverat, 
repertus est numerus millium 10 C et X. 

XXX. Rello Helvetiorum confecto, totius fere Gallia; legati, 
principes 1 civitatum, ad Caesarem gratulatum 2 convencrunt : ' Intcl- 
ligcre sese,' tametsi pro veteribus Helvetiorum injtiriis populi Ro- 
mani 4 ab iis poenas bello repetisset, 5 tamen earn rem non minus ex 
usu terrra Galliae, quam populi Romani" aecidisse : propterea quod 
eo consilio, florentissimia rebus, 7 domos suas Helvetii reliquissent/' 
uti toti Galliae bellum inferrent, imperioque 8 potirentur, 9 locumque" 
domicilio 10 ex magna copia deligerent, quern ex omni Gallia oppor- 
tunissimum ac fructuosissinium 11 judicassent, 12 rcliquasque civitates 
stipendiarias 13 habereut.' Petierunt, 'uti sibi concilium totius 
Gallisc in diem certam indicere, 14 idque Cscsaris voluntate facere, 
licerct : sese habere quasdani res, quas ex cgmmuni consensu ab eo 
petcre vcl^fjtffe-. Ea re permissa, diem concilio constituerunt, et ju- 
rejurandqMj ^BTjnunciaret, nisi quibus communi consilio manda- 
tum essety.'guBe sanxerunt. 15 



-". Ifelvetionnn is a subjective genitive 
limiting capitum, which latter is a 
partitive genitive limiting millia. 

">. Kx h:~. those (just men- 

tioned) those who conld bear arms 
■were about ninety two thousand." 

7. Fuerunt agrees bj* sj/netis with the 
plural expression ad millia trecenta, 
,\c. See §130. Rem. 1. 
lift limits Ctntu. 

». Ut. ««As;" §211, Ex (e.) 

10. Millium limits numerut. &n<\ tolls of 
what the nurnbtr con.-istcd. 



XXX. i. Principet i» in apposition 
with legati. 

2. (U itu latum, §179, a. 

3. Intcltir/err *e.«r depends on diceniex 

understood. ,■ <j217 

1. Helvetiorum injuriis populi Roma- 
ni, "Injuries which the Helvetians 
ha.l dune to the Roman people 
§131, Rem. 2. 

o. Repetiseet, £224, 5; §217. 

%. I' >puh Ro/nani limits ex utu under- 
stood. 

C 



7. Florentissimis rebus, "Though theix 
circumstauees were Yery flourish- 
ing;" g 186, Rem. 1. . 

8. lmperio, §159, Rem. G. 

9. Potirentur, deligerent, haierent, arp 
coordinate with inferrent. 

TO. Domicilio. §144. 

11. Opportunissimum ac fructuosissi- 
mum (locum,) §151, b. 

12. Judicatsent w»uld bo subj. in direct 
discourse; (§210, b.) " And might 
clioose a place for their residence 
which they should deem most suita- 
ble, &c." A perfect tenco is used 
because the completion of the actios 
is referred to. 

18. Stipendiarias, §151, b. 

14. Indicere idque facere is subject of 
licerct. 

16. Et jurejurando — tanzeruni, " 
they bound each other by an oith 
{literally, confirmed among thern- 
>elves, &c. ) that no ene, except 
(those) to whom it had been entrust- 
ed by common consent, Bhould tell 
(what had been done.)" The sen- 
tence nui mandatum o*«t is thus re- 
solved : mti ii, quibur t ,fc .mandatum 



'.';; 



DE BELLO GALLICO 



XXXI. Eo concilio dimisso, iidem principes civitatuni, qui ante 
fuerant ad Coesarem, reverterunt, petieruntque, uti sibi 1 secreto in 
occulto 2 de sua ouiniumque 3 salute cum eo agere liceret. Ea re im- 
■ petrata, sese omnes flentes Caesari 4 ad pedes projecerunt : 'Nod 
minus <ee id contendere et laborare, 5 ne ea,, quae dixissent, 6 enuncia- 
rentur, 7 qnam uti ea, quae vellent, 6 impetrarent ; s propterea quod, 
•i euunciatum esset, 9 summum in cruciatum se venturos viderent.' 1 " 
Locutus est pro his Divitiacus JEdtfus : ' Galliae totius factiones esse 
duas : harum alterius 11 priucipaturu tenere .iEduos, alterius Arver- 
nos. 1 - Hi quuni tantopere de potentatu iriter se multos annos 13 con- 
tenderent, factum esse, uti ab Arvernis Sequanisque Sermani mer- 
eede arcesserentur. 14 Horum primo circiter millia XV Rhenum 
transisse: posteaquam agros et cultum et copias Gallorum homines 
feri ac barbari adamassent, 15 transductos plures : nunc esse in Gai- 
Ma ad C et XX millium numerum : 16 cum his iEduos eorumque cli- 
cntes semcl atque iterum 17 armis contendisse ; magnum calaruilatcai 
pulsos accepisse, omnem nobilitatcm, omnem senatafim, omhem equi- 
tatum amisisse. Quibus 18 pVoeliis calamitatibusque fractos, qui et 
eua virtute et populi Romaui hospitio -atque amicitia plurimum ante 
in Gallia potuissent, 6 coactos esse 19 Sequanis obsides dure, ncbilissi- 
saos ^ivitatis, et jurejurando civitatem obstringerc, sese neque ob- 



tsset enunciarent; "Thatuoont should 
tell unless they, to whom it had been 
entrusted, &c, should tell." 

XXXI. I.* Sibi is remote object of lice- 
ret. 

'1. Secreto, "Without any other being 
present;" in occ«lto, "secretly," 
"without any out finding it out." 

3. Sua omniumqut. Both sua and om- 
nium are subjective limitations of 
talutt, and hence coupled by que ; 
5131, Rem. A. 

i. Ccciari may either be the remote ob- 
ject of projecerunt, (" they threw 
themselves before CiBaar at his feet;') 
or it may limit pedes like a genitive, 
{147. 

4. Se id contendere et laborare is oblique 
discourse, depending on dicent.es un 
derstood. "That they were no less 
anxious that what they had said 
should not be told, than, &e." 

6. Dixissent, §217. 

7. Ne ea — enunciarentur is a noun-sen- 
tence, in apposition with id. 

8. Quam uti — impetraretot, " Than to 
obtain what they wished." The final 
sentence limits contendere understood 



9. Si enunciatum esset, \\%1, Rem. 4: 
g 198, a. 

10. Viderent, §190, 

11. Horum, (pare, gen.^.limits alterius, 
which is objective and limits princi- 
pa'um. 

12. JEduos, Arvernos, $79,4. 

13. Annos, §153. 

14- Arcesserentur is limited by ab Arver- 
nis Sequanisque, tho agent ; and mer- 
cede. the means. 

15. Ptsteaquam — adan'assent it a temp- 
oral sentence. , For subj. see §J17. 

16. Nunc ssse — numerum, "That there 
were'now in Gaul about the number 
of a hundred and twenty thousand. " 
Tho plural expression ad centum tt 
viginti millium nuvierum, is the sub- 
ject of esse. 

17» Semel atque iteruin, "Again and 
again " 

18. Quibus, gl2'J, Rem 9. 

19. Coactos esse, has eos understood for 
its subject, or the adjective sentence 
qui — potuissent; observe that the 
ace. with inf. is used here, because 
quibus, though a relative in form, is 
in fact a demonstrative here; |2l7. 
Rem. 3. 



LIMiR P1UMUS. 



sides repetituros, 20 ncque auxilium a n^pulo Romano implofatufwsj 
neque recusatum-. quo minus perpetuo sub illorum ditioue atque 
imperio essent. 21 Uimni se esse ex oinui civitate jfiduorum, Qui 
adduci 'non potuerit, 22 ut jura ret, aut suo« li'beros obsidea daret. 
Ob earn rem se ex civitate profugisse, et Roruam 33 ad eenatum von 
isse, auxilium postulatum, 24 quod solus neque jurejuraudo neque 
obsidibus teneretur 10 Sed pejus victoribua Sequania, quam iEdui* 
victia accidisse, propterea quod Ariovistus, rex Gernianorum, ir.* 
eorum finibus conaediseet, 10 tertiamque partem agri Sequ/ni, qui 
egset 6 optimos toiius Galliae",* 8 oeoupavisset, 26 etnune de altera parti 
•ertia Sequanos deeoderc juberet, propterea quod paucis nienaibua 2 " 
ante Hamdurn* 8 millia hominum XXIY ad eum veuissent, quibu* 
locus ac sedea pararcntur/ 1 Futurum ease paucis annis, uti omneaex 
(jrallisefinibus pclierentur, atque omnes G-crmani Rhenum tranairent: 
ueque enim coiifcrenduia esae 29 Gallicum cum Gernianorum ugro v , 
neque suetttttinem victus cum ilia com par and am. Ario- 

vistu ' ;emel Gallorum copias procli<: vicerit, 31 quod prce- 

liun : Magetobriarn, supcrbe et crudeliter imperare, 

obsides 32 noj^l j^imi cujusque liberoa poscere, et in eos omnia ex- 
«mpla cgfl HP* 33 edere, si qua re non ad nutum aut ad volun- 
tatem ejS^HJjtsit : ;u hominem esse barbafum, iracundum, temorav 



?0. Sae — repettluroe depends on the 
compound verbal expression jurtju- 
rando obtfringeri. 

21. Neque re.-usaturcs, quo minus — es- 
sent. "Nor flgfuse to be (that they 
should the less be) forever under 
their OOOtroi .'.'1 authority; g 193, 
Mem. 5. 

22. Qui adduci Don potuerit, &c.,'lWhp 
conid not be indm d to swear.'' 

Romam, ."•!•"> 5 

lit. Postulatum, 217.*. a. 

25 (iillire, §134. 

26. Teruutnque pai em — oceupavisset 
et nine — juberet. Those sentences 
are co-ordinate with propterea qu,d 
AriovulUS con re. 

17. Pftudg ante mensibus, "A few 
months before ; M \ 158 Sou. 

urudurn, §184 "Twenty-four 
ih' Harudians."' 

~~i. N 

•v»k- the Gallic icoun 
try) to be compared with the conn 
try of the Germwns,' I • far superior j 
wax the (ialiic country; The Latin 
idiom here is the referee of our ^n : 
we woul l say, 'The German 
try in not to de Compared with the ! 
Qaliio, on accoant i ''!/ " ! 



Observe that Q-allicum > v : Germanor 
um limit the noun in ° percisely the 
same maimer, both being subjective: 
§131, Rem. ■-.. 
30. Hanc, '■ The former," if the Gae- 
lic. The demonstrative of the hrst 
person is used here to refer to Gal- 
licum above, because the speaker 
was a Gaul. 
3i. Ut senu'l— vicert't, "When he had 
once conquered." For the change 
form past to present ri e ('hap. XIV, 
Mote 27 ; a simitar changoy however, 
is not allowable in English u 
the time of the leading verb is 
changed ; — "he says." , 
32. Obsides is second accusative ex- 
pressing the character ; I 
fr.im whom he demanded 
omitted, being implied in noltil 
(ttjusqui. "e»ery nobleman." 
83 Omnia exempla cruciatu>quo < ■ \ll 
kinds of torture,"— 1 iti rally, "all 
examples and torture-".*' I'ui -i » 
case tit hendiariy*, (one by two ) n» 
idea being expressed bj 
two word ■ 
oonjuncl inn. 
?>A Si qua rVs, &c. — i j 

thing was not done acoor i ;i£ 






DE BELLO GALLICO 



rium : non posse ejus impe^ia diutius sustineri. Nisi si quid 35 in 
Caesare populoque Romano sit auxilii, 36 omnibus Gallis 37 idem esse 
faciendum, quod Helvetii feceriht, 6 ut domo cmigrent ; 38 aliud domi- 
cilium, alias sedes," remotas a Germanis, petant ; 39 fortunainque, 
quaicumque accidat, experiantur. Usee si enunciata Arioristo 
sint, 40 non dubitare, quin de omnibus obsidibus, qui apud eum 
sint, 6 gravissimuiu supplicium sumat. 41 Caesarem vel auctoritate sua 
atque exercitus, 3 vel reoenti victoria, vel nomiae populi Romani de- 
terrere^posse, ne major multitudo Germanorum Rhenum transduca- 
tur, 42 Galliamque omnem ab Ariovisti injuria posse defendere.' 

XXXII. Hac oratione ab Divitiaco babita, ontnes, qui aderant, 
magno fletu auxilium a Caesare 1 petere coeperunt. Anirnadvertit 
Caesar unos 2 ex omnibus 3 Sequanos nihil earum rerum 4 facere, qua? 
ceteri facerent ; 5 sed tristes,' 5 capite demisso, terram intueri." Ejus 
rei quae causa esset, 8 miratus, ex ipsis 9 qusesiit. Nihil Sequani rc- 
spondere, 10 sed in eadem tristitia taciti 6 permanere. 10 Quum ab 
iis° stepius qu3ereret, neque ullam omnino vocem exprimere posset, 
idem Divitiacus JEduus r<espondit : ' Hoc 11 esse miseriorem gravio- 
remque fortunam Sequanorum prae reliquoruni, 12 quod soli ne in 
occulto quidem queri, »ec auxilium implorare auderent," 13 absentis- 
que Ariovisti 14 crudelitatem, velut si coram adesset, 15 horrerent : ln 



will or -whim." For the perfect, see 
§19S, a. 

35. Nisi si quid, &c, "Unless there- is 
some help in Ca'sar and the Roman 
people." Observe tiiat si is repeated 

■ after nisi for emphasis. 

36. Auxilii. §134, Rem. 1. 

37. Gallis, §145. 

38. Ut domo emigrent is in apposition 
with idem. "To go out from home." 

'i taut, "And peek." This sentence 
is co ordinate with ut — emigrent, et 
being omitted to give animation to 
the narrative. 

lo. Enunciata sint, §198, a. 

li. Non dubitare quin — sumat, "That 
he (Divitiacus) does not doubt that 
be will inflict the severest punisli- 
mc t on all the hostages who are in 
his hinds.'' 

42. Ne major inuliitudo Germanorum 
Rhenum trausducatur. " That Cav 
8ar, &c , can prevent a greater mul- 
titude of Germans from being led 
over the Rhino;" literally, "can 
frighten- off (Ariovistus) that a great- 
er multitude may not be led over " 
Rhenum is the object of trans in com- 



position ; §162, Rem 2. 

XXXII. 1. ACsesare, {151, Rem. 1. 

2. Unos, "Alone;'' '$64, Rem. 2, latter 
part. 

3. Ex omnibus limits unos ; $134, Rem. 

4. Rerilra, J 134. , 

5. Facerent, §210, c. 

6. Tristei agrees with the .subject, (se- 
quanos understood,) but limits intue- 
ri ; §138, Rem ». 

7. Intueri is coordinate with facer" 
above. 

3. Esset, §214. 

9. Ex ipsis, §151, Rem. 1. 

10. Respondere, permanere, §175. 

11. Hoc limits miseriorem gravioremque, 
JltiS. "That the lot of the Sequans 
was tho more wretched and severe, 
&c." 

12. Pi» reliquorum sr. fortuna. 

13. Auderent, §217, §19u. 

14. Absentis Ariovisti, "Of Ariovistus., 
though absent." 

15. Adesset, §203. 

16. Horrerent is coordinate with aude- 
rent. 



LIBE-ll I'll I \IUS. 



propterea f|u i.d «-,.]i(j,)is tnmew 17 tugSQ facoUns daretu< ; 13 Sequain> M 
vero, qui intra fi bh mios Aiiovi>tuuj reoepiweut, 6 quotum tq.fiida 
Oumiu in li'is potesta'e e«i^«ut ■"' minio ouci.itus c-.-fiii f iii.* 

XXXIII. His rebut? unguil is. Cajsai" Gallorurti :iui i;i.«- usi i- r.nti- 
firiii.-ivn, |H,Hifiiu.-(jii(.' est ' tdbi 1 <■■< m rem ouiae 2 futu>ani : najfitaai 
ge li:i In- '•.•' .-pi'in et bem tir.i" sun et uuctoritaie adductuiii 4 A i«»vis« 

turn Gneni uujutiis tact urn m ' [I«c or&ttoue liabita, euuci i • i- 

mUtity-et sejhudum ea' 1 tiiul'ae re? euin Lortabantur, qua're 1 ■ run 
rein .-nil iihl r,i; i't sif^cii'ii-iKl.'ini |Utai et , s in prima-, <|ii d iEdung,. 
fratren ruii-an jniiicii»(|ur".>;c|'i'" uii *ut «!i sci'atH appi'llntm. -t'l*- 

vitutn a que in ditijuie vide bat (ieituanoruni teiieri, eiiriiin<nic nb* 

: \ • i i . i-:Mi,n at- > <j nun- iutelllgebut: quod '' i i laim) 

in ■■ •: : |»<i|.iiil ll'iiuani tin |ii--i[iMim siln et reipublit M' ' »•-.--<: arbit- 

rabdtur I'alilaiim autetu < • * • i -maims ctuisuesoere 1J Klumum n ms- 

i.v, ::i <-r in < i ;i 1 1 i,-i in iiMwini: ■.■ruin mult itudititMU vein e, |>U|.ulo 

Ri-uiaiHi pcriculoMnii vjdebai nequ< aibi 14 linnjines lem.- ,u- li.tr- 

tempeiaturos existiihabat, quin, 1 " quuin ouineiu G >lliaiu ms* 

cupa-M'iit ui '^i.i ito «Cnnbri Teutunique iVci.vmit, 17 in \>o\ inciaul 

i^iii'i.t, ;ii^flBftin [r;t list in coiiieudereiit ; piac-ei tim quant >e- 

i|M;r.'MiH HPfin.-tra Kbndaims dividerel. 1 * Qinbu.-, ndm.-'* 

|u.iin iHWTn^Hr (ici-ui rei (linii-'iMitatiat. I \>*c aiiu-in Aii.m.-tui 

11 7 . n'ecfbjn HmiM ii s bi *-t reipubJum # 

\1 ',' r/ifin 'S COmuestyie \ • i n it i -i-ii- 

eu< •• ii iea 1> Uep i.U I it, it ;<«- 

ricul'ixixtimutn t i w » 

ver\ ill i tit r ui- llimg r't.r ii ii r. 

in .in s t.. bee 'ine a •in I in , & . ') 

lnii gr : nim.'i. ira Ij t^ n'j •• i ^ u k ; 

' for ih* Germans to '>.• mcua- 

Mimed, Sec., waa * >p ) • « ■ g .ui* 

'!« Qg ") 

13 Trui.itre is tiie complem i| . t»»- 

i i .SY/i i« remote i bjeei ol tempt r.itu* 



m i t ' .- l -.//A - -y - i 'm/ 

dir-idi ■ I tn r!u' r«. - 1 ... u, 

; i «',ti given." 



e Mian 



I t Sib? J143 
H 

. v I i. •■•!.! n i V- »cib (i 1 

licntif ft> 
*. A [nttu in-t <i l> ■ ii ' y ■< * 

kindiiea 

2 V I one'tn Ario 

t in- i>t- a ■ p XXXV. 

5. "en ilu :i . \: , '■ ■ '.- 'hin :-." i... Q lii-in pov 'r iiiio «xt»« r, utquv 
if 1) c ^ out ..I • | ii-va. i lv i.i i i . : iQle inliil.-tin o:i nil e .!• ■ im 



t' 1 ' xt <i". i ce I iii'-»- Ihi g "' 

It h mI j i -i iexi it >l 
fi. (,' / in- i-. v icnhu i 
I. Si i I mil- ill g run I vu- fbll-.w n^ 

i !. 
8 . nar- ;. ^jH» «: m gil 1 
W. /' hrx c i ■> 'i . a -a a <i <r >ire pr .1 - 
c •• it i-.i it «• ui ci h • |. .met •■ 

tlu/n ti'l n- 

10 .<-/ ../ . .-I. ra to i he c»i dtrtnn »f 1 1 »• 

■ *ii i e i.iiin h -ii- 

i e a | r ce i g. .nil m tu'iji-ci oi 

• 

02 



g'lin* mrer mt • Uie pr v.t. e a.. J 

pro e"ij ns t .■!• to ii i 

16 U if t relit'v.' . y j . i. Bx. ( -.j 

. Ken cin. §J e 
18. Ml idnnus itivi'lnr 1im p 

i i.'iefne. km »erj ue«r <h t .,.v- 

a a 

i'.i (Jmlnix Tcl/u.i is riHiiiin uUj 0< .f 

(/(.'«• If ml u in. 

■_'t> Q ih ii ti.iil'irrnno, »" V- H • i j 
i- ^Jiil /i'm I. 

.'i <>c u re din "I'ii i . lydiima 

ou^ut (.j oo uind ■ jl «b 



30 



DE BELLO GALLICO 



tantorsibi Bpiritus, tantam arrogantiani 23 sumpierat, ut ferendus 
uon Tideretur. 13 

XXXIV. Gjuamobrem placuit ei, ut ad Ariovistum legatos mit- 
teret, qui ab eo postularent, 1 uti aliquem locum medium utrius- 
que 2 colloquio 3 diceret : velle sese 4 de republica et summis utrius- 
que rebus cum eo agere. Ei legationi Ariovistus respondit : ' Si 
quid ipsi 5 a Caesare opus 6 esset, sese ad eum venturum fuisse ; si 
quid ille" a se velit, 8 ilium 9 ad se venire oportere. Praeterea se ne- 
que sine exercitu in eas partes Galliae venire audere, quas Caesar 
possideret, 10 neque exercitum sine magno commeatu atque emoli- 
nsento in unum locum contrahere posse : sibi autem mirutn videri, 11 
quid in sua Gallia, quam 'bello vicisset, 10 aut Caesari 12 aut omnino 
populo Romano negotii 13 esset.' 14 

XXXV. His responsis ad Caesarem relatis, iterum ad eum Caesar 
iegatos cum bis mandatis mittit : ' Quoniam, tanto suo populique 
llomani beneficio affectus, 1 quum in consulatu suo rex atque ami- 
cus 2 a Senatu appellatus esset, 3 banc sibi populoque Romano gratiam 
referret, 4 ut in colloquium venire invitatus 5 gravaretur, 6 neque de 
communi re dicendum 7 sibi et cognoscendum putaret ; 8 baec esse, 
quae ab eo postularet : 9 primuni, 10 ne quam bominum,multitudinem 



V2. Arrogantiam, §123, Rem. 6. 
23. Ut — videretur, " That he seemed 
unendurable." 

XXXIV. 1. Postularent, §210, a. 

I. Utriusque is partitive genitive; — 
"midway between them both." 

:$. Colloquio, §144. 

4. Vtlle sete depends on the verb of 
saying implied in postularent. 

5. Ipsi, §142. 

•i. Opus esset, §160, Rem. 1. "If any- 
thing were needful to him from Cse- 
sar," — if he wished anything from 
Crosar. 

7. Ille, Caesar. 

8. Velit. The change from past to pres- 
ent gives greater animation. 

B. Ilium is subject of venire, and ilium 
venire is grammatically subject of 
oportere, though logically dependent 
on it. 

10. Possideret, $217, §210, c. 

II. Videri, " That it seemed." The 
subject is quid — esset. 

12. Csesari, §143 

13. Negotii limits quid; §134. Rem. 1. 

14. Esset, §214. 

XXXV. 1. Tanto suo populique Ro- 
mani beneficio affectus, "After hay- 



ing been treated with so great kind- 
ness by*himself and the Roman peo- 
ple;" literally, "being affected with 
his own and the Roman people's so 
great kindnessJf Suo-hi subjective, 
(§131, Rem. 4,) and hence populi is 
coupled to it by que. 

2. Rex atque amicus, §130, 2. 

3 Quum — appellatus esset, " In as 
much as he had been called." §205, 
a. 

4. Referret is predicate of the sentence 
introduced by quoniam; §190. "He 
made this requital." 

5. nvitatus, '• When invited ;" §185 
2, a. - 

6. Ut gravaretur, £c. is in apposition 
with hanc gratiam. 

7. Diceudum sibi et cognoscendum, 
"That he ought to speak and learn;" 
§178, Rule, .md Rem. 2. 

8. Neque— putaret, ( " and did not 
think,") is coordinate with ut — grav- 
aretur. . 

9. Haec esse quae ab eo postula'ret. 
"That these were hisdemands." The 
antecedent of quae is omitted, (§129, 
Rem. 2,) and the relative sentence 
then becomes a noun, predicate nom-. 
inative after esse. 



L1BEK PRIMUH. 



31 



ampliu? trans Rhenum in Galliam transduceret : deinde 11 obatdes, 
e^uos baberet 12 aB JEduis, redderet, 13 Sequanisque perniitteret, 14 ut, 
quos illi haberent, 13 voluntate ejus reddere 15 il-lis liceret ; neve 
iEduos injuria lacesseret, neve his soeiisve eorum belluni inferret. 1 * 
Si id ita fecisset, 17 sibi 13 populoque Romano perpetuam gratiam at- 
que atnicitiam cum eo futuram : si non inipetraret, 19 sese, quoniam, 
M. Messala, M Pisone'Coss., 20 senatus censuisset, 4 uti, quicumque 
Q-al liana proxinciam obtineret, 31 quod coiumodo reipublicse facere 
posset, 22 vEduos ceterosque ariiicos populi Romani defenderet, sese 36 
^Eduoruui injurias non neglecturum.' 

XXXVI. Ad hfec Ariovistus respondit : 'Jus esse belli, ut, qui 
vicissent, 1 iis, 3 quos vicisseut, queniadmodum vellent, 3 imperarent: 
item populum Romanuoj^Victis 4 non ad alterius praescriptum, sed ad 
tuuin arbitrium imperare consues?e. Si ipse populo Romano non 
prsescri beret, 6 (luemadmodum suo jure 6 uteretur, 7 non oportere 8 sese 
a populo Romano in suo jure impediri. iEduos sibi,' J quoniam belli 
fortunam tentassent, 10 et arniis congressi ac superati essent, stipend- 
iaries 11 esse factos. Magnam Cacsarein injuriam facere, 13 qui suo 
tdventu veaoKiia sibi u deteriora 14 faceret. 1 ' -flSduid so obsides 




\e poaiulare under- 



And 



ii>. I'rimum 
stood. 

11. De-inde, "Secondly." 

12. Quos haberet, §210, c. 

13. lledderet sc ut. .^ 

14. SeqnanisqMA, permVteret, 
grant to tlie^&uans!*^ 

15. Reiidere is subject of liceret, J173. 
Its object is obsides understood. 

'. If eve — lacesseret, neve — inferrei are 
coordinate with (ut) redderet above. 
Observe that a result may be contin- 
ued negatively !>y usque (see netjue — 
putarr.i above,-) but if a purpose is ex- 
pressed, neve mu^t be used. 

17. Fecissit, <* LU7, Rem. 4. gl98, a. 

18. Sibi, gl4b\ 

19. Inipetraret tc. qua postularet. "If 
• he did not obtain" his demands. 

JQ. M.-Mcs^ala, M. Piso*^ consulibus, 
§l8b', Rem I. 

21. Obtineret, {2 10, V. Quicumque ob- 
tineret is subject of defenderet. 

22. Quod is the object of facere, and the 
t>entinie quod—potstt, or the omitted 
antecedent, Is accusative of limita 
tion ; §155. " As to that which be 
ooulddo with advantage to the state, ' 
»'. e. M tar as he could consistently 
witli the advantage of the State. 

It. Sese is repeated on account of the 



long parenthetical sentence which 
separates tese above from neglectn- 
rum 

XXXVI. 1. Qui vicissent, '-Those whs 
hud conquered," "tho' conquerors,*" 
■ §217. 

2. lis is remote object of imperarent. 

3. Veltent would be veiint iu wratio rec- 
ta; ^10, b, or §211. 

A Victi-s ' The conquered," " thoss 
who had been couquered ," — 1 mits 
imperare. 

5. Praescri beret. §197, Rem. 4. 

6. Jure, §109, Rem 6. 

7. Uteretur agrees with populus Ro- 
manus understood ; J21 1 

t. Non opoi t"ro, "That i was not 
ripht." The subject of op rtere is tht 
fol owinp; noun sentence, se-iiii/icdiri. 

9. Sibi limits stipendiaries ; §14U. 

10. T.-ntas'.-ent, §190. 

11. Stipendiary* is part of the predi- 
cate ; — 'had b<'en ma 'e tributary." 

12. Injuriam facere, 'That (sesarwas 
doing him a great injury." 

Iff. Sibi, $14U 

14. Deteriora, §151, b. 

15. Qui — faceret, " Docause he was 
making ;" {'210, a. 



DE BELLO GALLICO 



reddHurum non e s *e, rieque ii*. neque eorum s6cnsJ0Juria 1fl Vellum 
ilia' mum si in eo manereutj 5 quod convenLsFefc, sti peiidi uiikj ue <|dot- 
anni." neiideretit ; si id ikmi leci.s-ent, 17 long* iis 18 fratenium tinmen 
p .jiuli Romani abt'uturum. Quod™ sibi C$e.«ar denunciiiret 20 se 
/E'l ■ i"i inn injurias noii neglectuiuni ; nemineni secum sine sua |>et- 
ni'-ic C'intendtsse Qnuni veller, congrederetur ; ai intellect mum, 
quid-' 2 i'nvicti Germani, exerciiatHsimi in armis, qui inter aunos™ 
XI V tectum non subissent, virtute potent. 2 * 



XXX.VIE. itaee eodem tempore 1 Cassari mandata tfefarehantiUN 
et Itegati ab iEduia et a JTreviris veniebarifr: ./Edui quesiuui,-' 'quod 
Il.inides, qui nju'per in Galliam traiiftuortati eesent, 3 -fine's eorum* 
pbpularoutur ; 5 sese ne ob.sidilms qui'iein datis pacem Ario.vian re- 
dini-ie (»tiuis>e:' Treviri autuui£ ' pagus centuili • Suevoi um ad 
ri,i:i- : Khetii consedisse - , qui liiicmun traii.sire conarentur ; :i lis' |>rse- 
esse X.isuain et Cimberiuui f: atre- ' Quibus rebus Caesar vebemeiiter 
ouuimotus, maturandum si bi' J exi-tituavit, ne, 10 si nova maims Sue- 
Vortim cum veteribus eopii* A i iv.i.-ui --ese eonjunxisset, 11 minus t'a- 
ci;> le-is'i ii.>sset '- Itaque re i*ru mental ia, qiiam celeirime j/oluit, 18 
coii.p ■ i -;!>a. lu.iiiiiis itiueribus ad Aiiovistuui ooutendit. 

XXX\'l!l. QuuiB tridui viaiu 1 - processisset,, nunci'afum est ei, 
A i iumiiih cum suis <iiuiiibu- cophs ad oceupandum- Ve.-o:?! i mem,- 



ili , ; i . • \Vr i:;t\iity .-" abl. of 

in i ue 
17 H ' i! -i * tec s- en', ' If they i 

n<< -i i iii.s," \\ '..7. &em> >, {|198, a 
■ - I : : >;:. 
Ill il A? I • ! i wli r nsi>e •t." , -in Hi t;" 

$1 > i ' v.» iu CsBfcai'a threatening 

! g210,c, 

21 • ii.: d r«ur, "L't h;tn meet 
him : ?-.7. Rem 1. 

22 «.. |ii - -1 'lit cc. Hunting 
p .1.1, ,( <!• jii.e e ni.i_\ b- undei .-tool] 

2o\ in »'t" n i. .| i in ode. -.in "Wifin n 
lull em years ," ihe preposition is 
h e 'a.,.1 .- d 

2» V s ent. J2I I 

XXXVII 1 E'l'iem tempore limits ho h 

■fijfiih ih ur .inil ue.'n<-l»iiit. 
2. .Kdu 1 giii v>inib.ut; qu stum, 

Z. I ran-p i tin e--i'iit, §i!0. c 
4 K run i e n.e i& la in Tjie au- 
tn. irii. i sine .A'l.i.ins singly a 
t . ■ p i -on- • p"ki ii of, an I noi a 
>jic kiiiy a "iu •lem i-vo-; h< no 
: c <*:ti of turuiH iu-tv.ai of s«u> 



; wl icli here would bs rather anibig- 

P.h.'; 
\& Pojjulweni^ § 1 90" | 

Ii Tr.'v.ri sc li'giiti nuiic'avei'u it. 

7 Ad f p is, &c, "Hi! cj H to the 
baiiijs of the Rhine mil ■■ .c i iifWd 
thtjre." An ex.nuple of laj iiu-m, ructio 
preyn nu. 

H. -i', JI4V. 

.). Mniirun lum aibi, " That, he nd^ht 
to mike lia-te." ^I7ii, ftoe, aud 
Rent 2 

IU Nc 'For fear that '' sc 

11 Uoiijuusisset, §197, tt-m 4. g »8,' 
a. 

12. Minus facife re»isti po-wet, ■• Re- 
&i time I'oud I ss easi y be m de.' : 
Resign f'jx.set \- an imp r a I ex- 
pre-sniu rt*itt.- Mum -o u lu .,' m. of 
po»»e' ; — ' it could be lis> ei i... v»- 
-i ud " 

18 (J.i mi cel'Triaie p to t. • \s quick- 
ly a- he ooulfl ;" §2<J<i,. Rr„ t i 

XXXVIII -h Vi.m, §150, Rr<, i 

L. ()• 'up tndum ; a rar« ins uce o p a 

tr iii-it v.- ^e u nl in tie aouu -aiLTt 
'with aa oojeo ; soe ^ 1 7 7 , /ie-/*. 1. 






LIBER PKIMUS. 



quod 3 est oppidura maximum Sequanorum, contendere, triduique 
yiam a suis finibus profecisse. Id ne accideret, mngno operc prge- 
eavendum sibi 4 Cresar existimabat : namque omnium reruni, qure ad 
belluin usui 5 erant, sum ma erat in eo oppido facultas; idque natura 
loci sic muniebatur, ut magnam ad ducendum bellum daret facul- 
tatem, proptcrta quod flumen Do-bis, ut eirciuo circumductum,' 
'psene totum oppidum clngit-: reliquum ■patium, quod est non atu- 
plius pedum DC, 7 qua flunien iutcrmittit, mona continet magna alti- 
hudine, ita ut radices' montis ex utraque parte ripce fluminis contin- 
uant. Hune 9 munis circumdvtus arcefrf efficit, efc cum oppido con- 
]ungit. Hue Caesar magtffS nocttirnis diurnisque itineribus con- 
tendit, oceupatoque op] ido ibi prasidium collocat. 

XXXIX. Dum puucojT dies 1 ad Vesontionem rti frumentaria 
commeatusque cauaa moratuf, ex percunctatione 2 nostrorum voei- 
busque Gallorum ac meTCa'torum, qui ingenti magnitudine 3 corpo- 
rum Germanos, incredibili virtute 3 atque exercitatione in armifi esse 
praedicabant, Kvpenumer.> scse (.•urn eis congressos* ne vultum qui- 



dem atque 
nem exer 
mosque p 
prafectis 
magnum peri 



rum ferre potwisse, tantus subito timor om- 
it, ut non mediocriter 8 omnium mentes ani- 
Hic 7 primum ortus est a tribunis militum, 
sque, qui ex urbe amicitiaj causa Casarem secuti,* 
um miserabautur, quod non magnum in re militari 




usum 9 babebant : quorum alius, alia causa illata, quam sibi ad pro- 
rlcisceudum nee«ssariani esse . diceret, petebat, 10 ut cju$ voluntatc 









t. Quod agrees ■with the predicate noun 
•ppidum ; ?1U''. Rem b. 

4. Magno op-re proecaveodum sibi. 
'That he ought to u*c the greate t 
caution:" literally, "that it-ought- 
to be guarded against by him wilh 
great labor." §178, Hule, and 
2, 

. Usui, §1-14 ; "valuable." 

9. Ut circino circumductmn, ■' As if 
drawn around it with a pair of eom- 
■ t. "running around it in a 
circle." 

d ampliua pedam aexOMfe run.. 
»c. spatium or aps)tio ; " ne< m 
tbim ihc - . handi ed Poet." 

I'tdum I) C is genitive of quality. 

J. Radicei is the object, and ripa 

subject, of continuant 
i I/t/ur limits cirCurtliatUi ; 
turn '1 : or it may lie object of e/ficit, 
nrcrm being gew ad acouaatire. 

XXXI X. l. Paueoi dies, 815J 



2. Ex jifrcunctatione limits oecttj'u*'' 

'• In consequence of the enquiri - 

our men, ' 
■I. Ingenti jnagnitudiht forms part of 

tlic predicate with esse. $1'>1. Rem 1. 

•'That the Germa/us >rere (man) of 

huge .-ize of body." 
1 CongresHos, " Havrng met them,' 

»'. t. in battle. 

5. Non' mediocriter, "Not ulightly." 
1. 1. '• tovji Tory gnat degree." 

6. Perturbaret &c., "It (the panic) 

urbed the minds and courage of 
nil "• 

7. Ilic. •• This" panic. 

.ii. f. is. - ., 2, ». 
• no, ' experience.*' 
10. Quorum alius &e, — petebat, "On« 
of whom alleging one oau e, (and 
another, another) which 1% said wa§ 
an argent one to bim lor Betting out, 
was aaking,&0." Observe thai 1 > 
wi- Miy "oue— one; anoth 
' r," the Latins ust; ; : ' al 



$4 



DE BELLO GALLICO 



discedere liceret : n nonnulli, pudore adducti, 8 ut tirnoris suspicionem 
▼itarent, remanebant. Hi neque vultam fingere 12 neque interdum 
.lacrinias tenere poterant : abditi 8 in tabernaoulis aut s'uum fatum 
querebantur, aut cuvn faniiliaribas suis commune periculum misera- 
bantur. Vulgo totis 'castris 13 testamenta obsignabantur. Horura 
rocibus ac tiuiore, paulatiiu etiam ii, - qui magnum in castris usum 
habebant milites ceuturionesque, 14 quique 15 equitatu 16 prreerant, 
perturbabantur. 17 Qui 1 * se ex. his minus timidos existimari vole- 
bant, non sc bostem vereri, sed angustias itineris et magnitudinena 
silvarum, quce intercederent ls inter ipsfes atque Ariovistum, aut rem 
frumentariam, 19 ut*° satis commode supp'ortari posset, timere 21 dice- 
bant. Nonnulli etiam Ctesari renunciabant, quum castra moveri a 
signa ferri jussisset, 22 non fore dicto audientes 28 milites, nee proptei 
timorem signa laturcs. 24 

XL Hsec quum aimadvertisset, convocato concilio, omuiumque 
ordinuui 1 ad id concilium adhibitis centurionibus, vehementer eos 



incusavit : ' primum, quod aut quam in partem, aut quo consilio 
ducercntur, 2 sibi quajreudum aut cogitandum 3 putarent. 4 Ariovis- 
tum, se consule, 5 cupidissime populi Romania amicitiarn appetiase ; 
our bunc tarn temere quisquam ab officio discessurum judicaret ? 6 
Sibi quideni persuaderi, 7 cog::itis suis postulatis, 8 ;-jtfque sequitate 
eonditionum perspecta, eum neque suam neque populi Romaui gra- 



3 



ius — alius." Sibi above is dative of 
reference, limiting necessariam. For 
diceiet bee ^ I 90, Rem. 1. 

11. Ut liceret, '-That it might be per- 
mitted. (to him)." Sibi is understood. 

12.'Vulturn tiugere, "to control the 
countenance,-" literally, "to feign 
the countenance/' 

13. Tons castris, " Throughout the 
whole camp." §166. 

1 4. Militet centurionesqite, quique 'equi 
tatu prceerarX forms an apposition to v 
ii, being an enumeration of those 
who had great experience in camp. 

13. Quique, "And those who ;" § i29, 

Rem. 2 
10. Equitatu, §48, Rim. 3. 

17. Pertorbabantur, " Begin to be 
alarmed;" §'J5, Rem. 4, c. 

18. Intercederent §210, ,c. 

19. Rem frumrntariam, which accord- 
ing to the English idiom would be 
sul jfet ot the dependent sentence, is 
made the ohject of tkt verb in the 
principal sentence. 

JO. Ut, §U3, Rem. 2. 
21. Timere is coordinate with vereri, 
and connected by set!. 



22. Quum castra, $c , jussisset limits 
fore, and not renunciabant. "When 
he should' order, &c.;" the comple- 
tion of the action is here referred to. 

23 Dieto audientes, "Obedient to his 
order " 

24. Nee propter timorem eignalaturos, 
"And would not advance, &c." 

XL. I. Omnium or&nwn limits centu- 
rionibus ; §132. 

2. Ducerentur, §214. 

3 Sibi quaerendum aut eogitandum, 

§17S, Rule, and Rem 2. Ir was a 

breach of discipline for a centurion 

to ask, or even think about, the Gen 

■ I i lat- 

eral's plans. 

4. Putarent, §190. 

5. Se consule, §181, Rem. 

6. Judicaret, §214, Rem. 5. 
asking muse be supplied, 
why any one, &c" 

7. Sibi quideni persuaderi. 
indeed was persuaded ;" §172, Rem. 
2. 

8. Cognitis suis postutatis, "When hii 
demands should be known;" §186. 



A verb of 
He asked 

' That h* 



LIBER PRIMUS. 



n 



am repudiaturvun... Quod si 9 furore at que amentia impulsus bel- 
im intulisset, 10 quid tandem vererentur ? 6 aut cur de sua virtute 
ut de ipsius 11 diligentia desperarent ? c Factum ejus hostis pericii- 
mi 12 patr.um nostrorum memoria, 18 quum, Cimbriu et Teutonis a 
. Mario pulsis, non niinorem laudeni exercitus, quam ipse impera- 
>r, merit.us 14 videbatur : factum 15 etiam nuper in Italia serVili tu 
ultu, 10 quos 17 tarnen aliquid ls usus'ac disciplina, quam a nobis ac- 
•pissent, sublervarent. 10 Ex quo jiidicari posset, 19 quantum habe- 
■t-° in se bon ; propterea quod, quos aliquamdiu iner- 

oa 82 sine car tf* 10 ** 1 p ns t ea armatos ac victores super- 

sent. 24 Dcnique^M[ |Teosdem, quibuseum ssepenume»o Hel- 
tii cougressi 25 non sonrm in suis sed etiam in illorum finibus, ple- 
imque &uperarint, 2r ' qui tamcn pares esse nostro exercitu- 7 no po- 
icririt. Si quos adversutn prcelium et fuga Gallorum commove- 
t, 3s hos, si quwrerent, reperire posse, diuturnitate belli defatiga- 
rallis, 20 Ariovistum, quum multos menses castris se ac paludibu? 
nuisset, 30 neque sui potestatcm fecisset, 31 desperantes jam de pug- 
i et disperses subiio adorlum, 3 '- 2 magis rationc et consilio quam 



Quod *i, "fijjHfocr," §123, Rem. 

'. lutu!i«set 3RR > Jinn. 4; JI98, a. 

. Tpiiua rrffiflrofrC'i'iir wbiie tua 

refers to the centurions ; the latter 

does not always refer to the leading 

■abject 

:. Fv mm. ic, periculum. " 1 

trial had becu ,ihide." 

;. Memoria, ? 6 \€t. This was B.C. 100, 

or about forty years before. 
1 Meyitut is complement of videbatur, 

and has laudem for its direct object. 

'•The army seemed having do-erred 

(to have descried) no less praise. 

&c " There is'Wransition here from 

oblique to direct discourse ; hence 

the iodic, videbatur. 
S Factum (ess*) sc. periculum. 
'.. Servili tumultu, 'In the insurrec- 

tion of the slaves;" §167. Many of 
SUSpartacus's men were Germans. He 

■w.i- defeated B.C. 71. 
1 7. Quo* refers to ttrvorum implied in 

timvilif {129, Rem. 7. 

Iqool, ' Somewhat," limits tub- 

Itvartrit ; J 1 55. 
■ ' AcoepiK :■;, subleTarent, 

J/210, c. 
0, Haberet; $214. 
1 Boni limit- quantum, §1*01, Rem. 1; 

and quantum is direct object, of hab- 

ertt. 



22. Inerroos, "When unarmed." 

23. Has, i e. the slave. 

24. Armatos ac victores KUpera*sent. 
" They had afterwards cono.uered 
when armed and victorious." 

25. Quibuttvm Hclvttii cohgressi, $c 
Observe the difference id idiom : 

Latin. " With whom the Uolvetii 

having frequeutly nict.geuerally 

! ('hern.'') 

a, ••Whom the ifclvetii hid 

frequently met, and had usually 

conquered." 

2G. Sujierarinl, (for superaverint,) and 

potuetint are aorist perfects. 
27 1'xercitu, §48, Rem. 3, is dative of 

reference 
28. Commoveret, \ 197, Rem. 4. Gallo- 
rum limits both prwlium and fugm. 
219 Uefatigatis Uallis, " Atter tht 

Hauls had been wearied out, Jto." 
30. Quum — tennisset, " When he had 
kept himself, &c." This sentence 
may express the time of adortum, or 
the CHUse of desperantet 
31 Nequesui potestatem fecisset.'And 
had not given (them) a chance at 
liiin," i.e. in opportunity of fighting 
him. Sui is objective. 
')2. Adortum agrees with Ariovistum, 
(§185, 2, a.) and has cos undo 
as its object, with whieh daperanttt 
and disperto$ agree. 



38 



DE BELLO GALL1CO 



virtute vicisse. Cui rationi contra homines barbaros atque imperi* 
tos locus fuisset, 33 hac ne ipsum quidem sperare nostros exercitus 
capi posse. 3 * Qui 35 suuin tiiiiorem in rei frumentarige siniulationem 
angustiasque itineris conferrent, facere arroganter, quum 86 aut de 
officio impejatoris despe.rare aut prtescribere viderentur. Haec sifci 
esse curae ; 37 frunientum Sequanos, Leucos, Lingonas subrninistrare ; 
jamque esse in agris frumenta matura : de itinere ipsoa brevi tem- 
©oye 38 judicaturos. Quod 39 non fore dicto audientes milites, neque 
sign* laturi dicantur, 40 nihil se ea re commoveri : scire enim, qui- 
buscumque exercitus dicto audiens non fuerit, 41 aut, male regesta, 43 
jbrtunam defuisse, aut, aiiqub facinore comperto, avaritiam esse con- 
victam. 43 Suam innocentiam perpetua vita, 44 felicitatem Helveti- 
orum bcllo 45 esse penspeetam. Itaque se, quod 46 in longiorem diem 
eollaturus 47 esset, repraesentaturum, ex proxhna nocte de q"uarta 
rigilia castra moturum, ut quam primum 48 intelligere posset, utrum 
apud cos pudor atque officium, an timor *valeret, 40 Quod si prae- 
terea nemo sequatur, 60 tamen se cum sola decima legione iturum, 
de qua non dubitaret; 51 sibique earn pfeetoriarn cohortem fu- 
turam.' r ' 2 Huic legioni 53 Caesar et indulserat praecipue, et propter 
virtutem confidebat maxime. 



%3. Fuis.-sc;, §"217. : For which general- 
ship there had been room, &c." 

$4. Hac ni' ipsum quidetn, &c, '-That 
not even (Ariovis.ns) hiuiBelf hoped 
that our armies could be taken by it." 

13. Qui, &o., "That (those) who charged 
their tear upou n pretense (of the 
want) of provisions, &c.'' This rela- 
tive sentence, or its omitted antece- 
dent, is subject of facere. 

86. Quum, ''Since." 

il. Usee sibi esse cur», "Thatthiswas 
his business." Sibi. §143; curve, §14i. 

18. Brevi tempore, §15S, Note. 

30 Quod, see XXXVI, 19. 

40. Dicantur. The personal construc- 
tion is used here, milites being sub- 
ject of dicantur, and fort its comple- 

^ inent. Ease must be supplied (from 
Jcrt,) with laturi* "In what resptct 
the soldiers are said not to be about 

, to be obedient, and not to be going 
to advance, &c ;" " as to its being 
said that the soldiers will not be 
obedient, and will not advance, that 
he is in no wise alarmed by that 
thing." Nihil is ace. of limitation, 
§155. 

41. Qui 1 uscumque exercitus, &c, fue- 
rit, " To whomsoever an army has 
not been obedient." Quibuscumque 



limits audiens dido, §142 : and th« 
relative sentence, fyr its omitted an 
tecedent, is the remote object of de- 
fuisse and convictam. 

42. Male re gesta, "lti consequence of 
bad managements-" J186. 

43. Avaritiam esse convictam, ,v Av*- 
rlee has been proved Upon (them.") 
The pronoun must be supplied in 
English. Csesar attributes insubor- 
dination among the men to incompe- 
tency or peculation on the part of 
officers. 

44. Perpetua vita, ' Throughout his 
whole life,'* {153. 

45. Bello, §167. 

46. Quod, §129, Rem.-l: 

47. Collaturus $185, 8, a. 

48. Quam primum, "As soon as possi- 
ble;" §203, Rem. 1. 

49. Valeret, "Prevailed :" §214. 

50. Quod si, &c., — sequatur, '-And if 
nobody else followed him/' Th« 
present is here used to give greater 
animation. 

51. Dubitaret, §217. 

52. Sibique earn prsetoriam cohortem 
futuram, "And that he would have 
it for a body guard ;" §144, Rem. 2. 
Sibi, §143. • 

53. Legioni, §142. 



■ LIBEK L'FJMUS. . -. : n 

XLI. Elac oration© habits, mirum ia modum 1 converse sunt 
grnnium aserites, summaque a.lacritas et cupiditas belli gerendi 2 in- 
nata est, pi incepsqu©?. decima legio per tribunos rnilitum ei gratias 
egit, quod de so optimum judicium fecisset, 4 seque esse ad bellum 
gerendum 2 paratissimam coufirmavit. Beinde rcliquoc legiones per 
tribuu'os rnilitum et primorum ordinum 5 centuriones egerunt, 6 uti 
Caesari satisfaeerent : ' se neque unquam dubitasse, ncque timuisse, 
ncque de gumma belli suum judicium, sed imperatoris esse existi- 
mayisse.' 7 IjJoruin satisfaotione accepta, et itinere exquisito per 
Bivitiacum,* quod ex'aliis ei maximam fidem habebat, ut millium 
amplius quinquagiata' circuitu locis apertis 10 exercitum duceret, de 
quarta vigilia, ut dixerat, 11 profectus est. Septimo die, quum iter 
uon intermittent, ab exploratoribus certior factus est Ariovisti 
copias a nostris millibus 12 passuum quatuor et vigiuti abesse. 

XLII. Cognito C»saris. adventu, Ariovistus legatos ad eum mit- 
tit : 'quod antea de colloquic postulasset, id per ,se fieri licere, 1 
quoniam propius aeceasisset ; a seque id sine periculo facere posse 
'existimart-.' 3 Nor, re.»puit conJitionem Crcsar : jamqne eum ad 
stinitatcra rererti arbitrabatur, quum id, quod antea petenti dene- 
gasset, 4 u icsretur ; s magnamque in»spem veniebat, pro 6 suis 

tautis pop\u§u iii in eum beneficiis, cognitis suis postulatis, 

fore, 7 uti PwHE^i" desisteret. Bies colloquio 9 dictus est ex eo die 
<]uintus. IatCTfni, quum esepe ultro citroque legati inter eos mit- 
terentur, Ariovistus postularit, ' ne quern peditem ad colloquium 
ur nd4uceret**vereri se, ne 10 per insidias ab eo circumveniretur : 
utcrque cum equitatu veniret: 11 alia ratione ee uon esse yenturum.' 



XLI. 1 Mirum in modum, "Toawon- 
derful exteat ;" liter*!)/, "to a won- 
derful limit." 

-. Belli gersndi, {177. 

3. Pfiocepa, {128, Rem. ». 

4. Fecisset, {1?0. 

i. Primorum eniinum, §181. 

B. Egerunt, "They took measures.'' 

7. Neque de eumma belli, fee, — existi- 
iBATisse.^Nor hsd they supposed that 

_»t was ilitir business, but the gener- 
WWlV. to determine about the manage- 
ment of the war;" literally, "that a 
judgement concerning tiie Manage- 
ment of the war was not theirs, but 
the general's." For imptratorit see 
{133 ; fur ivum, {113, Kern. 1. 

8. Per Divitiacum, {169, Rem. 0. 

0. MHlium amplius quinquaginta, 
(182, §105 Rem. 4. 
0. I ■ c:h apertis, {1G6. 
11. 01, ~.\» ;" {211. Ex. (c.) 



12. Millibus, glGS. 

XLII. 1. Id per se fieri licere, "That 
that might be done "by him." Id if 
subject of fieri; and id fieri is gram- 
matically subject of licere, though 
logically dependant upon it. 

2. Accessisset, §190. 

:; iStque &e. — oxittimare. St is sub 
jset otpfite, and is understood with 
exutimare. Its repetition would be 
inelegant. 

4. Quod antea petenti denegassot, 
"Which he had before denied to him 
when he (Caesar) asked it." 

f>. Polliceretur, {-'Oj, a. 

*>. Pro, "In consideration of." 

7. Fore, "That it would come to pass.'' 
ninacia, {163. 

9. Colloquio, §144. 

10. Ne alter persrt, {l'.*3, Rem. 2. 
11 Veniret, {193, Rem. C. 



•-S8 



DE BELLO GALLICO 



Caesar, quod neque colloquium interposita causa tolli volebat, neque 
saluteni suam Gallorum equitatu 12 committere audebat, commodis- 
simum esse 13 statuit, omnibus equis Gallis equitibiis detractis, 14 eo 16 
•legionarios nrilites legionis decimae, cui quam maxime confidebat, 
imponere, ut prsesidium quam amicissimum, 16 si' quid opus facto 
esset, 17 baberet. Quod quum fieret, non ifridicule quidam ex mil- 
itibus decimae legionis dixit, 'plus, quam pollicitus esset, 18 Caesarem 
ei facere : pollicitum se in cobortis praetoriae loco decimam legionem 
babiturum, nunc ad equum rescribere.' 19 

XLIII. Planities erat magna, et in ea tumulus terrenus satis 
grandis. Hie locus aequo fere spatio 1 ab castris utriusque aberat. 
Eo, ut erat dictum, 2 ad colloquium venerunt. Legionem Caesar, 
quam equis devexerat, passibus ducentis 3 ab eo tunaulo constituit. 
Item equitos Ariovisti pari interyallo constiterunt. Ariovistus, ex 
equis 4 ut colloquerentur, et praeter se 5 deno$ ut ad colloquium addu- 
cerent, postulavit. , Ubi «o ventum est, Caesar initio 6 orationis sua 
senatusque 7 in eum beneficia commemoravit ; ' quod 8 rex appellatus 
esset 9 a senatu, quod amicus, 10 quod munera amplissima missa : 
quam rem et paucis contigisse, 11 et pro magnis hominum officiis con- 
suesse tribui ' docebat : 'ilium, quum neque aditum 12 neque cauaam 
postulandi 13 justam baberet, beneficio ac liberalitate sua ac senatus 14 
ea praemia consecutum.' Docebat etiam, 'quam veteres, quamque 
justao causae necessitudinis ipsi» 15 cum iEduis intercederent; 16 quae 



12. Equitatu, $48, Rem. 3. 

13. Comrnodissimuru esse, "That it 
was beet, most expedient " The 
iubject of esse it imponere. 

14. OmnibuB equis &c. — detractiB, 
"All the horses hiving been taken 
away fronuthe Gallic horsemen." 

16. Eo, "Upon them," i. t. the horses. 

16. Quam amicissimum, "As friendly 
as possible ;" $203, Rem. 1. 

17. Si quid opus facto esset, " If in 
any respect there should be need of 
action." Quid, {165 Facto is here 
used as a noun; §160. Rem. 1. 

18. Pollicitus esset, §217. 

19. Ad equum rescribere. The knight, 
(equet,) was of a higher social rank 
than the common soldiar w ho fought 
on foot ; and though the strength of 
the Roman armies lay in the infant- 
ry, and not in the cavalry, which 
were usually famished by the allies, 
the rank of the Roman eques remain- 
ed the same. 

XLIII. 1. Spatio, §153, or §168. 



2. Ut erat dictum, §211, Ex. (e.) 

3. Passibus ducent b, 5153. 

4. Ex equis, "On horseback." 

5. Praster se, "Besides themselves.'" 

6. Initio, §167. 

7. Sua senatusque; both subjective lim- 
itations, while in eum is objective ; 
§1 31, Rems. 3 and 4, 

8 Quod, "In that." 

9. Appellatus esset, $210, c ; or {190. 

10. Amicus tc appellatus esset; $L3U, 
2. The repetition of quod is for the 
sake of emphasis. 

11. Contigisse, $217, Rem. 3. 

12. Aditum tc ad senatum. 

13. Postulandi tc. ea praemia. 

14. Sua ac senatus, " Of himself and 
the senate." 

16. Ipsis, Himself and the Benate. 

16. Intercederent. $214. " What an- 
cient,and what just causesof friend- 
ship existed between themselves and 
the .<Eduans;" literally, "lay-be- 
tween to themselves with the i£du- 
ans." 



LIIJER PRIMUS. 



39 



senatus consulta, quoties, 17 quamque honorifica in eos facta essent : ls 
ut 19 omni tempore totius Galline principatujii iEdui tenuissent, prius 
etiarn # quam nnstram amicitiam appetissent : 20 populi Romani banc 
esse consuctudinem, ut socios atque amicos non modo sui 21 nihil de- 
perdere, sed gratia, dignitate, houore 22 auctions velit esse: 23 quod 
vero ad amicitiam populi Romani attulissent, 24 id iia 25 eripi quis 
pati posset ? ,J6 Postulavit deinde eadem, quas-legatis in mandatis 
dederat ; ' no aut ^Ivluis aut eorum sociis bellum inferjet; obsides 
redderet : 27 si niitiiam partem Germanorum domum remittere pos- 
pet, 28 at »e quos amplius Rhenum transire pateretur.' 29 

A LIV. Ariovistus ad postulata Cscsaris pauca respondit ; de suis 
virtutibus multa prjedicavit : ' Transisse Rhenum sese non sua 
sponte, sed rogatum et arcessitum 1 a Gallis ; non sine magna spe 
uiagnisqae pncmiis domum propinquosque reliquisse ; sede's habere 
in Gallia ab ipsis 2 cofljeessas ; obsides ipsorum voluntate datos ; sti- 
pendiuiii eapere jure belli, quod victores yictis 8 imponere consue- 
rint ; 4 non sesc Gallis, sed Gallos sibi bellum intulisse; omnes Gal- 
lia? civitates ad se oppugnahdum 5 venisse, ac contra se castra habu- 
isse : easjumties enpias a ^e uno proelio 9 lusas ac superatas esse ; si 
iter iri velint, 7 iterum paratum sese decertare ; 8 si pace uti 

velinty iniquum esse de stipendio recusare, 9 quod sua voluntate ad 
id tempus depeuderint. 10 Amicitiam' 11 populi Romani sibi 12 orna- 
mento fit prajsidio, 13 non detrimento esse oportere, idque se ea spe 
petisse. Si per populum Romanum 14 stipendium remittatur, et 
dedititii subtrahantur, non minus libenter sese recusaturum populi 



17. Quotiei. We would naturally ex~ 
pect qutt. With quotiei. senatus con- 
sul/a facia r*$*nt mu«t ho repeated. 

18. Fscta essent, \'1\ \ 

19. Ut is liere equivalent to quo mod*. 
"how." 

-0 Appetissent. {'217. Etiam, ••Even." 
21. Sui is genitive singular neuter, 

limiting nihil, §134 . " nothing of 
*• th. ir own " — Socios dtperdere limits 

velit; |18«. 
■22. Gratia 4ignitato, honor*, §!G1. 
28. Srd-(sorias} esse, ia coordinate with 

socios dsptrdere. 
24. Attuliasent. {217. 
2f>. Iia, J 103, Rem. 8. 

26. Po.oaot, |214, |2l7, Rem. 5. 

27. Redderet J198, Rem. 0. 

28. Posset, §197. Rem 4. 

29. At — patorettir, (§1'J3. Rsm 6,) 
•' 1 h»t lie should at least ,-ufTer no 
more to cross the Rhine" 



XLIV. 1. Rogatum etarce«situm,§185 
2, a. 

2. Ipsis, i.e. Gallis. 

3. Victis, "The conquered." 

4. Consuerint, §217. 

6. Ad se oppugnandum, §177. 

6. Uno prirlio. §158. 

7. Velint. §197. Observe the transition 
to the>present 

8. Decertare is complement of paratum, 
which is predicate accusative after 
esse understood. 

9 Recusare. §173. 

10. Deponderint, §217. 

11. Amicitiam \> subject of esse, and 
amicitiam — esse is subject of oportere. 
though logically dependent upon it. 

12. Sibi, §112 

15. Omamanto ©t prae«idio. §144. 
14. Per populum -Romanum, |l69, 
Rem 5. 



40 



DE BE LLC) GALLIC') 



Romahi amicitiarn, quam appetierit. 15 Quod 16 multitudinem G-er- 
manorum in Galliam transducaty id ae sui muniendi, 17 non Galfigb 
iinpugnandaj causa facere ; ejus rei. testimonium esse, quod, nisi 
rogatus, non venerit, is et quod bellum non intulerlt, eed defender It 
Se prius in Galliam venisse, quam populum Romanum.? 5 Nunquam 
ante hoc tempus exercitum populi Romani Galliao proYinciso fiues 
egressum. Quid sibi vellet? 20 Cur in suas possessionem veniret 1- 
Provincial suam esse banc Galliam^ sicut iliamj 31 nostram". Ut ipsi 
concedi non oporteret, 22 si in uostros fines impetum facf res. sic item 
nos esse iniquos, <jui in suo jura se interpeliaremus. 23 Quod 16 i'ra- 
tres a senatu JEdubs appellatos diceret, non sc tarn barbaruni nequo 
tarn im peri turn esse rerum,- 1 ut non sciret, ncque bello 20 Allobro- 
gum proximo JEduos Romania auxilium tulisse, neque ipsos in bis 
contcntionibus, quas iEdui secum et cum Sequanis habui; j aerit, aux- 
ilio 26 populi Romani usos'esse. Debere se suspicari, oimulata Cse- 
sarem amicjtia, 27 quod exercitum in Gallia habeat, sui opprimendi* 7 
causa habere. 23 Qui nisi decedat, 29 atque exercitum deducat ex his 
regionibus, sese ilium non pro amico, sed pro hoste habiturum : 
quod si eum interfecerit, 30 multis sese nobilibus principibusque pop- 
uli Romani gratum esse facturum : id se ab ipsis per ear urn nuncios 
compertum habere, 31 quorum omnium gratiarn atque amicitiam ejus 
morte redimere posset. Quod si decessi*$set, 32 ac liberam nossessio- 
ncm Galliro sibi tradidisset, magno se iilum prcemio remutieraturum, 

15. Quam ap^etierct, §217, §i 

1G. Quod, XXXVI, 19. "As to his 
lending over, &c." 

17. Sui muniendi, §177. 

IS. Quod, nisi rogatus, non venerit, 
"Than he has not come except when 
asked. - ' 

i '•'. (Jiiam populum Romauum ; obseTve 
that (ho complement of the compar- 
ative prius is here connected by 
quart in the same construction as se 
venisse. 

.'). Quid sibi vellet sc. C»sar, "What 
hi 1 ho want with (reference to) him." 

21. Sicut jllaril nostram, "Just as that 
(p:irt of Gaul) was ours." Ariovisius 
DSea hit'm speaking of his own pos- 
•ious, Mam ia speaking of those 
of the Romans. In the comparative 
sonteuce sicut Mam nostram, the verb 
is omitted, and illam is connected im- 
mediately with suam esse kanc Gal- 
lium, as in the case of quam populum 
Iiomanum above Had tho verb been 
expressed the nominative wou'd have 
been used ; sicul Ma essei nostra. 



22 Ut ipsi ccicedi non oporteret. ••A* 
it ought not to be yielded to him." 
Ut is here a relative, sic below bei&dj 
its antecedent. Ipsi is used instead 
of sibi to prevent, ambiguity, and for 
emphasis. 

23. Qui — interpellaronius, " Ucoause 
we, &c." §210, a 

24 Rerum, §1*J5. a. 

25. Bello, §167- 

26*. Auxilio, §159, Rem. 6. 

27. Simulata amicitia limits habere— 
"Under tho pretence of friend - 

28. Habere sr. exercitum. 

29. Qui nisi decedat, §197; "Unless 
he shall depart." Observe the trans- 
ition to the present. 

30. Quod si eum interfecerit, "And it' 
he shall kill him;" §198, a. 

SI. Compertum habere, a stronger ex-' 

pression than comperisse. 
32. Quod si decessisset, "But if bre* 

should depart." §197, R>>m. 4, §198, 

a. , Here there ia a return to past 

rime. 






LIBER P HIM US. 



41 



ot, qurccamque bella geri vellet, 33, sine ullo ejus labore et periculo 
ooufecturum.' 

XLV. Malta ab Csesare in cam 1 sententiam dicta sunt, quare 
negotio 2 desis'ere non posset, 3 et 'neque suam ueque populi Romani 
oonsuetudinem pati, uti uptime meritos socios desereret; neque se 
judieare Gallium potius esse Ariovisti, 4 quam populi Romani. Bello 
touperatos ess R.utenos 5 ab Q. Fabio Maximo, quibus 

populus LUnnanjis que in#provinciam redegisset, 6 neque 

stipeudium imposuisset Quod si antiquissimum' quodque tempus 
spectari oporteret, 7 populi Romani justissimum esse in Gallia impe- 
riutt) : si judicium seuattta obacrvari oporteret, liberam debere esse 
Galliam, quam bello vietam suia legibus uti voluisset.' s 

XLVI. Dum hvea in culloquio geruntur, Csesari nunciatum est 
equites Ariovisti propius tumulum 1 aocederc et ad nostros adequi- 
tare, lapides telaque in- nostros conjicere. Caesar loqueudi finem 
fecit, seque ad silos recepit, suisque imperavit, ne quod omnino telum 
in bostes rcjjicr-c n t . ' J Nam etsi sine ullo periculo legionis 3 delects 
• •unit Bajlium fore videbat, tamen committendum 4 non puta- 

bat, ut, s 'jjfl Hfcstibus, dici [xisset' 1 cos ab se per (idem 7 in collo- 
quiv» eireUT^KmOs. Posteaquam in vulgus militum datum est,' 
qua arrogantia' 1 in -\ i tus usus omni Gallia Romanis 

interdixiss<jt.!2 impctuciquc in acetros ejus equites -fecissent, eaque 



'.:; Pellet in direct discourse would be I ceding. "And had not reduced." 
veiis, i/Jlf(,»h, Qucerumque bella is , 7. Oporteret is impersonal, tbe prece- 
Itibject of girt, forming with it a j ding infinitive sentence being it? 
dOUD Mntenoe which is the equiva- subject. 

lent accusative (§100, Rem. 2,) lim- 8 Quam — voluisset, "Which, though 
\i'w<z velUt.; while the relative sen- conquered in war, it (the senate) 
• i bella geri veltet, or; had decreed should enjoy its own 
tbe omitted antecedent, (bella,) is the I laws'' Swim is reflexive- to quam, 
direct object of eon/ecturum which refers to Galliam. 



i 'tun refers to the noun-gen 
I lowing. 
g 1 c>:$ 
8 Posset, §214. 
-I. Ariovisti. 8133. 

Arvernoset Ru- 
tenos. (m. The conquest of these 
nation* more than sixty years be- 
fore, had given the Komau a pre- 
■oriptive right to QaaL In the arro- 
gant langu ige of these haughty con- 
C)Qerors a d< feated people was said 
to he "pardoned" if permitted to use 
it-- own laws and government, and 
not oompelled to pay tribute. 
I}. Uei' jissel »c. quoi from quibus pre- 

d2 



XLVI. 1. Tumulum, §142, Rem. i. 
12. Ne-rejicerent, "Not to throw back.' 
3. Legionit is an objective limitation of 

Jfriculo 

omittendum sc. proelium. 
5. Ut, 'So that." 
G. Diei posset is impersonal. Ut Jin 

posset expresses the result of comrnit- 

tmdum. 

7. Per fidem. 'In consequence of (<"rp- 
sar'g) word which had been pledg- 
ee 1.'' 

8. BUtium est is impersonal: 

1 Qoa arrogant ia umis, " With what 

arroeance ;" Jl69, Re 
10. Omni Gallia Romania interdixUsel, 



42 



DE BELLO GALLICO 



res colloquium ut 1 * direniisset, multo major alacritas studiumque 
pugnandi majus exercitu 12 iDJectum est. 

XLVII. Biduo 1 post Ariovistus ad Caesareni legatos mittit, ' vel- 
le so 2 de his rebus, quae inter eos agi cceptae, 3 neque perfectae essent, 
agere cum eo : uti aut iterum colloquio 4 diem constitueret ; aut, si 
id miiius vellet, 5 ex suis legatis 6 aliquem ad se mitteret.' 1 Collo- 
quendi Caesari causa visa non est, et eo magis, 8 quod pridie ejus 
diei 9 Ger^ani retineri nou ppterant, quin in nostros tela conjice- 
rent. 10 Legatum ex suis sese magno cum periculo ad eum missu- 
rum et hominibus feris objecturum existimabat. Commodissimum 
visum est C. Valerium Procillum C Valerii Caburi filium, summa 
virtute 11 et humanitate adolescentem (cUJU3 pater a C Valerio Flac- 
co civitate 13 donafus erat) et propter fidem,et propter linguaa Gal- 
licae scientiam, qua inulta 1 ' jam Ariovistus longinqua consuetudine 
utebatur, et quod in eo peccandi Grermanis 14 causa son esset, ad 
eum mittere, 15 et M. Mettiuni, qui bospitio Ariovisti usus erat. His 
mandavit, ut, quaa diceret 16 Ariovistus, cognoscerent, et ad se refer- 
rent. Quos quum apud $e in castris Ariovistus conspexisset, exer 
citu suo prassente, conclamavit : 'Quid ad se venirent V An specu- 
landi causa?' Con-antes dicere prohibuit, et in catenas conjecit. 

XLVIII. Eodem die castra promovit, et millibus 1 passuum sex 
a Caasaris castris sub monte consedit. Postridie ejus diei 2 praater 



"Had excluded the Romans from all 
Gaul." Gallia, §163 ; Romania, § 142; 
interdizisset, §214. 

11. Ut, "How." 

12. 12. Exarcitu, £48, Rem. 3. 

XLVII. 1. Biduo, $153. 

2. Velle se depends upon the verbumdi- 

cendi, and uti — constitueret upon the 

verbum postulandi, implied in legatos 

mittit. 
'■',. Ca-ptce. . The passive form is pre~ 

ferred with a passive infinitive. 

4. Colloquio, §144. 

5. Vellet, §197, Rem. 4. 

6. Ex suis legatis, " Of his lieuten- 
ants;" §134, Rem. 2. 

7. Aut — mitteret is coordinate with uti 
— constitueret. 

8. Et eo magis, li And the more ;" 
§168. 

9. Ejus diei is a subjective genitive, 
limiting pridie, which is compounded 
of the obsolete prus, (whence pro, 
prce, prior, primus, fyc.,) and dies. — 
"On the before-day ot that day," i.e. 



" on the predecessor of that day," 
" on the day before." So postridie 
ejus diei means "on the after-dai/ of 
that day," ie on its successor," "on 
the day after." 

10. Quin — conjicereut, "From throw- 
ing." 

11. Summa virtute, §164. 

12. Civitate dooatus, "Presented With 
citizenship ;" §160. 

13. Mulra, though agreeing with qua, 
limits utebatur. 

14. Germnuis, §143. In eo, "In his 
case." 

15. Mittere is subject of visum est, and 
has Caium Valerium Procillum et 
Marcum Metlium as its object. 

16. Quae diceret, §214. 

17 Quidvemrent,§214. Quid? "Why?" 
The accusative here, like the accu- 
satives quo, eo, $c.,(quon, eon. <$"c ,) 
expresses the object towards which 
the action is directed. 

XLVIII. l. Millibus, §153. 
2. Diei, XLVII, 8. 



1.1 Pr K PRIMUS. 



48 



castra CfEsaris suas copias iransduxrit, et millibus 1 passuum duobtta 
ultra euin castra fecit, eo consilio, uti fruniento commeatuque, 3 
qui 4 ex Sequauis et -/Eduis supportaretur, 6 Casarem iutercluderet. 
Ex eo die dies continuos* quinque Cassar pro castris «uaa copias pro- 
.duxit, et aciem inatructam habuit, ut, si veilet 7 Ariovistus proelio 
contendere, ci potestas non dee?-.-'. Ariovistus his orrlnibus die- 
bus* exercitum castris 9 coatinuit ; equeatri proelio quotidie conten- 
dit. Genus hoc arat puunaj,* quo se Gennani exercucraut. Equi- 
luni millia erant sex ; tot idem numero 10 pedites velocissimi ac for- 
tissimi ; quos ex omhi copia singuli singulos 11 suae salutis causa del- 
ogerant. Cum his hi prcelii ; versabantur, ad hoi se equites recip- 
iebaut : hi, si quid erat durius, eoncurrcbant : si qui, 12 graviore 
vulnere accepto, equo 13 decidcrar^ circumsistebaut : si quo erat Ion- 
Ljjus prudcundum, aut celcrius recipiendum, 14 taut a cr.it horutn exer- 
citatione eeleritas, ut, jubis equorumsublevati, cursuni adrcquarent. 

XLIX. Ubi eum castris 1 se tenere Caesar intellexit, no diutius 
commeatu 2 prohibcretur, ultra eum locum,* quo in loco 3 Germani 
eonsederant, circiter pass us sexcentos* ah eis, castris 5 idoneum lo- 
cum delegHH Bft que triplioi instructa, ad eum Locum venit. Primam 
ct secundarxvaaiem in arniis esse, tertiam castra inunire juss.it. Hie 
locus ab hoste circiter passus sexcentos, uti dictum est, 6 hberat. Eo 
circiter hominum uumero XVI millia expedita" cum omni equitaty 
Ajiovistus misitfl quae copioe uostros perterrerent s et munitioue pro- 
hibereut. Xihilo secius 9 Cresar, ut ante constituerat, 6 duas acies 
hostem propulsare, tertiam opus perficere jussit. Muuitis castris, 



■ '•. Frunient.) commeatuque, $1 t>o. 

4. Qui agrees with the nearest noun. 

•">. BopportarctW, §210, c. Though 
Ariovistus is Dot represented as ma- 
king any assertion, the bringing of 
supplies is v;ewed from his stand- 
point, ami not Irom the author's 

i. Dies cotitinuos, §153. 

7. Si Tellet, {197, Kern. 4. 
Diebus, J 158. 

9. Castris, §ltj<> 

10. Numero. §161. 

11. SinguUi limits dehgtrat, though ii 
agrees with quos '"Whom each had 
chosen individually for the sake of 
bli own safety;" literally, " whom 
(the horseman) one-at-a time had 
elitism, tint' at a i line . for the sake, 
&c " 

12. Si qui, "If any tine." The indefin- 
ite qui, though generally an adjec- 
tiTe, is here a substantive. 

13. Equo, §103. 



i 14. Si quo erat lou^ius, Ac , •• If it, 
was necessary to adraooe farther 
(than usual) in any-din-cti on, or to 
retreat more Bwiftly (than usual./' 
2178. 

;XLIX. 1. Castris, 1166 
_ Comtaeatn, ] 

.'i. Qiin in loco, §1 29, I, ti 

4. Circiter passus sexcentos, $163. — 

Cirriter is generally nn adverb ; 

here it limits ttxeentos. 
:>. t'astris, £l4'2. 

6. Uti dictum est. $2] 1. Et. (e.) 

7. ll'ininum numero setiecim' milliii 
etpedita, literally, •' Of nien aboot 
s-ixuen light armed thousands in 
number;'' i r. 'about sixteen tlinu<<- 
and light armed troops." Circiter 
limit** Sfirri-'i : for numero see 

*. tjute cipiso uostros perterrersot, 

' I'liat thess t, trees, kc " {210, I 
'.). Mhilo secius, "Nevertheless;" JltiS. 



4[ 



.-.LLO QALLICO 



'duiS ibi 10 legiones reliquit, et partem auxiliorum; quatuor reliquas 
in castra rnajora reduxit. 

L. Proximo die instituto 1 suo Czesar e castris utrisque oopias 

eduxit; paulumque- a inajoribus 3 progressus, acieru instruxit, 

ibusque puguandi potestateni fecit. Ubi ne turn quidein eos 

• lire intelloxit, cjrciter meridiem exercitum in castra reduxit. 

Turn demuui Arioviatus partem suarum copiarum, quse castra mi- 

uora opp&gnaret, 4 misit : acriter utrimque usque ad vesperum pug- 

natum est. Solis occasu 5 suas copias Ariovistus, multis et illatis et 

acceptis rulneribus, in castra reduxit. Quum^ex captivis ijucereret 

Caosar, quam ob rem Ariovistus proeiio nou decertaret, 6 hauc repe- 

riebat causam, quod apud Germauos ea con-suetudo esset, 7 ut matres 

tamilias eurum sortibu.s et .vaticination ibus declararent, utrum proe- 

lium comruitti ex usu esset, uec De : 8 eas ita dicere: <Non esse.fa.s-' 

Grermanos superare, si ante novam lunam proelip contendissent.' lw 

LT. Postridie ejus diei 1 Gicsar, prsesidio utrisque castris, 2 quod 
satis esse visum est, relicto, omnes alarios in conspectu hostium pro 
castris miuoribus constituit, quod minus multitudine militum legi- 
onariorum pro hostium numero valebaty 3 ut ad speciem alariis 4 ute- 
retur. Ipse, triplici iustructa aeie, usque ad castra bjtetium accessit. 
Turn demutn necessario Germani sua: copias castris 5 eduxeruDt, 
generatimque ^onstituerunt paribusque intervallis, 6 Harudes, Mar- 
(.■.omannos, Triboccos, Vangiones. Nemetes, Sedusios, Suevos, omnem- 
que aciem suam rbedis et carris circumdederunt, ne qua spesin fuga 
relinqueretur. Eo 7 muliercs imposueruut, qua? in prcelium proficis- 
centes 8 milites passi3 manibus flentes implorabant, ne ae in servitu- 
te;n Romania traderent.'-' 






10. Ibi, i.e. castris minoribus. 

I.. 1 Instituto, "That which has been 
established;" hence, "custom." In- 
stituto suo is a modal ablative, — "ac- 
cording to his custom." 

3. l'aulum, §160, Rem. 3. 
•J. Majoribus sc castris, 

4. Oppugnaret, $210, a. 
"i. Occasu, \ 167. 

tj. Decertaret, £214. 

7. Es«e% ^190. 

8. Utrum proeliutn committi, &c, — 
" Whether it was of advantage that 
battle be joined or not." Prcelium 
committi is subject of the impersonal 
erpressiou ex usu esset; for the sub- 
junctive see §214 Necne is a dis- 
junctive interrogative expression, 
with which the preceding predicate 



must be supplied. 

9. Fas, '-The will of the Gods." 

10. Couteudissent, §107, Rem. 4; 2198, 



LI. Postridie ejus dioi, see XLVII, 8. 

2. Utrisque castris, §166. 

3. Quod minus — valebat, "Because he 
was less strong (than he could wish) 
in the namber of his legionary sol- 
diers, in comparison with the num- 
ber of the snemy;" i.e. because the 
enemy outnumbered him. 

4. AUriis, §159, Rem. 6. 

5. Castris, gl63, 

6.- Intervallis, abl. of mauner. 

7. Eo, i.e. rhedis et carris. 

8. Proficiscentes limits milites; "the 
soldiers, as they went, &c." 

9. Ne— traderent, "Not to deliver." 



LIBER PRIMCri. 



LII. Caesar sriogi^Sj ibu^ singulos legates et quaestorem 

p-rsefecit, uti eos t< re quisque TJrtutis haberet. Ipse a dex- 

tr» cornu, quod earn partem miniine firmam hostium esse aniruum 
adverterat, 2 prcelium commisit. Ita uostri acriter in hostes, signo 
dato, irapetum fecerunt, itaque :; hostes repente celeriterque procur- 
rerunt, ut spatiuru pila in hostes conjioiendi non daretuY. Reject is 
pilis, eominus tfladii.s pngnat.um est: at Germaui, oeleriter ex ;;on- 
auetudinf; Mia* phalange fact:), impetus gladioruD) excepcrnnt. R.e- 
perti sunt cotnplure8«nostri milite«,* nui in pi insilirent,' 1 et 

seats maii.bu Quuni no: 

a^i^-s a sinistro covnu pu>: it, a i i 

nu vehcuienter m i "am acieai premebant 

Ed quum animad' adoJeseuns, qui equitatu 7 prae- 

. quod expeditior a . qui inter aciem veraabautur,* 

-;rtiaui aciem laborantlDus tiostris 9 subsidio 10 misit. 

LTlL Ita p radium restitutum est,atque omncs hostes ierga ver- 
teruut, neque prius fugere destitcrunt, quam ad flumen Rhenuui 
niillia 1 passuuin r circiter quinquaginta pervenerunt 2 ' Ibi 

perpauci aut, confisi, transnatare contenderunt, aut, lintri- 

bus iuveutisjKSibi saluteru reperoruut. L| his fuit Ariovistus, qui, 
naviculam dggH&tam ' J d ripam naetu.*, ea profugit ; reliquos omncs 
i eqwtes laostri interfecerunt* Dure fuerunt Ariovisti uxo- 
ros, uua Sueva natione, 4 quam an doino 5 secuin eduxerat ; altera 
Noriea, rcgi.- Voqsiouis serpr, quam in Gallia duxerat, 6 a fratre mis- 
iam : utraoqu* in i Buae filire haruni, altera occisa, 

altera 7 capfa eat. C. Val'or.iw Procillttfr, quum a custodibus.in fup« 
trims^ cateni* vinctus . :, in ipsuiu Cresarem, Hostes equ - 

i-' persequeutem, it: n.r quideui res Oresaii non i . 

LIU. 1. Millia, §lfi 

'.!. Pervenerunt, (in many edition* per- 

venefinl.) §206, a. The subjunctive 

Would imply a purpose on the part 

of the Germans. 
2. Various. A dative of advantage or* 

x causal ablative nar limit cbnflJo 
\ N.uiono, Jl 6J. 
Ab i.'otuo The use of the ; 

si(iu:i wiih tlomo is rare. 

.-rat fc. in matrimoniuu), " Ha<l 

7. A Iter:!,— altera, J127, R"n. t;. 

■ with .i triple chain.' 
. i, "With th« cavalry ; 
of maimer. 



i . "Fetes, "As frit:i*a?e*,"£151.b. 
■ trttrat, often irruteii 
tiTiiman'vrrterat, c institutes a verLurt 
ttntiemlt, ou which ram partem — et*e 
depends. 
i lta que [el I'm], limit reptnft celeri- 
Jfterqut 
T. Sua limits conuieta 

l'<;.rrti Hunt complurea DOPtri mil i 
tea, "There wen: 1. m.d a number of 
mir men. 
8, Insifirent, (210. b. 

. 1 1 i 1 14 1 u . {48, Hen :;. 
••' Qui inter aaiem vereabantar, ''Who 
w • ■- in the thick««l i.f tl l- 

fight;' literally, "ii the midst of 
■ 1, 
' 141. 
10. Sub.idiu, $141. 




46 



DE BELLO GALLICO 



quam ipsa victoria, 10 voluptatem attulit, quod hominem honestis 
inum provincicc Gralliae, suum familiarem et hospitem, ereptum e 
manibus hostiuin, sibi restitutum 11 videbat; neque ejus calamitate 1 
de tanta voluptate et gratulatione quidquam fortuna deminuera . 
Is, se praesente, de se ter sortibus consultum 13 dicebat, utrum ign ; 
statim nccaretur, 11 an in aliud tempus reservaretur, sortium benefu;iu 
se esse incoluuiein. Item M. Mettius repertuset ad eum reductus e 

LIV. Hoc proelio trans Rhenum nunciato, Suevi, qui ad ri] a* 
Rheni venerant, domuni 1 reverti coeperunt: quos Ubii, qui proxi 
Rhenum 2 ineolunt, perterritos insecuti, magnum ex his numermn 
occiderunt. Caesar, una sestate duobus maximis bellis confecl is, 
matuvius paulo, 3 quani tempus anni postulabat', in hib.erna in Se- 
quanoe excrcitum deduxit: hihernis Labienum praeposuit: ipse in 
citeriorem Galliam ad conventus agendos profectus est. 



10. Ip s a victoria, se. attulit. 

11. Ereptum and restitutum agree with 
liuminem ; $185, 2, a. 

12. Ejus calamitate, "By a calamity 
befalling him," »'. e. by his being 
murdered by the Germans. 

13. Ter sortibus consultum (essa), 



"That it had been thrice decided 
lot." 
14. Necaretar, — reserraretur, §214. 



LIV. 1. Domum, §154. - 

2. Rhenum, §142, Rem. 4. 

3. Paulo, 2168. 




LIBER 3BCUNDUS. 



DE BELLO GALLICO 



LIBER II. 

I. Quum csset Cscsar in citeriore Gallia in hibernis, 1 ita uti su- 
ira demonstravimu?, 2 crebri ad eura rumores afferebantur, literis- 
(iie item Labierii ccrtior fiebat omnes Belgas, quam" tertiam esse 
jallioe partem dixeramus, contra populnm Romanum conjurare, 
ibsidesque inter se dare. Conjurandi bas esse causas : primum, 
juod vercrentur, 4 ne, 8 omni pacata Gallia, ad eos exercitus noster 
■ dduceretur : deinde, quod ab nonnullis Gallis sollicitarentur, 4 par- 
im° qui, nt" Germanos diutius in Gallia versari noluerant, ita pop- 
,'. i Roman i exereitum hiemare atque iuveterascerc in Gallia moleste 

rebaut ; partim qui mobilitate ct levitate 8 animi novis imperii^'-' 
jdebant : ab nonnullis itiam.quod in Gallia a potentioribus atque 

lis, qui ad conducendos 10 homines facilitates habebant, Tulgo regna 
cupabantur, 11 qui minus facile earn rem in imperio nostrp conse- 

yii poterant. ... _ 

II. lis nunciis literisque commotus Caesar duas legiones in cite- 
ore Gallia novas conscripsit; et inita restate, in interiorem Galli- 
n qui deduceret, 1 Q. Pedium legatum misit. Ipse, quum primum 7 

,iabuli copia esse ineiperet, ad exereitum venit; dat negotium Se- 

o.nibus :i reliquisque Gallis, qui fiuitimi Belgis erant, uti ea, qua^ 

'pud eoi gerantur,* cognoseant, seque de his rebus certiorem 5 faciant. 

. rr-^-- 

NOTES. 



. 1. In bibernis. ' During the winter 
quarter?," it while the army was in 
winter quarters See Book 1. L1V. 

'1. Its uti supra de-monstraYimus, "As 
wc fiave edown abore." The antece- 
dent of mi is Ua; {211, Ex. (• ) 

:{. Qufttn, {129, Ret*. 6. 

4 Quod Ttrerentur, §19<> 

». Ne, §198, Rem. 2. 

'S. Partim qui, " gome of whom;" or 
mpplying ob •'»>, " 1'artlj by those 
who." Partim is an <.ld accusative of 
pars, usually called an adverb; it is 
in fact an ace. of limitation : " Who 
in respect to a pari. 1 ' This enumera 
tion is made by the Author, and do< 
l>y his informers : hence the indica- 



tive! ferrbant. ttudtbunt. Sfc 

7. Ut, "Ah." Its antecedent is ita be- 
low. 

8. Mobilitate ef levitate: ablative of 
cnu.-e. 

9. Imperiis, §141. 

10. Conducendos, §1 I'- 
ll. Vulgo re^ua ocrupabantur, " The 

royal power (in the several states) 
was generally possessed. " 

11. 1. Qui deduceret, $210, a. 

2. Quum primum. "As soon as." • 

8. Dat negotium Senonibu, "llechav- 

gea the Senones to find out, &c." 
4J,Oerantur, {'J 11. 
5. Certiorem, {161, b. 



4* DE BELLO GALLICO 

Hi constant?!' omnes itu:iciavcrui.t manua cogii excreitum in uuum 
locum conduci. Turn veA uVibi' nudum 1 ' 1 not: cxistimavit, quiu ad 
eos [duodecimo die] proficiseaweiur. 7 Re frutner, taria provisa, castr», 
movet, diebusque circiter quindceini ad 'fines Belgarum perveait. 

III. Eo quum de improviso celeriusque omni opinione 1 veriisswt, 
Retn», qui proximi Gallire ex Be!gis' J sunt, ad earn legatos Iccium et 

' Antebrogium, primos civitatis, miscrunt, qui dice.rent 3 ' se auaque 
omnia in fidem atque in potestatem populi Roruani pormittere ; nc- 
que se cum Belgis reliquis consensisse, neque contra populum Rw- 
manum omnino conjurasse : paratosque 4 esae et obsides dare, et 
perata facere, et oppidit. 6 recipere, et frumento ceterisque rebua ju- 
vare : reliquos omnes Belgas in armis esse : Germanosque, qui ci.8 
Rhenura incolunt, r ' sese cum his ooD}uas.i?se ; tantumque esse eorum 
omnium furorem, ut n£ Suessiones.quidem, fratres consauguineosque 
suos, qui eodem jure et eisdem legibus utantnr, 7 uuum im'perium 
unumque magistratum cum ipsie habeant, 7 deterrere potuerint, quin 
cum his oonsentirent." 

IV. Quum ab his qusereret, quae eivitates qua.ntseque in armix 
essent, 1 et quid* in hello, pos.*cni>, sic repericbat : plerosque Belga* . 
esse ortos ab Gerrrnmis ; Rhenumque 3 aatiquitus Iransductos, prop- 
ter loci ferfeilitatem ibi coneedisse, Gallosqne, qui ea, loea. iucole- 
rcnt,* cxpulisse ; f-;olosque esse, qui patrum bostroruna meisoria, omni 
Gallia vexata,Teutonos Cinibrosqv.". intra fine? suos ingredi prohibue-'' 
rint.* Qua ex re fieri,* uti earum rerum memoria magnam siba aue- 
toritateus, maghosque spiritus in re militari sutnerent. De nuaaero 
eorum omnia se habere explorata 6 Remidicebant,proptereaquod pro- 
pinquitatibus afiinitatibtfsque conjuncti, quantam quisque multitudi- 
neui ih communi Belgarum concilio ad id helium pollicitus sit, 7 cog- 
noverint * Plurimum 2 inter eos Bellovacos ct virtu^e et auetoritaU 



• . DubitRtidutn, " Tkat he ought t»j8. Quin — ceasetuirent, "From conspi- 

heeitate .-" {178. ring " 

7. Qoin proficiberotnr. "To go;'' liter - 

%\\j, 'but t bat ho ibou'd §•!'' iY. 1. E»»ent, §2U. 

« \'i. Quid limits posterity §150, Rem. i. — 

III. 1. Opinion*, {165, "Then »nj on«| Some supply farert. 

expected.' 1 jj. RKenum limit* iramtii-ueium, %152- 

•i. Ex Belgis, $134. Rtm. '1. ; Rem. -4. 

S. Qu: dicerent, g-210, a. [4. Incolerent. §210, e. 

4. Phratosque eeee, "And that thejjO. Fieri. " Tbat it happtaod," §217, 
had prepared them^e-irea.' and hence, I Rem. 3. 

"that they were roady." 16. Omnia se hn.\»er« « xplorata, "That 

5. (Jppidie, $16$ thvy bad fount! out everything."— 

6. Incolunt. Tbi6 is the Author's own Thisperiphrastieexprossiunisbtrong- 
ptatemetit. er than the simple perfeet. 

7. Utantur, J210 c. |7. PolHcitus sit, §214. Observe here 

ifee transition to prskent time. 



L1BBH SICUNDUS. 49 

et Loininum i;a:i. re: bos posse conficere armata ruillia cen- 

tum: 9 pollicitos ex eo numero electa LX, totiusquc belli irnperium 
sibi 10- postulate. Suessioues suos esse finitiraos; latiesiraos feraci?- 
si mosque ngros possidtro. Apud eus f'uisse regeni nostra etiam 
metnoria Diutiacuin, totius GralKae 11 potentissitnuin, qui quuin 12 
mr.gine partis harum regionum, turn etiam Britannia; irnperium ob- 
tinuerit : nunc esse regom Galbara : ad lmnc propter justitiam pru- 
dentiamque suinmam totius belli omnium voluntate deferri : oppida 
babcre numero 8 XII ; polliceri millia armata quinquaginta : toti- 
,dem 13 Ncrvios qui maxime feri inter ipsofl babeantur, 4 longissimeque 
absint : XV millia Atrebates: Ani'bianos X taillia : Morinos XXV 
millia : Mcnapios IX millia : Caletos X millia : Velocasses et Ve- 
romauduos totidem : Aduatucos XIX millia : Condrusos, Eburones, 
Caergssos, Paemanoik qui uuo nomirfe Germani appellautur, arbitrari 
ad XL millia. 14 

V. Cstar, Remos cebortatus, liberaliterque oratione prosecutus, 

on.p.eiu senatutu ad so con venire, principumque liberos obsides ad 

• se adduci jussit. Qurc omnia ab his diligenter ad diem focta sunt. 

Ipse Pivitiacum .Eduum magno opere 1 cobortatus, docet, quanto 

ire reipubl i ■ Falutis intersit 3 manus bostium|dis- 

tineri, 4 ne cr.i ue uno tempore confligendum sit. 6 

Id fieri posse, si'suas copias ^Edui in^ines Bellovacorum introduxe- 

riiit/' et corum agros populari cocporint. His mandatis, eum ab sc 

diniittit. * iVtqufcm oumes'Belgarum copias in unum locum coac 

tas 7 ad sc venire vidit, neque jam longe abesse, 8 ab bis, 9 quos mise- 

rat, explpratbviDue et ab Remis cognovit, flumen Axonam, 10 quod 

it in extremis Remorum finibus, exercitum transducere maturavit, 

itquc ibj rr-.8tra posuit. Qure res et latus unum castroruni ripis 

j. Virtote, auotpritate, numero, £1GI j tiopere, is an ablative of manner; 

.*. Armata millia centuni, "A hundred j "Earnestly." In the same manner is 
armed thousands," i e. a hundred! construed quanto opcre below ; "How 
thousand amx-d mcii. So also electa} greatly." 
{millia) icx&ginta, below. 2. Reipublicae, $135, e. 

10. Sibi postulare, "Claimed for them-|3. Intersir, §214. 

Belvi \4. Manus hostium distineri is subject of 

11. Totius Gallia, by metoin.my for om : the impersonal intersit, though logic- 
nium Gullorum, $184. all}' dependent on it. 

12. tjnuin,- turn, "No* only, — but > al - •">. Ne— confligendum sit, 'That it may 

not be necessary to engage;" §178." 



so. 
18. Totidem is the object of polliceriun 

derstond, which must also be supplied 

with Atrebates, Ambranos, §c. 
14. Arbitrari a<l quadrnginta millia, 

" Were assessed to the amount of 

forty thousand." 



0. Introduxerint. §198, a 

7. Coactas, §185, 2, a. 

8. Neque jam longe abesse,"And found 
out, &c, that they were now not far 
off." 

9 Ab his — exploratoribus limits cogno- 
vit. 
V '. 1. Magno opere, often written mag-AO. Flumen Axonam, §ir>2, Rem. 2. 



B 



60 



DB IJELLO 6ALLICO 



fluminis rauniebat, et, pest eum ! quae essent, 11 tuta 12 ab hostibus. red- 
debat, et comnieatus 13 ab Remis reliquisque civitatibus ut sine peri- 
culc ad eura portari posset, efficiebat. . In eo flumine pons erat. Ibi 
praesidium ponit, et in altera parte fluminis 14 Q. Titurium Sabinum 
legatum cum sex cohortibus relinquit : oastra in altitudinem pedum 
dnodecim 16 vallo fossaque duodeviginti pedum munire jubet. 

VI. Ab his castris oppidum Remorum nomine Bibrax aberat 
millia 1 passuum VIII. Id ex itinere niagno impetu Belgae oppug- 
nare cceperunt. iEgre eo die sustentatum est? Gallorum eadem 
atque Belgarum oppugnatio est hasc. 3 Ubi, circumjecta multitu- 
dine hominum totis mcenibus, 4 undique lapides in murum jaci ccepti 
sunt, murusque defensoribus 5 nudatus est, testudine facta, portas 
suceedunt, murumque subruunt.; Quod turn facile fiebat. Nam, 
quuni tanta multitudo lapides ac tela conjicerent, in muro consis- 
tendi potestas erat nulli. 6 Quum fine-in oppugnandi nox fecisset, 
Iccius Remus summa nobilitate et gratia 7 inter suos, qui turn oppido 
praeerat, unus ex his, qui legati 8 de pace d'd Caesarein venerant, nun- 
cios ad eum mittit, 'nisi subsidium sibi submittatur, sese diutius 
sustinere non posse.' 

VII.' Eo de media nocte Caesar, iisdem ducibus usus, 1 qui nun- 
cii 2 ab Iccio venerant, Numid^s et Cretas sagittarios et funditores 
Baleares subsidio 3 oppidanis mittit : quorum adventu et Remis 4 cum 
spe defensionis studium propugnandi accessif, et hostibus eadem de 
causa spes potiundi oppidi 5 discessit. Itaque, paulisper apud oppi- 
dum morati, agr^sque Reniorum depopulati, omnibus vicis asdificiis- 
que, quos 6 adire poterant. iDcensis, ad castra Coesaris omnibus copiis . 



11. Post eum quae essent, "What was 
behind him," i.e. " his rear." This 
sentence, or its omitted antecedent, is 
objec* of reddebat. The assertion is 
referred to Csesar, and not to the 
author, who always writes as if he 
were a different person. 

12. Tuta, ^ 151, b. 

13. Commeatut is subject of posset. 

14. In altera parte fluminis, i.e. on the 
south bank of the river, away from 
the enemy. 

15. Pedum duodecim, §182, limits vallo, 
while duodeviginti pedum limits fossa. 

VI. 1. Millia, §153. 

2. Sustentatum est is impersonal. 

3. Gallorum eadem, &c, "The follow- 
ing is the (manner of) beseiging.both 
of the Gauls and Germans;" literally, 
v The same beseiging of the Gauls 



ni:d Germans is as follows." These 
genitives are subjective. 

4. Moznibus is remote object of circum- 
jecta, §172. 

5. Defensoribus, §160. 
Nulli, §14*. 

Summa nobilitate et gratia se. vir. 
Legati, §130, 2. 

9. Nisi — submittatur, f 197. ■ 

VII. 1. Iisdem ducibus usus, "Using 
the same persons as guides." Duci- 
bus is in apposition with iisdem. 

2. Nitncii is predicate nominative, lim» 
itiog venerant. 

3. Subsidio, §141. 

4. Remis, §141 ; hostibus, §163. 

5. Potiundi oppidi, §177, Rem,. 4. 

6. Quos takes the gender of vicos. 

7. Ab millibus passuum minus duobus, 
" Less than two miles off." Duobus 



LfBKR SECUNDU8. 61 

contencrerunt, et ab'ruillibus passuum minus duobus 7 castra posue- 
runt, quze castra, ut 8 funio atque ignibus signiflcabatur, amplius 
millibus 9 passuum VE[[ in latitudinenv patebant. 

VIII. Onpwar priuio et propter niultitudineru hostium et propter 
exiraiam opinionem virtuti.v proelio 2 supersedere statuit; q.uotidir 
tainen equestribus proeliis, quid' -5 bostis virtute posset, 4 et quid nostri 
audorent,* periclitabatur. Ubi nost'ros non esse inferioree intellexit. 
loco pro cast ris ad aciem instruendani? natura opportuno atque 
idoneo, (quod isVttlis, ubi" castra posita erant, paululum ex plani- 
tie editus, tantum'j&veraus in latitudinem patebat, 8 quantum loci 
ftoies instructs ooeupare poterat, atque ex utraque parte lateris 1 " de- 
lectus babebat, et in frontetn leniter fastigatus paulatim ad planitiem 
redibat), ab utroque latere 11 collis transversam fossam obduxit 

circiter passuum CD, 1 -' r ad extremas 13 fossas castella constituit, 
ibique torihenta collocavit, ne, quum aciom instruxisset, bostee, quod 
tantuni multitudine potcrant, 1 ' ab lateribus pugnantes suos circum- 
venire possent. 15 Hoc facto, duabus legion ibus, quas proximo con- 
scripserat, in casUis relictis, ut, si qua opus esset, subsidio duci pos- 
sent, 1 '"' reliquas sex legioncs pro castris in acie constituit. Hostes 
item suas oJBfe ex eastrb? eductas instruxerant. 



IX. • PaJu- erat non magna inter nostrum atque bostium exerci- 
tum. Hanc si nostri transirent, hostes exspectabant ■} nostri autem, 



may agree wmi Vnillibus, §165, Rem 

4 ; or it m>*y be the complement of 

rniriux. 
S. Ut, "As;" §Jl!,Ex. (e.) 
'J. Millibus, 8165. 

• 
VIII. 1. Eximi .m opinionem virtutis, 

•■Their extraordinary reputation for 

valor." 
•2. Proelio, §lfi*. 
:;. Quid. 516tV«#m. 3. 



iiiom requires that loci be translated 
if it limited tanlum. 

10. Ex utraque parte lateris=ex utro- 
que latere. 

11. Ab utroque latero, "On both sides. : ' 
1-. Cireiterpas-uum quadringentorum. 

§132. Circiter is an adverb. 

13. Extremas fossas. "The ends of the 
ditches." §12S, Rem. 8. 

14. Quod tantura multitudine poterant, 
" Because they were so powerful iu 

. Posset, §214: numbers." Tantum, $160, Rem. _'.— 

. IustriHiidain, §177. Multitudine, §161. 

. Loeo-opportuno atque idoneo, "The 15. Ne hostes possent,' "That the 
ground in front of the camp being enemy might not be able." 
naturally favorable And fit for draw- 16 Ut — possent, "That, if it should he 
ing up tht line of battle;" M$Ml t Rern necessary anywhere, they might be 
1- brought up for a reinforcement, kc " 

, Ulii, "On which ;" ?12 ( J. Rem. 10. Qua is the abl. of the indefinite quit, 

T.otiiin r.dvcr-us in latitudinem pa- parte being understood. 
tebat, fa., " Extended in breadth as 

mm -li (space) forward as an army IX. 1. IIanc,&c, — exspcctabanf.'-The 
when drawn up could occupy." 7Vm- enemy wore waiting (to see) whether 
turn is an elliptical accusative ?I50.| our men would cross this (mar.-h)." 
Rc»> 3. ,' St is here interrogative; for transi- 

Loci, £131, Rem. 1. The English rent see §214. 



52 



DE BELLO GALLIC* > 



si ab illis initium trarrgeiijiM^aeret, 3 at impeditos aggrcderentuiy 
parati in armis erant. IriRim proelio equestri inter duaa acies con- 
tendebatur. 4 Ubi neutMBranseundi initium faciur.t, secntvliore 
equitum preelio 5 nostris^jilesar suos iq castra redusit. Hpsles pro- 
tinus ex eo loco ad flumen Axonain eonteiHlerwnt, quod w?c post 
nostra castra domonstratuni est. 7 Ibi vadis repertis, partem sua-, 
rum copiarum transducere conati sunt eo consilio, ut, si posseat, 2 
castellum, cui prseerat Q. Situri'us legatus, expugnafent, pontemquc 
interscinderent ; si minus potui^sent., 6 agros- Remoruwi popularen; 
tur, 9 qui magno nobis usui 10 ad bollum gerenduns 11 crane, uommeatu- 
que nostros probiberen.t. 

X. Caesar, certior factus ab Titurio, oinuem cquitatuin et levrjs 
armaturas 1 Numidas, funditores sagittxriosque pontem* transducit, 
atque ad eos contendit. Acriter in eo loco pugnatum est. Hostes 
impeditos nostri in flumine aggressi, magnum eorum numeruni oc- 
ciderunt. Per eorum corpora reliquos audacissime transire co- 
nantes multitudine telorum repulerunt ; primos, qui transierant, 
equitatu circumventos interfecerunt Hoste.-;., ubi efc de expugnando 
oppido et de flumine transeundo spem se fefellisse 4 intellexeruiitj 
neque nostros in locum iniquiorem progredi 5 pugnaodi cau<-a vide- 
runt, atque ipsoa res frumentaria deficere ccepit, condiiio convocato, 
constituerunt optimum esse domum suam quemque reverti ; 6 et^ 
quorum in fines primum Romani.fixercitum uitroduxissent. 7 ad eos 
defendendos undique convenireui ; s ut 9 pptiuWfn sujs-quam in alienis 
finibua 10 decertarent, et domesticis copiis 11 rei frutnenfcarire uteren- 
tur. Ad earn sententiam cum reiiquis causis base qu'dquc ratio eos 
deduxit, quod Divitiacum atque iEduos finibus Bellovacorum- ap- 



2. Fieret, §197, Rem. 4. 

3. Ut impeditos aggrederentur, "To at- 
tack them whi!e entangled." 

4. Oontendebatur is impersonal. 

5. Secundiore proelio, $186, Rem. 1. 



3. Per eorum corpora. " Through the 
Aidat of, &C.*' 

4. Spem se fefeliisse, "Th*t their hope 
had failed th»'m," i. e. thai they had 
been disappointed. 



6. Nostris, §142. ' |5. Neque nostros in loeuin iuiquiorem 

7. Quod — demonstratum est, "Which, progredi, &c, "And ; aw that our mtE 
it has been shown, -was behind our 1 did not advance, tr." 

camp." Quod is subject of esse |6. Quemque reverti is grammattcali}' 

8. Si minus potuissimt, "If they should i stli^ect of optimum esse, though iftgicj 
not be able (to do this)." $197, Ran/ ally depo;ident on it 



4 ; §198. a 

9. Popularentur sc. ut, from ut expug- 
narent. 

10. Magno usui, $144, NobistimiU usui, 
$142. 

11. Gerendurn, §177. 

X. 1. Levis armatures, $132. 
2. Pontem, $152, Rem. 2. 



7. Quorum — introduxisaent, " Into 
whosever country the Romans should 
first introduce their army ;" $210, I). 
$211. Ex. (e). 

8. Convenirent, se ut. Observe thai 
the ac3. with infu.. is here iuwer- 
chMiged with a final sentence. 

9. Ut, &c. "^o as to fight, &c. 

10. Finibus, $141. 

11. Copiis, $159, Rem. 6. 



LUU'R SEOUNDUS. 



53 



propinquarecognoveiaut. Ki:s persuadjeri, 12 ut diutius morarentuv, 
neque suis auxilium ferrent, non potei 

XI. Ea re constituta, secunda vigili* magno cum strepitu ac 
tumultu eastris 1 egrchsi uullo certo ordine neque imper-io, quum sibi 
quisque priinum itineris locum peteret,' 2 et domum pervenire prop- 
eraret, fecerunt, 3 ut consimilia fugre 4 profcctio videretur. Hac re 
statim Cscsar ] cr speculatores cuguita, insidias veritus, quod, qua 
de causa disced<fte in in perspexerat, exercitum equitatum- 
quc castrin fi eontrMUt. 'Si'rima luce, confirmata re ab exploratoribus, 
omnem cquitatunfT qtijt«novissimum agmen moraretur, 7 praemisit. 
His Q. Pediutn et L Aurunciitexum Cottam legatos praefecit. T. 
Labienum legatuni cum legi^nibua tribus subsequi jussit. Hi, nov- 
issiaios adorti, et multa ruillia 8 passuuni prosecuti, magnam multitu- 
diueui eorulu fugientiiini coiiciderunt, quum ab extreme- agniine, ad 
quo-s ventum erat, consistcreijt, fortiterque impetum nostroruru mili- 
tum sustinorent ; pviorc :s quod abesse a periculo viderentur, neque 
alia necessitate neque imperio continerentur^ exaudito clamore, per- 
turbatis ordinitnis, onirics in fuga sibi presidium ponerent. ' Itasine 
ullo periculo JJMQtam eorum multitud|neni 10 nostri interfecerunt, 
quantum fui|j|Bei;spatiuin ; sub occasumque solis destiterunt, seque 
in castra, ut erat iinper:\i:nui, n receperunt. 

XII. Postridie ejus dici 1 CreaaV, prius quam se hostes ex pavore 
ac fuga reciperent, 2 in fines Suessiogum, qui proximi Eemis 3 erant, 
exercitum duxit, et, magno itinere confecto, ad oppidum Novio- 
dunum contendit. Id ex itinere oppugnare conatus, quod vacuum ab 
defensoribus esse 4 audiebat, propter latitudinem fossae murique alti- 



12. His persuadcri non poterat, §172. 
Rem. 2 



X 



1. 1. Cantris, §163. 

Qunm sibi, <£c, — peteret, "Since 
eacli one nought the foremost place 
on the march for himself." 

Feqerunt, "They caused." The 're- 
sult is expreised by ut profeciio vide- 
relur. 

Fugre, ^Wl; Rem. 3. 

Discederent, §214. 

fnstris, §166. 

Moraretur, §210, a. 
, M.llia, £153. 

Quum, <ye. What follows expresses 
the causa of the great slaughter. — 
"Since those in the extreme rear, on 
whom the cavalry first came, halted, 
and bravely withstood the attack of 
our soldiers," (thus exposing them- 
selves by their valor ;) (Wbile) 'those 



in front, because they seamed to be 
far from danger, and were not re- 
strained by any necessity or authori- 
ty — all placed their safety in flight," 
(thus exposing themselves by their 
cowardice.) Sibi is remote object of 
ponerent, which is in the same con~ 
struction with consistercnt.. 

10. Tautam eorum multitudinem, quan- 
tum, &c, " As great a multitude o\' 
them as there was daylight" (left to 
kill); literally, "how much the space 
of day was, so great a multitude of 
them did they kill." The relative 
quantum is predicate nominative after 
fuit. 

11. Ut ernt impcratum, §211, Ex. (e).- 

XII. 1. Diei, Book I, XLVII, 8. 

2. lleciperent, §206, b. 

3. R*mis, §142, Rem. 3. 

1. Vacuum esse.ac. id or oppidum. 



54 



DE BBLLO GALL1CO 



tudineni, paucis defendentibus, 5 expugnare non potuitr. Casiris 
munitis, vineas agere, quasque 6 ad oppugnanduni usuf 7 erant, coni- 
parare coepit. Interim omnis ex fuga Suessionum multitudo in 
oppidum proxinia nocte.convenit. Celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis, 
aggere jacto, turribusque constitutes, magnitudine operurn, quae ne- 
que viderant ante G-alli, neque audierant, efc celeritate Rornanorum 
permoti, legatos ad Caesareni de deditione mittunt ; et, petentibus 
Reinis, ut conservarentur, impetrant. 8 

XIII. Caesar, obsidibus acceptis, primis civitatis .atque ipsius 
Galbre regis duobus filiis, 1 armisque omnibus ex oppido traditis, in 
deditionem Suessiones accepit, exercitunique in Bellovacos ducit. 
Qui quuni 2 se suaque omnia in oppidum Bratuspantiuiu contulissent, 
atque ab eo oppido Caesar cum exercitu circiter millia passuum quin- 
que abesset, omnes majores natu, 3 ex oppido egressi, manus ad Cae- 
sarem ten3ere et voce significare coeperunt sese in ejus fidem ac po- 
testatem venire, neque contra populum Romanuni armis contendere. 
Item, quum ad oppidum accessisset, castraque ibi poneret, pueri 
mulieresque ex muro passis manibus 4 suo more pacem ab Ronianiss 
petierunt. 

XIV. Pro his Divitiacus (nam post discessum Belgarum, dimissis 
jEduorum copiis, ad eum reverterat) facit verba : ' Bellovacos omni 

'tempore 1 in fide atque amicitia civitatis iEdu^e fuisse*: impulsos a 
suis principibus. qui dicerent 3 iEduos, a Caesare in servitutem re- 
dactos, omnes indignitates contumeliasque perferre, et 4 ab iEduis 
defecisse, et populo Romano belluni intulisse. Qui^.hujus consilii 
principes fuissent, 3 quod intelligerent, quantum calamitatem eivi 
tati intulissent, 6 in Britanhiam profugisse. Petere non solum Bel * 
lovacos, sed etiam pro his iEduos, ut sua dementia ac mansuetudine 
in eos utatur. 7 Quod si fecerit, 8 iEduorum auctoritatem apud om-. 



!>. Faucis defendentibus, "Though but 

few were defending it." 
Quaeque, &c , "And to collect what 

(things,) &c." 

7. Usui, §144. 

8. Et, petentibus Remis, &c, " And, 
upon the request of the Remi that 
they should be preserved, (i. e. not 
killed or sold as slaves,) they (the 
Suessiones) obtain" that favor. 

XIII. 1. Primis, — filiis. These words 
are in apposition with obsidibus. 

2. Qui quum, "When these." 

3. Natu, $161. 

4. Passis manibus, "With outstretohed 
hands." 



5. Ab Romania, $151, Rem. 1. 

XIV. 1. Omni tempore, " At every 
time," i.e. always. 

Impulsos agrees with the subject of 
defecisse; §185, 2, a. 
Dicerent, §217. 

4. Et, "Both." 

5. Qui, "(That those) who." . 

6. Intulisseat, $214. 

7. Ut sua dementia ac mansuetudine 
in eos utatur, $159, Rem. 6. Observe 
the transition to the present. 

8. Quod sifecerit, "If he shall do this;" 
§198, a. 

9. Si qua bella inciderint, " If any 
wars have happened, they are accus- 



LIBER SECUNDUS. - 55 

ncs Belgaa amplificaturujiJ ; quorum auxiliis atque opibns, si qua 
bella incideriut, 9 isustdntare consuerint.' 

XV. Crcsar honoris Divitiaci atque iEduorum causa 'seae eos iu 
idem recepturuui et conservaturum ' dixit : sed, quod erat civitas 
magna inter Belgaa auotoritate, 1 atque hominum multitudine- prrc- 
stabat, DC obsides poposcit. His trad it is, omnibusque armis ex op- 
pido collatis, ab eo loco in fines Ambianorum perveuit, qui se sua- 
que omnia siue mora dediderunt. Koruui fines Norvii attiugebant : 
quorum de natura moribusque Cajsar quuni quaireret, sic reperie- 
)at : ' Nullum aditum es.se ad eos mercatoribus : 3 nihil pati viiii rel- 
quaruuique rerum ad luxuriam pertinentium inferri, 4 quod bis re- 
ius relanguescere aniinos eoruai, et remitti virtutein existipaarenf ; 6 
s«e 6 homines feroa magn;«que virtutis : inerepitare atque inousare 

.eliquos Belgas, qui'ae populo Romano dedidissent, patriamque 
irtutem projeci.-sent : confirmare sese ncque legatos missuros, ne- 
•uc ullam eonditienem pacis aceepturos.' 

XVI. Quum per eorum fines triduum 1 iter feciseet, inveniebat 
x captivis Sabini fluuien ab castris suis non amplius' 2 millia passuum 

■ ecein abesse : traus id flumeu omnes Nervios consedisse, adveutum- 
ue ibi Romaoorum exspectare una cum Atrebatibus et Veroman- 
uis, finitimis suis: (nam hi*-'* ut risque persuaserant, uti eandem 
elli fortunana experireutur :) exspectari etiam ab his Aduatucorum 
3pias, atque esse in itinSre : mulieres quique 4 per aitatem ad pug- 
am inutiles vide/entur, in cum locum conjecisse, quo propter pa- 

' ides exercitui adltus non esset. 5 

XVII. His rebus cognitis, exploratores cen^urionesque pramiit- 
it, qui locum idoneum castris deligant. 1 Quumque ex . dedititiis 
"elgis- reliquisque Gallis complures, Cajsarem seeuti, una inter face- 
mt, quidam ex his, ut 3 postea ex captivis cognitum est, eorum die- 
im cousuetudine itiueris nostri exercitus perspecta, 4 nocte ad Ner- 



tonied to sustain (them ;)'' i.e. "theyiXVT. 1. Triduum, §l§3. 

are accustomed to sustain whatever ti Non amplius, &c., gltfo, Rem. 4. 

■wars have befallen them.'' "Mot more than ten miles," 

J3. His, J141. 
V 1. Magna auotoritate, £104, Revi. .4. Quique, "And those who." 

1- |6. Esset, gJlO, c. Exercitui, §143. -'To 

Multitudine, §161. which, on account of *the marshes, 

Mercatoribus, J148. "That mcr-j the army had no access." 

chants had no access to them." 
Nun. paii vini, &c inferri, " That 

they perm^ttad uo wine and other 

things pertaining to luxury, to be 



XVII. 1. Deligant, $.210, a. 

2. Ex Belgis, §134, Rem. 2. 

3. Ut, 1*11, Ex.(e). 



brought among them.'' Vint, $134. 4. Eorum durum cousuetudine— per- 

Existimarent, §190. Bpecta, ■• Having observed the usual 

• «os. maich of our army during those 

Qui, "Because they ;" |210, a. days;" literally, " The custom of the 



56 



HELLO GALLIC' 



\ ioa perveneruut, atque iis denionstraruut inter singulas legiones 
uupedinientorum magnum unmerum intercedere, neque esse quid- 
quam negotii, 5 quum prima legio in castra venisset, reliqusequd le- 
giones magnum spatium abessent, hanc sub sarcinis adoriri : qua 
pulsa, impedimentisque direptis, futuTuni, ut reliquee contra consis- 
tere non auderent. Adjuvabat etiam eorum consilium, qui rem 
deferebant, quod Nervii antiquitus, quum equitatu 7 nihil 8 possent, 
ue enin; 9 ad hoe tempus ei rei student, sed, quidquid possunt, 
pede&tribus valent copiis), quo 10 facilius finitimorum equitatum, si 
praedandi causa ad eos venisset, 11 impedirent, teneris arbodbus in- 
cisis atque in-flexis, ere oris in latitudiiiem ramis enatis, et rubis 
sentibusque interjectis, efieqerant, ut instar muri hse sepes muni- 
menta proeberent - Vi quo non modp intrari, sed ne perspici quidem 
posset. 13 His rebus quum iter agminis nostri impediretur, riOi; 
;;mittendum sibi u consilium Nervii existimaveruut,. 

XVIII. t Loci natura erat baec, quern locum nostri castris delege- 
rant. Collis ab summo ajqualiter declivis ad flumen Sabim, quod 
supra nominavimus, vergebat. Ab eo flumine pari acclivitate collis 
nascebatur 1 adversus huic et c'ontrarius, passus circiter ducentos, 3 
infima apertu:?, ab superiore parte silvestris, ut non facile introrsus 
perspici posset. 4 Intra eas 'silras hostes in occulto sese contine- 
bant : in aperto loco secundum 5 flumen paucse stationes equitutn 
videbantur. Fluminis' 3 erat altitude pedum circiter trium. 



march of our army of those 'l»ys be- 
ing observed." These genitives are 
subjective, itineris liuflting consuetu- 
dinc ; czercilus limiting consuetudine 
itineris ; And dierum limiting all com- 
biued. 

5. Neque esse quidquam negotii, "And 
that it was no trouble." Negotii. 
^ 1 34, Rem. 1. The subject of esse is 
adoriri. 

6. "uturum (esse) ut reliquos &c, 
'• That it would come to pass that 

• the rest would not dare to stand 
against (them)." 

7. Equitatu, §161. 

8. Nihil, §150, J Rem 2. 

9. N-equu eniin Suy, "And indeed, to 
this day they do not attend to this 
thing (i.e. cavalry), but whatever 
force they have, consists entirely of 
infantry." Quidquid limits possunt, 
§150, Rem. 2 ; and the noun-sentence 
quidquid possunt limits valent in the 
same way : literally, "Whatever they 
are able, they aro able in infantry." 

10. Quo, §193, Rem. 3. 



11. Si — venisset, "If it should coma ;." 
§197, Rem. 4; '^198, a. 

12. Effecerant, at, — prceberent, " They 
had brought it about that these 
hedges furnished fortifications like a 
wall:" literally, "the likeness of a 
wall ." 

13. Quo non modo, &c. — posset, " Into 
which it was not only impossible to 
enter, but even to see;" — '-it not 
only could not be entered, but could 
not even be seen." With intrari, non 
must be supplied from ne quidem.- — 
The second non is omitted when the 
sentences are both negative and have 
the same predicate, the ne in such 
cases limiting both. 

14. Sibi, §145. 

XVIII. 1. Pari acclivitate collis n:tace- 
batur, "A hill of equal slope arose." 

2. Passus circiter ducentoa limits nasce- 
batur, §153. " 

3. Infima (sc. parte) apertus," Open 
below." 

i. Ut — posset, " So that it could uot 



LIBER SBCUNDtie. 



.XIX. Cresar, equitatu prsemissp, subsequebatur omnibus copiia 
sed ratio ordoqne ag minis aliter se babebat, 1 ac Belgre ad NsrYios 
detuleraut. Nam, quod ad hostes appropinquabat, conauetudine sua 
Caesar i<ex legione* expedites dueebat : post eas totitM exercitus im- 
pedimenta collocarat : iiide duns legionop, quae proximo eonscriptSE 
craat, tot 'am agmen olaadebant, pnesidioque'-" imf>edimentiH$ >°rant. 
Equites nostri, rma fuudftoribas s*g|ttari£9que fluinen 4 trana;:ressi, 
euui hostiu . equitatu proBlium com miser urit Quum ?e illi it.'cnti- 
m in silraa ad suus recipient, :»c rursus rx silva in nostroa im- 
petuiu faecreutj Deque nostri !ongiui,quam quern adfinerh 9 porrecta 
loca aperta parti uehftnr, ctden'tea inwequi aud^rent : interim legiones 
sri, quao prima veueraut, opere dimenso, o&dtra raunire cooper uut. 
Ubi prim* impedimenta uoatri exercitus ab lu>, qui in silvtd abditi 
latebant, viia sunt, ^quod tempus inter eoa oommittendi proelii con- 
veuerat' ) ita, ut 7 intra yilvas aciem ordinesque constituerant, atque 
ipsi sese confirmaverant, subito omnibus copiia provolaverunt, im- 
pe.tum/pue in nostros equites fecerunt. His "facile pulsis ae protur- 
batis, incrodibili celeritate ad fiumeu 'decuenrrerunt, ut 8 preno uno 
tempore et ad silvas ci in fiumiue et jam in manibus nostria 1' 
viderentur. Ead< leritate adverso colie' J ad nostra c? 

to en.*, quiJ'in operc ocoupaii erant, contend eruut. 

XX. Caasati 1 omnia iano tempore erant agenda: vexillura pro- 
ponenduin, quod erat insigne, quum ad anna concurri oporterefc: 2 
signum tuba djudam :' ab op *re revocandi milites : qui paulo lon- 
gius aggcris pcvMidi causa 4 proees.se rant, arccssendi : acies instru- 
enda, nulifcos cohoVtoudi, sign urn danduui : 5 quarum rerum magnam 
f-m tempons brdvitns et suecessus et incursu* hostium i 



easily be seen (»' e.one could not 6a»- 6. 
i 1 v «ef ) w i thin" (the »n.i Is). 

cunduru Ba»«'n,"Aloag tbervwr.'! 

'.. Humini*. Ac . "(The trepth) of the 

river was .% depth, of about throe 

," i.e. th« liver wu< bout turnc 

iotj). 

9. 
. A li tar le babobat.ac <vc . 

i.'Hi'ir Oth«rwU« than the Uolp;:. 
rted, Sit ,•" i e. was Jiffi 
lr.mi i"h,a iho Beigoe had reported: 
1 144. 
tntu limit - prmsidio, §142. 
■</.. I. 
Qoatn qucin i\.i finew, '■<• •• Tbau 

Uoiit to whicb Hit i pen gi 
extended ," litei :i It. "Tbau to wh»t 
uit the opiDpUoati beioj rtr«t« 

:. 



Quod teiupua — couT«!>erat. ' -1> » 
bad been agreed uion ** tbf time for 
commencing battlu,-" iiterallj,''"l! ; cl: 

■' comnanein^, 
Ita ui. ••In that war in wbi 
"just :is." 
Ut, "So thnt." 

»0 oolla, " Up the bi I 
"iliw bill b':in°. opposite 

X. . C'LVsar;, J 

Quom — oporteret t u Wb«n th^y !-li>'iil I 
run to arms;"— "Wbeu if bebo 
that it bo run v> arms " 
Si^nuiii tuba dandum, " Tbaai 
bad to Le giren with the trumpet." 
Aggerii pateodi <:h\\>\. " Fo» 

■•t of seoking (matai i ••'■' for 

nkmaai." 

rord 



66 DE BELLO OALLICO 

bat. His difficultatibus du» res erant subsidio," jcientia atque usus 
militum, quod superioribus proeliis 8 exercitati, quid fieri oporteret, 9 
non minus commode ipsi sibi prsescribere, 10 quam ab aliis doceri pot 
erant; et quod ab opere singulisque legionibus singulos legates 
Caesar discedere, 11 nisi munitis castris, 12 vetuerat. Hi propter pro- 
piaquitatem et celeritatem hostiuin nihil 13 jam Caesaris imperium 
spectabant, sed per se, quae videbantur, 14 administrabant. 

XXL Caesar, necesaariis rebus imperatis, ad cohortandos milites, 
quam in partem fors obtulit, 1 decucurrit, et ad legionem decimaai 
deTenit. Milites non longiore oratione cohortatus, quam uti sufc 
pristinsc virtutis nicnioriam retinerent, neu perturbarentur .aninio, 2 
hostiurnque impetum fortiter sustinerent, quod non longius hosies 
aberant, 3 quam quo telum adjici posset, 4 prcelii committendi signum 
dedit. Atque in alteram partem item cphortandi causa profectus, 
puguantibus occurrit. 5 Temporis tanta fnit exiguitas, hostiumque 
tarn paratus ad dimicandum animus, uk non modo ad insignia ac- 
commodanda, sed etiam ad galeas inducendas scutisque 7 tegimenta 
detrahenda tempus defuerit. Quam quisque in partem 8 ab opere 
casu devenit, quaeque prima signa conspexit, ad haec constitit, ne in 
qua^endis suis s pugnandi tempus dimitteret. 



had to b8 given." 
0. His difficultatibus, "la the midst of 
these difficulties." 

7. Subsidio, §144. 

8. Prceliis, §166. 

0.. Quid fieri oportere*,, " What ought 
to be done. " Quiil is subject of fieri, 
and quid fieri is subject of the imper- 
sonal 'oporteret ,• while the wholesen- 
tence forms the equivalent object of 
prctiscribere, sibi being the remote ob- 
ject. 

10. Praacribcre is complement of pott- 
rant understood. 

1 1. Et quod — discedere vetucrat, " And 
- because Caasar had forbidden the 
lieutenants to depart from their res- 
pective legions;" literally, "thelieu- 
tenuuts.one at a time, to depart from 
the legions one at a time." 

12. Nisi castris, munitis, " Except af- 
ter the camp had been fortified." — 
Niri'iB often used with a noun, or 
with a participial sentence, to express 
an exception. In such cases an ellip- 
sis must be supplied; — nisi discede 
rent, <Jt. 

18, Nihil, "In uorcsped," ''notat all," 



14. Quae videbantur, 
proper." 



" What seemed 



XXI. 1, Quam in partem fors obtulit, 
" lato whate^r place chance pro- 
, sented (to him);" §129, Rem. 1, a 

2. Neu perturbarentur animo. " And 
not to be disturbed in mind;" §151. 

3. Quod — abtrant limits the principal 
predicate dedit.- 

4. Quam quo telum adjici posset, "Than 
a dart's cast;" literally, "farther off 
than to what place a dart could be 
thrown," or "too far off for a dart to 
be thrown (to them). ^For subj. see 
§210, a. 

5. Pugnautibus occurrit, " He found 
* the men fighting;" literally, "he ran 

upon (men) fighting." 

6. Ut non modo ad insignia accommo* 
danda, &c.,"That time was wanting, 
not only for arranging their badges, 
but even, &c." 

7. Scutis may be either dative or abla- 
tive ; §163, Rem. 3. 

8: Quam in partem, " Into whatever 

place." 
C J. In quaerendis suis, "In hunting for 

his Own (standards.)" 






LIBBR SErUNDUS. 5^ 

XXII. Instructo ex«rcitu magis ut*T«ci natura dejectusque col 
lis et necessitas temporis, quam ut rei militaris ratio atque ordn 
postulabat, quum, 2 diyersis legiouibus, aliae alia in parte hostibus 
resisterent, sepibusque dcnsissimis, ul 3 ante deiaonMrayinius, intcr- 
jectis, prospectus impediretur : 4 neque certa subsidia collocari, 5 ne- 
(jue quid in quaque parte opus esset fi proyideri, neque ab uno omnia 
imperia administrari poterant. Itaquc in tanta rerum iniquitat- 
fortunae quoque erentus varii sequebantur. 

XXIII. Legionis nonae et decimas milites, ut 1 in sinistra parte 
acie 2 constiterant, pilis emissis, cursu ac lassitudine exanimatos vul- 
neribu.sque confectos Atrebates (nam bis ea pars obvcnerat) celeriter 
ex loco superiore in flumen compulerunt, ct transire conantes 3 inse- 
cuti gladiis magnam partem eorum impeditam interfecerunt. Ipsi 4 
transire flumen non dubitaverunt ; et, in locum iniquum progressi, 
rursus fegressos ac resistentes hostes redintegrato proclio in fugam 
dederunt. Item alia in parte diversae duae legioue*, 6 undecima et 
octava, profligatis Veromanduis, quibuscum erant oongressi, ex loco 
.superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis f>roeliabantur. At turn totis fere a 
fronte et ab sinistra parte nudatis oantris, quum in dextro cornu 
legio duodecima et non magno ab ea intervallo 7 septima constitisset, 
orones Nervii confertissimo agmine, duce Boduognato, qui summam 
imperii tenebat, ad eum locumtcontcnderunt : quorum pars aperto 
latere 8 legiones'circumvenire, pars summum castrorum locum petere 
coepit. 

XXIV. Eodom tempore equites nostri levisque nrmaturae 1 pe- 
dites, ^ui cum iis una fuerant, quos primo bostium impetu 2 pulsos 3 
dixeram, quum se in castra reciperent, adyersis hostibus oecurre- 
bant, ac rursus aliam in partem fugam petebant : ct calones, qui ab 
decumana porta ac summo jugo collis nostros victores 4 flumen trans- 
isse conspexeraut, prcedandi causa egressi, quum respexissent, et 
hostes in nostril castris yersari vidissent, praecipites fugse .^ese man- 

XXII. 1. Dt. "Ab," equivalent to quo 4. Ipti. The soldier* of the ninth an. i 
mndo. tenth legions. 

2. Quum, "Since." 6. Diversaj duae legitwes, "Twodiffer- 

3. Ut — quod, "As " ent legions." 

4. Prospectus impediretur is coord innte'G Quuin, "Since." 

with resisleret. I". Non magno ab ea intervallo, "At do 

5. Collocari and adminittrari are cnm-l great distance from it;" literally, 



plementp of potcrarM ; and wltb/>n 
idtri, poterat must be supplied. 
pus esset, {214. 



'•away from it by, &c.;" JIG8. 
8. Aperto latere, §1GG. 



XXIV. 1. Levis artiumiraj, $132. 
XXI 1 1. 1. Ut, "When." 2. I'rimo impetu may express either the 

2. Acie, §49, Rem. 2. cauge or timi. 

3. Transire conantes, the Atrelm'e-. ::. l'ulsos sc. esse. 

1. Victores limits transissc, §12H, Jlcm.ti. 



tJQ IVE HELLO GALLICO 

dabaut. Simul eoruiu, qjti cum impediments reniebant, clamor 
fremitusque oriebatur, aliiquc aliaru in pari?R! perterriti fereban- 
tur.* Qui bus omnibus rebus permoti equites Treviri, quorum ir.tci 
Gallos virtutis opinio''' est. singular's, qui auxilii causa ab ciritaU- 
mistsi ad Cajsorera venfcrant, quum T multitudine 8 bostium «R8tr& nos- 
tra compleri, legiones preini et pcnc circumveiuas teneri, calones. 
equites, fuuditores, Numidas, diverfio* dksipat'osque in omnes partef 
fugere vidissent, desperatis noetris rebus, domuui 9 contenderunt : 
Romanes pulses superatosque, castris impedinientisque 10 eorun. 
hostes potitos, civitati venunciaverunt. ' 

XXV. ■Caesar, ab docinux} legiouis cohortatione ad dextrum cornn 
profoctu;-. ubi 1 huos urgeri, siguisque in unum locum collatia duo 
decimas legiouis oonfertos militcs sibi Jpsos ad pugnam esse impedi- 
ment*) ; 2 ' quar'tre cobortis omnibus centurionibus occisis, signifero- 
que imerfeeto, siguo amisso. reliquaruru ct/hortium omnibus l'er> 
conturionibus aut vulneratis nut occisis, in bis primopilo, P. Sextii 
Baculo, fortissimo rim, multis gravibusquft vulneribus confecto, ut~ 
jam so sustinere non posset, reliquos esse tardiores ;* et uonnullos al 
novissimis deferto prcelio 5 excedere ac tela vitare ;' hostes ueque ; 
fronte ex inferiore loco subeuntes intermittere, 6 et ab utroque later 
instare ; et rem esse in augusto vidit, neque ullum esse subsidiuna 
quod submitti posset: 7 scuio ab novissimis uni niilki' deiracto- 
quod ipse eo sine scuto venern*. in prrfcw riem proeessit, centu- 

rioqibusque nominatim appellate, rer^MPewTortatus milites, Jtigmi 
inferred manipulos laxare jussit, qi; ;iiius glatdiis uti possent. 

Gujus adventu spe illata militibus, ac redintcgrato aniino, quum pr< 
se quisque in oonspeotu imperatoris ct jam in extremis -suis rebu 
operam navarc cuperet, paulum hostium impetus tardatus est. 

XXVI Ccesar quum septimam legionem, quse jqxta constiterat, 
i6«em urgeri ab hoste vidisset, tribunoa militum tnonuit,.ut paulatim 



.'.• Aiiique — fereb&ntur, "And sormi 
were running panic-striekon in one 
direction^ »nd some in another."— 
Fcrehamtur, "Were carrying them- 
selves,'' i.e. were running. 

(<. Quorum virtutis opinio, "Whose 
reputation for valor." 



~. Hibi ipsos ad pugnaru impediment-.. 
" Were themselves a hindrance t< 
tkemseives," i.e.. were in their cw ; 
war. 

3. Ut, '"So th*f." 

4. Reliquos esfe tatdiores, " That t.'i 
rest fought with less rigor.'' 



7. Quum; i he predicate is vidissent, on 5. Deserto proelio, JlbG. 

which depends caslra teneri. fyc. I(i ll<>s?f,s.ueque#-iuterinitttre, '"That 

,8. Multitudiue, §1G0. thy titetaj both did, not eease earning 

9, Domum, $ 154. up in front from the lower ground.' 

10. 'O-stris impedinientisque, #159, | Neque, — ei, "both-uot, — and.'" 
Rem. G. 7. Posset, § "2 1 0, c. 

|8. Militi, §163. Rem. 8. See XXI, 7. 
XXV. 1. Ubi, "When '.' The predicate] 9. Quo, {193, Rem 3. 
is vidil below. 



LIBER SI . 01 

sese legioncsconjnngererit, 1 et eorfPy in hostes inferrent. 

Quo facto, quuni alius alii subsHiuui . : ncque timcrenty njs 3 

a'versi? ab hoste circumvenirentur, audajjius resisterc ac fortius png- 
cocfierunt. Interim milites legioaum duarum, quae in novis- 
siuio agmine praBsidio 8 iinpedimentis fuerant, proelip nuDciato, cursu . 
iocitato, in sumrao oolle ab hostibus conspiciebantur. Et T. Labi- 
enus, castris bnstium potitus, et ox loco superiorc, quae res in ho/s- 
briscastrisgerereutur <j conspicatus, decimam legionem subsidio* nos- 
tris misit. Qn : < ijuitum ct oalonum fuga, quo in loco res 

esset, 6 quantoque in peficulo ct castra^t legioncs ct imperator versa- 
retur,'"' cognoyisscnty nihil ad deleritatcm sibi reliqui fecerunt. 8 

XXVII. Horum advcntu tanta rerum commutatio est facta, ut . 
hostri, etiato qui vulneribus confecti procubuissent, 1 scutis innixi,- 
lifiviiuiu redintegrarent; tuni calones, perterritos bostcs conspicati, 
etiam inermcs armatia occurrerent ; 3 equites vero, ut turpitudinem 4 
hvjvc virtute delerent, omnibus in locis pugnae se legionariis militi- 
bus prffiferrent.' 5 At hostefl-etiam in extrema sp'e salutis tantain 
virtutc.u prrost iterant, ut, <juum primi eoruin cccidissent, proximi 
ntibus 5 insrSterent, atque ex ooruui corporibus pugnarent ; bis 
lojt eadavcribus,qui supercssent," ut ex tumulo 7 

tela in nostrdMM^BLrent, 8 et pila intercepta rcmittereut : ut non 
ncquidquanr|BjBJ^H^rs 'homines judieari deberet 9 ausos esse 
rransire latin.-,' ij$BBBc*>ndeiv altissimas ripas, subire ini- 

quissimuin locum 1 : quS iHB syce difficillimis animi magnitudo red- 
egerat. ; " 



KXVI 1. Conjungercnt, i.e. so that' accomplished; and heuce the eub- 
oue should face to the front, and the! junctive is used in I^itin in final sen- 
ifher to t lie rear. tences expressing a result. with re/er- 

i. i.'uum — ferrent, "SMicetbey brought' once to the anterior purpose, 
aid one to another." Aliuava in part-, J. Scutis innixi, '-Supporting them- 
itive apposition »ith the subject ol| selves byraeans of (i.e. leaning up»n,) 
fervent, their shields." 

I Ne, {198, Refti. Tt. ... Occurrerent is coordinate with rcdin- 

[. Aver.si. ••In the rear. te«rarent, the conjunction being omit- 

PriBSidio, £141 ted. 

:vrcntur, J214.. 4. Pnvfcrrent is coordinate with occur- 

Qui, 'i\'2i>. Eem. 7. fount, 

i runt, "Left nothing un-|6. Jacentibus, "Those vvhohadfallen." 
done .in speed;" literally, "made] (the lying-dovrn ones.) 
nothing of remainder for swiftness." G. Qui sonercssc-nt. See 1 above. 



(XVII. 1. Qui — }>roruhuissent . The 
subjunctive is used in a relative in- 
cluded in a final sentence expressing 



Ut ex tumulo, " As if from a 
mound." 
3. Conjicerent is coordinato. with pugna- 
rent, the conjunction being omitted. 



■\ purpose, for the same reason tint 9. Ut— judieari deberet; impersonal, 
it is need in the predicatoof the final 1 homines ausos esse being subject, 
sentence, viz : because a purpose has 10. Facilia ex difficillimis redegerat, 
refwrenco to the future, and cannotl . "From (being) very difficult had ren- 
be nfatt. A result is but a purpose) dercdeasy." 
F 



ig 9 . . ■ DE jBELLO GALL1 

XXVIII. Hoc prcelio facto, et prope ad internecicneni gente ac 
nomine Nerviorum redacto, majores natu, 1 quos una cum pueris mu- 
lferibusque iaaestiiaria ac paludes collectos 2 dixeramu.vhac pugna 
nunciata, quum yictoribus nihil impeditum, victis nihil tutum arbit- 
rarentur, 3 omnium, qui supererant,. -consensu legates ad Gsesarem 
miserunt, seque ei dediderunt ; et, in commemoranda civitatia cal- 
aniitate, ex' DC ad III scnatores, ex hominum milllbus LX vix ad 
D, qui arnia ferre possent,'' sese redactos esse dixerunt. Quos C 
sar, ufc in miseros ac siipplicea usus misericordia* videretur, dili- 
gentissime conservavit, suisryie finibus atque oppidis uti jussit, et . 
finitimis imperavifc, ut ab injuria et male.fi,cio se suosque prohiberent. 

XXIX. Aduatuci, do quibus supra .-'Tipsimus,' quum omnibus 
copiis auxilio Xerviis 1 venirent, hac pugna nunciata, ex itinere do- 
mum- reverterunt ; cuftctis oppiijliscastellisque desertis, sua omnia 
in unum oppidum egregie natura munitum contulerunt. Quod 
quum 3 ex omnibus in circuitu partibus altissimaf rupes despewctus- 
que haberet, una ex parte leniter acclivfs.aditus in latitudinem non 
amplius* CC pedum relinquebatur : quern locum duplici altissimo 
muro munierant : turn 5 magni ponderi.s' ; saxa et pneaoutas trabes in 
muro collocarant. Ipsi erant ex Cimbris Tfeutonisquc prognati ; 
qui quum iter in provincial!) nostram atque Italiam facerent, lis im- 
pedimentis, qure secum agere ac portare non poterant, citra flumen 
Khenum depositis, custodiae ex suis ac pjjsesidio 7 sex millia hominum 
una reliquerunt. Hi post eorum obitum milltoaaiannos 8 a finitimis 
exagitati, quum alias bellum inferrent, alias illatum defenderent, 
eonsensu eorum omnium pace facta, hunc sibiftpmicilio 9 locum del- 

egerunt. 

§ 

XXX. Ac primo adventu 1 exercitus nostri crebras ex oppido ex- 
eursiones faeiebant, parvulisque prceliis cum nostris contendebant : 
postea, vallo pedum XII in circuitu XV millium crebrisque castel- 
Ks circummuniti, oppido 2 sese continebant. Ubi, vineis actis, aggere 



XXVIII. 1. Natu, §161. 2. Domum, §154, Rem. 1. 

$i Collectoa sc. esse. 3. Quod quum, "WbUe this." 

3. Quum — arbitrarentur, " Sine* they 4. Amplius, §165, Rem. 4. "An ap> 
supposed nothing impracticable to proach of net more than 200 feet in 



the conquerors, aotking safe to the 
conquered." Tutum and impeditum, 
$151, b. 
4. Usus misericordia, "To show mer^ 
cy ;" literally, "showing mercy." — 
The participle is here the complement 
of viderelur. 

XXIX. 1. Auxilio Nerviis, §144, Rem. 
1. 



width.' 

5. Turn, "In addition to this." 

6. Magni ponderis, §132. 

7. Custodise ac prcesidio, §144. 
8 Multos annos, §153. 

9. Domieilio, §144. 

XXX. 1. Adventu, §167. 
2. Oppido, §166. 



LIBER SEi «V1 

o, turrim ptocul con<"titui vidterunt, priuium irrid >\ 

), atquex inorepi'tare voiibus, quofl tnnta nxachiuatio ab i 

stitusretur; quibusnam mani quibus viribus, prae- 

ominea tantulsa statura; (nam plerumque homiuibua ( : a I i i s 4 
oorporura suorum br-evitas qi 

eris turrim in muros confiderenfcT* 

CXI. Ul appropinquare raognibus videru 

■ atqufc in ! nmoti 

] . , 

sro,.(|ui ; I o,rie8 

■■{■. ' Unui i ] 
atia ac aiansue'tudine, quam ipsi 
cons 

sibi c omncs lore finitimo sure 

u 1 , tradifis arniis,.ncm posse- 
sstare, 7 si ; u . deducorentur, quamvis fbrtunam a 

itj&aauam at) bia per cruciatum internet, inter quos 

no^|Bar respondit ; 'Sem. uetudine ! 

i murinn 
ariesatti ent; 2 sed deditionis nullam esse con 

; se id, \]uod in-Nerviis fee tcba- 

-,ndHfcperatnruni, ne quam dedititiis populi Rom mi 

•" reffj^RjCE e nuueiata ad m;o.n, ' (jr.:'o imperarentur, fa-* 

cere" dix .^^loruni magna niultitudine de muvo in fossant, 

ante '[•; -i« ut prope sum mam muri ajigcris- 

i,ue'' altitudiiieni ac$$vi armorum ada;quareut 5 et tamen circiter 

a tertia, ut^jpostea perspectum est, celata fttqile in oppido re- 

tenta, portis patet'actis, eo die pace 7 sunt usi. 

3 Qaibusndtn omnibus ae interrogans-] XXXII. 1, Merita is ;\ causal abl. 

tea Attigisset,— dedidissent, .'Should 

(. liallis, ';! r;. touch," — ''should deliver.'' The com- 

5. Coatetngtui, J144. pletioti of the action is litre referred 

to. For subj. see §206, l> ; and gl97, 
7 Cerifideretit, g214. b. 

Nisi arm is traditis, •• Except upon 
XXXI. I. MoTeri »e. turrim. the delivery of their nruis," (their 

.'. Qui, "Because tbey ;" §210. arms being delivered). 

*. \u lircnt, 5217. I Facere, "Would do." The present 

t. " If he 'liouiJ det< r expresses the promp tries a dud cheer- 
inin.' 9J8 h fullness of their obedience. 

• ■ A T i ret is in appo itfon with 5. Aggeris, The mbond Vhieh the Ro 

"i- mans had built. 

''.. Sihi limits inimiroa. JN2. 6. Ut. "As." 

7. Sibi ]i;> >: aio, " That it wus better 7. Pace, ^150, Rtm. 6. 
:ein." 



G4 DE BELLO GALLICO 

XXXIII. Sub vesperum, Caesar portas claud?, milite.-que ex op- 
pido exire jussit, ne quam noct'u oppidani ab militibus injuriam ac- 
ciperent. 1111, ante in; atellectum c*t, consilio, 2 quod, di»d- 
itione facta, nostros pra\-iidia>d"edueturcs, aut denique indiljgeiitiuB 
servaturos 3 crediderant, partim 'cun bis, quae reiimierant et celavc- 
rant, arinis. partim scutis ex co|t8Fce factis aut viminibus intextie, 
qua? subito, ut 1 teniporis exk.uitas postulabat, pellibus induxeiiant, 
tertia vigilia, qua minim e arduus ad nostras munitiones ascens-ua 
videbetur, omnibus copiis ropento ex oppido er.uptionera feoerunt. 
Celeriter, ut 1 ante Caesar imperarat, ignibus signification*; facta, ex 
proximis castellis eo c-oincursum est, pugnatumque ab hostibus ita • 
scriter, ut 1 a viris fortibus in extrema spe salutis, iniquo loco. 5 con- 
tra eos, qui ex vallo turribtfsque tela jacerent, 6 pugnari debuit, quum 
in una virtute omnis spes salutis jeonsisteret. Decisis ad 7 hominum 
millibus quatuor, reliqui in oppidum rejecti sunt. PostridiS ejus 
diei, refractis porti^, quum 8 jam defenderet nemo, atque intromissis 
militibus nostris, sectionem ejus oppidi ui^iversam Caesar vendidit. 
Ab bis, qui emerant, capifcum humerus ad cum relatus est millium 
LIII. 

XXXIV. Eodem tempore a P. Crasso, quern cum legione una 
miserat ad Yenetos, Unellos, Osismios, Ouriosolitas, Scsuvios, Auler- 
cos, Rbedones, quce sunt inaritinice civitates, oceanumque utthigunt, 
certior factus est omnes eas civitates in m potestatemque 
populi Romani esse redactas. 

XXXV. His rebus gestis omni Gallia pacategflBbta bujus belli 
ad barbaros opinio perlata est, uti ab bis na , qua- trans 
Rbenum incolerent, 1 mitterentUr" logati ad Ccesarcm, quae se obsides 
daturas,, imperata facturas pollicerentur : 2 quas legationes Cojsar, 
quod in Italiani Iilyricumque properabat, inita proxicja testate, ad 
sc reverti jussit. Ipse in Carriutes, Andes, Turonesque, qua; civi- 
tates propinquse bis locis erant, ubi 3 bellum gesserat, k-giouibus in 
biberna deductis, in Italiam profectns est; ob easque res ex Uteris 
Caesaris dies XV 4 supplicatio decreta est, quod ante id tempus ac- 
cidit nulli. 



XXXI11. 1. Ut. "As." 

2. Consilio inito, "Having entered into 
a plot " 

3. Indiligentius servaturos (prossidia), 
"Would keep guard more carelessly 
(than usual)." 

4. Ut, "As."— <7!/o niodo, ita being the 
antecedent. 

5. Loco, §166. 

G. Qui — jacerent. The author is here 
expressing a general truth; — a sup- 



posed rather than a real case 

7. Ad is an adverb here. 

8. Quutn, "Since." • 

XXXV. 1. Quce. ir J col-:ieutf««XXVn, 
1. 

2. Qure poilicerentur. " To ■promise, 
§210. • 

3. Ubi, §l'2d. Rem. 10. 

4. Die* quipdecim, §153. 



63 




ihUbell 



I Quum in Italiam proGcisceretur Caesar, Servium Galbara cum 
legions duodecima et parte equitatus in Nantuates, Veragros Sed- 
unosque misit, qui ab finibus Allobrogum et lacu Lemanno et flu- 
mine Rhodano ad siimmas 1 Alpea pertinent. Causa mittendi fuit, 
quod iter per Alpes, quo' 2 magno cum periculo magnisque cum por- 
toriis mercatorcs ire consuerant, patefieri volebat. Huic permisit, 
si opus esse arbitraretur," uti in eis locis legionem lyemandi causa 
collocaret. Galba, secundis aliquot proeliis factis, castellisque com- 
pluribus eorum 4 expugnatis, missis ad euni undique legatis, obsidi- 
busque datis, et pace facta, donstituit cobortes duas iu Nantuatibus 
<'olloeare,et ipse 5 cum r< UqrJis ejus '■ gioms cobortibus in vico Vera- 
groruiu, qui appellator Ov!<.!iirus, hietnare : qui vicus, positus in 
valle, non magna adjtecta planitie, altissitnis -montrbus undique con- 
tinetur. Quum' bio in duas partes f umine divideretur, alteram 
partem ejus vici,$: 'essit ; alteram, vacuam 7 ab illis relictam, 

eobortibus ad km attribuit. ' Eum locum yallo fossaque 

raunivit. , . . 

II. Quum dies hibernoit m complures transissent, frumentum- 
que eo comportari jus.sissct, subito per exploratores certior factus 
©at, ex ea parte vici, quam Gallia concesserat, omnes noctu discess- 
•Use, montesque, qui impenderent, 1 a maxima multitudine Seduno- 
rum et Veragrorum teneri. Id 2 aliquot de causis acciderat, ut sub- 
ito Galli belli renovandi legionisque opprimondae 3 consilium cape- 
rent : primum, quod legionem, neque earn plenissimam, 4 detractis 



NOTES 



1. 1. Summas, J128, Rem. 8. 

2. Quo. *' Along which ;'* abl.tof place 
X. Arbitraretur, §197, Rem. 4. Opus 

e$i* is impersonal ; — "that ty was ne- 
cessary. " 
4. Complirribus castelli!" eorum, "Ma- 
ny "f their towers ;" literally, " Ma 
ny towers of them." 



7. Vacuam is predicate After relirtam. 
the two constituting one idea, ami 
agreeing with alteram. 

II. 1. Qui imptndertnt is rather the 
statement of Crassus than of the 
author. 
Id is used as an introduction to the 



i. Iptc agrees with the subject of con-\ noun-sentet.ee ut — captrent. 



ttiiuit. but limits hitmart ; "And 
himself, with ihe rest of the cohorts, 
Ac. to winter, &c." 
*. Quum, "Since." 



3. Opprimendm, §177. 

4. Neque earn plenissimam, "And that 
not a Tory full (one)." 



46 DJJ'BELLO GALLICO 

cohortibus duabus, et compluribus singillatirn, qui coefnieatus pe- 
tendi 8 causa missi erant, absentibus, 5 propter paucitatem despicic- 
bant : turn etiam, quod propter iniquitatem loci, quum ipsi ex mbu- 
tibus in vallem decurrerent, et tela conjicerenV, 6 ne primtim quidem 
posse iinpeturn suum sustirieri e^sistimabant. Accedebat, quod 7 suos 
ab se liberos abstractos obsiduni nomine dolebant.; et Romanes non 
.solum itinerum causa, fed etiam perpetute possessions culmina Al- 
pium occupare conari, et ea loca finitimce provincial adjungere, sibi 
persuasum habebant. 8 

III. His nunciis acceptis, Galba, quum neque opus hibernorum 
munitiocesque plene essient perfects, neque de frumento reliquoque 
commeatu satis esset provisum, quod, deditione facta obsidibusque 
acceptis, nihil de bello timendum 1 . existimaverat, consilio celeriter 
convocato, sente/atias exquirere ccepit. Quo in consilio, quum tan- 
turn repentini periculi prjeter opinionem aceidisset, sk jam omnia 
fere superiora loca muliitudinc 2 armatorum completa 3 eonspiceren- 
tur, neque subsidio veniri, 4 neque comineatas supportari interclu^is 
itineribus possent, 5 prope jam desperata salute, nonnullse hujusmodi 
?ententise dicebantur, ut, impedimentis relictis, eruptione facta, iis- 
dem itineribus, quibus eo pervenissent, ad ,-alutem contenderent. 
Majori tamen parti placuit, hoc reservato ad externum consilio,, in- 
terim rei eventum experiri, et eastra defend ere. 

IV. Brevi spatio interjecto, vix ut 1 his rg|us, 2 quas constituis- 
sent, 3 collocandis atque administrandis tempus daretur, hostes ex 
omnibus partibus, signo dato, decurrere, la"pides grcsaque in vallum 
conjicere : 4 nostri primo integris viribus 5 fortiteJ repugn are, 4 neque 
ullum frustra telum ex loco superiore mit^e.** ut e quoeque pars 



5. Detractis duabus cohortibus et com- 
pluribus absent.ib.us. These sentences 
limit despibiebant The legion was not 
full at lirst, and after two cohorts 
had been -withdrawn, it was of course 
still weaker. 

6. Decurrerent, — conjicerent, " Would 
run down, — would throw." 

7. Quod, " That," 'introduces a noun- 
sentence, subject of accedebat. 

8. Sibi persuasum habebant, "Deemed 
it certain;" literally, "had it as a 
thing persuaded to themselves." 



4. Neque subsidio venhi (posset), "And 
it could neither be come (to them) 
for aid,'' i.e. aid could not be brought 
to them. Subsidio, §144. 

5. Commeatus possent. Observe the close 
connection of the personal with the 
impersonal construction. All these 
sentences are causal, coordinate with 
quum accidisset. , 



IV. 1. Ut, "So that;" Viz limits da 
reiur. 

2. Rebus collocandis, &c, §144 

3. Quas constituissent, See Book II, 
III. 1. Timendum (esse), "Thatnothj XXVII, 1 

ing was to be feared concerning 4. Decurrere, — conjicere, &c, §175. 
war," i.e. that there was no danger 5. .lutegris viribus, " While their 



of war. 
2. Multitudine, £160. 
o. Completa is predicate nominative. 



strength was fresh .-" §13t>, Htm. 1. 
6. Ut, "As." 



UHKK T 



H 



orum nudata defens'itibu.s' prqj , e< occurrcre* et 

auxiliiiin fei ri >uperari,*quocixli!iturnitate pugna? liostes 

defessi proslio 9 excedfebarit, alii intcgris \ lribus succedebant : qua rum 
r.erum 1 " a nostras propter paucitatem Cgri nihil potcrat; ac non 
mono 11 defesso ex | :cedendi, ?ed Wo saucit) quidem ejus loci, 

ubi 1 - constiterat, relinqu »ndi ac »ui recipiendl 18 faoulflig dabatur. 

V. Quumjam amplius horis ses eontinentef pugntrretur, ae iion 
solum vires sed etiatii tela nostril deticcrvtit, atque bostes aoriue in- 
sjtarent, languiditmfousquc nostris, 1 vallum scindere of fossas com- 
plere ccepissent, jtesque esset jam ad ex t rem urn perducta easum, P. 
Sextius Ba ulu\ primipili centurio, quem Nervieo proedio complnri- 
bus confeotuin 2 vulneribus diximus, el item C. Volflsenus, trihuaus 
militum, \ silii magni ct uirtutis,* ftd (Jalbain iicc.urrurit. at- 
que unam m salutis docenf, si, eruptione facta, e%tremum 
ajuxilium experirentur 4 Ii:;que, contocatis ftenturionibus, celeriter 
ijiiiites cerfioies' facit, pauUlber intermitterent 13 procliuui, ae tan- 
tummodo tela mis.- ue ex labore refieerent : post. 
dato sign atque omueni spem salutis in vir- 
tute ponen 

VI. Quod ■jusJHfeHr.it, fa ei unt ; ac subito omnib'u.s portis 1 erup- 
tion e fact ndi, quid fieret,- nequo sui collicemdi 3 
hostibus faeuTOteiu atiinquuut Ita commutata fortuna, eos, qui in 
spem potiundo: e.ui call Erorumi venerant, undique ei renin ventos inter- 
ficiuut ; et ex hominum millibus amplius triginta, quem' numeruHi 
barbarorum ad casfra venissc constabat, plus 5 tenia parte intcrfecta, 
reliquos perterntoRn fugam c'Onjiciunt, ac ne in loeis quidem super- 
ioribus const.- lftntur. Sit', omnibus bostium eopiis fusis 
artnisque 6 exutis, ¥6 in castra Wuhitiouesque sua:- recipiunt. Quo 
prcclio facto, ■ piua foituuain tentare Galba uidebat, atque 

"■ I,rl '• 'li» is limited by mu^noe, which 

161. ; be supplied from magni abotc. 

'.). Proelk), §163. | si experir*ntur, •• If they s-hould 

10. Rrrum limits ttikil ; ''.''•■<. try,-"|l9T, Re 

11. Non tnodo is eoAtralent to non moth 5. Certiotes, §161, b. • 

i, the secawt non being emitted as 6. Intermitfermt depends on the verb 
the complementary sentence etntains of commanding implied in certiorcs 
» negative, fatto; §1*J3. Rei 

13. Cbi, }>89, Rtm. 

tirecipiendi, "Of recovering him 



Hell'. 

V. 1. Lanyuidiorihus fi>stris, 

' 1,) expresses the canse of vol- 
linn icindrrr et fottot comptert. 

nfectum, tc. esse ; the subject is 
autm. 



VI I. Forti* f|lH8,)Tlniit8 trvptione. 

'1. Fieret. §21 1. 
3. Sui colligendi, 91:7, lUm. 3. 
1. Pottaadtaim enstrorum, gl77, Jfan. 
4. 

5. AmpliuB.flkip, {if..",. Km. 4. 
6 Amis, ; 



''* 



L>K BELLO GALLIC*) 



alio sese in hibcrna eonsilio veuissu meminerat, aliis occurrisse rebus 
viderat, 7 maxime frumentij$Dmmeatusque inbpia permotus, postero 
die omnibus ejus viei icdificiis incensis, in provinciam reverti con - 
tendit: ac, nullo hoste prohibente, aut iter deinorante, incolumem 
legionem in Nantuates, inde in Allobrogas perduxit, ibique hiemavit. 

VII. His rebus gestis, quum 1 omnibus de causis Caesar pacatam 
Gralliam existimaret; superatis, Belgis, expulsis G-ermanis, victis in 
Alpibus Sedunis, atque ita' J inita bieme in Illyricum profectus esset, 
quod eas quoque nationes adire et regiones cognoscere volebat, sub- 
itum bellu u in Gallia coortum est. Ejus belli hfec fuit causa. P. 
Crassus adolescen? cum leg'ioue septima proximus mare Oceanum" 
in Andibus hieuiarat. Is, quod in his locis inopia frumenti erat, 
prscfectos tribunosqae militum complures in finitimas civitates fru- 
menti comment-usque petendi causa dimisit : quo in numero erat T. 
Terrasidius, missus in Unellos, M. Trebius Gallus in Curiosfllitas, 
Q. Velanius cum T. Silio in Venetos. 

VIII. Hujus civitatis est longe amplissima auctoritas omnis one 
maritime 1 regionum earum, quod et naves habent Veneti plurimas, 
quibus 2 in Britanniam navigare consuerunt, et'scientia atque usu" i 

• nauticarum rerum reliquos antecedunt, et in magno impetu maris 
atque aperto, 4 paucis portibus interjectis, quos tenent ipsi,. omnes 
fere, qui eo mari 5 uti consuerunt, habent vectigales. 6 Ab lis fuit 
initium retinendi 7 Silii atque Velanii, quod per eos suos se obsides, 
quos Crasso dedissent, recujperaturos existimabant Horum auctor- 
itate finitimi adducti, (ut s sunt Gallorum subita et, repentina con- 
cilia) eadem de causa Trebium Terrasidiumque retinent ; et, celeri- 
ter missis legatis, per suos principes inter se conjurant nihil nisi 
■.-omnium eonsilio acturos, 9 eundetaque omnes fortunae exitum esse 

7. Atque alio sese — viderat, f'And (be-IVIII. 1. Omni* orce maritimos, §134, in 
cause) he remembered that he had] equivalent to auclaritatum o.mnium 
gone into winter quarters with onel civitatum in ora maritima,a,nd though 
purpose, (and) had s^en that he had not strictly logical, is preferable to so 

> met with other events;" i.e. that he| long and awkward an expression, 
had expected one thing when he went 
into winter quarters, but a very dif- 
ferent thing had happened. 

VII. 1. Quum, "Although.' 

2. Atque ita, " And so," i.e. with this 
belief: a stronger expression than 
itaque. Esset profectus is coordinate 
with txistimaret. 

i. Marc Oceanum, §14'J, Rem. 4. — 
Oceanum is in apposition with mart. 
and distinguishes it from mart nos- 
trum, u the Mediterranean." 



2. Quibus, " In which," or " with 
which." 

3. Scient ; a atque usu, *§1G1. 

4. In magno impetu maris atque aper 
to=in impetuosissimo mari atque 
apertiesimo, "In a very violent and 
very open sea." 

5. Mari, §159, Rem. 6. 

6. Vectigales habent, " They hold as 
tributaries ; §151, b. 

7. Retinendi agrees with the neareBt 
noun. 

8. Ut, "Since." 

9. Nihil — acturos, "That they will do 



iJi'.U ITU • °1 

turos : ndiquasque civitates sollic»av^tut in ca libertatc, quam a 

■ perunty 1 ' pcrmaiiert', 1 ' quWR Ilomanoruni servitutem 

i iVrre mallont. Omni ora maritime 1 - Renter ad suam sentcn- 

tiam peroucta, coD(un.unem legationem atl I' Crassum mittunt, 'si 

ilit sues recipere, obsides sibi r< mittat.' 

IX. Quibus de rebu* Caspar ab Crasso certior faotus, quod ipse 
berat longius, 1 naves iuteriui longns aedificari in fiuminc Li 
quod influit in Ocean um, relnig^p ex provincia institui, nautas gu'- 
aatoresqae cotnparafi jubkt ' His rebus ccteriler administratis, 

is . (pium primunr' per anni tempus potnit, ad excrc.itum conten- 
it. Veneti, reliquoeque item civitates, cogtoito Ca^aris adyentu, 
muj quod, quantum in se Pa ious admisisBent, 3 intelligebantj (l'e- 
ifcos. 4 quod uomen ad omnes na mctum iuviolatumqiie sem- 

•r fuisset, retcntoa ab so et in conjectos) pro magnitudine 

■ ticuli belluin pa rare, et to ax i me ea, nure ad usirm navium perti- 
entj providere instituunt ; boc majore spe, quod multum natura 
ci confid bant. Ped< i se itinera coneisa testuuriis, navigafcio- 

im propter inscientiam loeoruin paucitatemque por tu- 
rn sciebant : neque foostr iius propter frnmenti inopiam' 
ins apud fc>e »Orari ••fldebant : ae jam, ut" omnia, contra 
linionem acciactent, tarn en so plurimujn navibus posse : s Romanos 
no ullam facultatein habere lavinm, neque eornm locurnm, ubi 
om gesturi esscn,tJ? vada, portus insulasque novis.se: ae longe 
aliam esse navigatiorfem in eOtieluso maH atque iu vastissimo atque 
apertissimo t ant 10 His initis eonsiliis, oppida 
niunt, l'ruoi agris in oppida comportant, naves in \ • 
am, ubi Caesarini primum beliutu geMurum constabat, quam ] hi ■ 
ant, 11 cognnt. Socios >il;i ad id bellum Osismios, Lexovn , 

nothing ei ut " ing them into chains;" §18i, 2, c. 

i. Acaperant The i 1 1 ■ I . . omnes nationo-, "Among . 

lyitions " 
tor ft mom cm t« tbedireel I . ti. In&citntiam locorum t -sc. Komanorian. 

ItBown .'■!• i on his] a si i nitation ul dudendaui 

. r. ;. while locorum is objective. 

I Permanrre ..- eufflpletuciit of ;>kj.'- ugh." 

I- *i. ---'. § 160, Rem, 

|o, c Uesturi, . 
10. Ae. - j)er~i-i •ieti.'int, "An I 
:7. Rem. I. c early that navigation 141 a mrsou 

st^u (die Mi diterranean, | i 
1 1 . to •om 1 u&o in a vciv vast and < p. 1 • ci 

na .".t once i.e. that oavigation in a • 

lum primum 10 n very differenl thing from navi- 

'> ! _i 14. . j g if.on in the "Cenu. 

I 

p «itbn witli icelva • The boldi n l 

■ 



!)E BELLO CAUL ICO 



metes, Ambiliau>- M>'.rfeos, Diablintes, Menapios adsciscunt 
ilia ex Britannia, qucc ppntra eas regiones posita est, arcessunt 
Erant bfc difficulties belli gerendi, quas supra ostendimus' ; 
».iulta Caesarem tarnenad id bellum ineitabant: injuries 1 reten- 
un equitum Romanoruoa ; rebellio" facta, post dedition em ; defec- 
obsidibus ; tot civitatum eonjuratio ; in primis, ne, 2 hac 
• , reliqkse nd'tiones idem sibi licere 3 arbitrareutur. 
: intelligent omnea iefre Gallos novis "rebus 5 sfudere, et 
bciliim mob il iter eelexiterque excitari, pmnes autem homines' na- 
tura '■". erf; li studere t irn in servitutis odisse, prius quarii 

plures •. : : uspii i ',' partiendum sibi 7 ac latins distribu 

• 
XT Iiaque T. Labicnum legatum in Treviros, qui proximi Bheno 
flai:: cum e'quitatu mittit. Huic mandat, ' Remos feliquos- 

que Belgas ade.at, 2 'atque in officio contineat ; Grermanosque, qui 
auxilio 3 a Belgis arcessiti* dicebiiniur, si per vira navibus flumen 
transire cone. it.' I'. Crassum.cum cohortibus legion- 

ariis duodecim c- equitatus in Aquitaniam pro- 

fieisci jubet, ne ex his nationibus auxilia in Gilliam mitiantur, ac 
tant;e natidnes conju'ngantur. Q. Ti legaturn cum 

legionlbus tribus in Unellos. Curiosolitas Lexoviosque mittit, qui 
earn manum flb-cinendam curat. 5 D. Brutum adolescentem classi 
Grallieisque navibus, quas ex ^ictonibus et Santonis reliquisque pa- 
rionibus con venire JHSserat, prwfieit ; et, quum primum pos- 
■it , f ' in Venetos proficisci jubet. Ipso eo ^edestribus copii* coiitendit. 
XII. • Erant ejusmoui fere situs oppidoruin, ut, posita 1 in ex- 
tremis 2 lingnlis proui()Htoriis,que,neqne pedibus aditum haberent, 
quum ex alto se restu? ineitavisser, quod" bis'accldit semper horarum 
XII spatio, 4 neque navibus, 5 quod, f urs.u.s minuente sestu, naves in 



X. .1. Injuria:, <y<* This and the fol- 
lowing nouns aje in apposition with 
mul la 

:'- Ne — arbilrarentttr. The purpose ox 
pressed in this noun -sentence may be 
in apposition with mul a, or th 
rence may. depend on metus > 
fcood. 

cere is here person!, aii'd idiih is 
subjec* 
'4. Quum, " since." 

bus, §141. 
ij. ConspirUrent, 3206, b. It was C;e- 
sar's purpose to prevent any farther 
conspiracy. 
7. Sibi. 1 145. 

XI. 1. Fiumini, gl42, JH«n. 3 



2. Adeat, §198, Rem. 6. 

:•!. .\uxilio" ^144. 

4. Arcessiti, sc. esse. An example of 
the personal construction : the ini 
person. .1 would be quos arcessiios di- 
tebaiur. 

5.- Qui — caret, "To see that that fore; 
was kept apart;" literally/'toatlend 
to keeping apart that force." 

6. l'pssit. §210, c. 

XII. 1. Posita.-sc ea «>r oppida. 

2. Extremis, g 128, Rem. 8. 

3. Quod, the flowing of the tide. 

4. Spaiio, §153, Note. 

f>. Neque navibus is the complement of 
neque pedibus. 



, LIBKil TEUTftS-* 

Tadifl affilctarentur. 8 Ita utraque n J] igtiatio im; 

Lebatur; ac, si quaudo magnitudine >rte superati, csti 

niari 7 aggere ac molibus, atqne his ferntS i ppi ua- 

tis, suis fortunis 9 desperare cocpcrant, magno numero navium up- ' 
tiuleo, cujus rci sum mam facultatcm ha'be.1 deport&baut om- 

nia, seque in proximafyppida recipieb dem op- 

portunitatilnts loci defendebant. IT: 1 ilius^magoam parti 

sestatis faciebant, quod nostras »us detinebanti 

gummaque era! vastp atqtie aperto inari, 1 - 1 maj idub, raris ac 

prope nullia portibus, difficultas na.vigan.di, 

XIII. Namque ipsorum naves ad hunc moduna faotro : rmataeque 
erant. Carina aliquanto 1 planioree, quail tavium, 2 quo 

facilius vada ac deoessuin aatua excipere possent: pro r 93 a/lmoduin- 
erecta\ atque item puppes,ad magnifeudinem : ' empestatum- 

que accommodate : naves totre f; quamvis viub ei 

contutneliam perferendam : transtra pcdalibua in latitudinem trabi- 
bus 3 eonfixa clavis ferreis, d*tgi i pollicis erassitudine : ( ancorro, pro 
funibus, ferreis c::tcnis revi'netae : pcl!es n pro velis, alutscque temii- 
ter confectaj, sive propter lini inbpiam atque ejus ift is insciont •: 
sive eo, 6 quod est magis verisimi] . mpestatea Ooeanij 

tantosque impetus ventorum sustintfri, ao tauta onera navium 8 regi 
veils non sati.- rbitrabantur. Cum his navil 

trffi clasgi 9 tfjusinoCB congressus erat, ut"ana\'celei;itate ct pulsti re- 
morum proestaret ; j^liqua, pro loci naturn, pro Yr tempestatum, illis 
essent aptiora et accommodatiora : ncque enim his 11 nostras rostro 
uocere poteraut; tanta in eis erat firmitudo : neque propter altitu- 
dineui facile telum adjiciebatur ; et eadem de causa minus incom- 
mode 1 - copulis continebantur. Accedebat, ut, quum sa;vire ventu.s 



0. Affliptarentur, vWould be da>hed'iixj §104. 

pieces ;" ^ 1 97. c, Rem, 12, b. |4 Digiti pollicis crassitudine, §164. 

7. Extruso mari. "When the sea hid Rem. -. 

been kept out." 6 Pelles tc. iis erant, "They had nw 

S. Meenibus limits adcequatis, §141 hides." 

9. St/is f^rtum*, dativus incommodi, ■ *_» _ Eo. "For this re 

£142. 7. Quod est magis verisimile. The un- 

lit. Eo facilius, "The more easily:" tecedent is the causal sentence fol- 
lowing 
U. Vasto atque aperto mari, &e , — 8. Tant* onera Murium — naves tanti 

These and the following ablatives arel oneris. 

ablatives absolute. '•'. ''lassi, §143. 

'10. Una agrees with erlcritatr, bat liin- 
Kill. 1. Aliquanto, J 168. Observe the its both celcritate and pultv; "Aloi 

omission of erant with planiores ; al- 11. Big, {142. 

so throughout the chapter. 1 12. Incommode, i.e. to themseh 

2. Nostrarum navium, tc carina?. the copula had but little effect on 

3. Transtra pedalibus trabibus/bencb-' them, by reason of their height, 
es consisting of beams a foot square:'' 



i<i: hello gallico 

. et s 1 vtMito f lOf 1 I s pir ; (■,'•"' et. tempi-statem fervent facilius, et 
in vadis consisterenfc tiftiusj et, ah aestu derelietac, nihil 14 saxa et 
cautes timerent : quarum ferum. omnium nostris navibus 15 casus 
erant extimescendu 

XIV. Oompluribus cxpugimtis oppidi?, Caesar nb! intellexll 
frustra tanturu laborem sumi, aequo hostium fugam captis oppidi.- 
reprinii, neque his noceri posse, 1 statuit exspcctaridam classem. 
Qua; ubi convenit. ac pfimum ab hostibus visa est, circiter CCXX 
naves eorum paratissimse atque emni genere armoru'm ornatissiinae. 
profeetaj ex portu, nostris adversaa constiterunt : neque satis Bruto, 
qui classi praeerar, vel tribunis militum centurionibusque, quibm 
singula.* naves erant atjtributa), eonstabat, quid | agerent, 2 aut quam 
rationem pugn.x insisterent. Rostro enim noceri non posse 1 cogno- 
verant ; turribus autem excitatip*? tamen has altitude puppiuui ex 
barbaris navibus superabat, ut neque ex infericrc loco satis corn* 
mode tela adjiei possent, et missa ab Ga'llisgraviusacciderent. Una 
eraf magno usui 4 res pneparata 5 a nostris, falces prrcacutie, inseftaj 
affixaeque longuriis, non absimili forma ruuraliu'm falcium. 6 His 
quum funes, qui antennas a-i malos destinabant, compr'ehensi adduc- 
tique erant, navigio remis incitato, prajrumpebantui ' Quibus ab • 
scissis, antennae necessario concidebanf. ut, quum omnia Gf-allicis 
navibus" spes in vciis annajueutisque eonsbteret, his ereptis, omnis 
asus navium uno tempore enperetur Reliqunm erat certamen pos- 
itum in virtut.e, qua no.-t.ri mi lites facile supefaban*, atque eo ma- 
gi?, 8 quod in couspectu Cfflsaris atque omnis exereitus res gerebatur, 
ut nullum paulo 8 fortius factum latere posset: onirics enim colics 
ac loca superiora, unde erat propioquus despectus in mare,' ab ex- 
ercitu tenebantur. 

XV. Dejectis, ut diximus, an tennis, quum singulas binae ac 
teniae naves circumsteterant, militt>s sum ma vrtranscendere in hos- 
tium naves contendebant. Quod postquam barbari fieri animadver- 
terunt, expugnati3 compluribus navibus, quum ei rei 1 nullum reperi- 
retur auxilium, fuga salutem peters ebntenderunt, ac jam conversis 



13. Et dedkisml is co-ordinate -with: pven *ft*r toy efrs' had* been raided''- 
quum cwpisset, while the following |4. Usui, §144 

sentences are final, introduced by'a#. 15. P-rarparAtk limits rts. -Which hud 

14. Nihil, §155. prepared beibrehatKl." Falc^k 

15. Navibus, $146. pramcutcc is in apposition with res. 

fi. Wurulivin falcium limits forma- un- 
XIV. 1. Neque, his noceri posse, "Audi derstodd "Of a shape i.not unlilie 4h«- 
that ho harm could be ftotte to (belli ;" shape of wall hooks." 
literally, "that it could not be hurt 7. Navihos, ^ 1 47. 
to these." His, §142. |8. Eo -uwgis, •• The more," |1G8. 

2. Quid agerenl, "What to do;'' |2l4J 

3. Turribus autem excitatis, "And'XY. 1 Ei rei limits avxilvim. 2142. 



LIBER TERTI 

1 earn partem navibus, quo- ventus ferebat, tonta subito malacia ac 
rauquillitas exstitit. ut se ex loco niovere non possent. Qua) qui- 
viem res ad negotium conficieiidum maxime fuit opportuna : nam 
ingulas nostri oonsectati cxpugnaverunt, ul 3 perpaucas ex omni 
timero noctis interventu ad terrain pervenerint, quum 4 ab bora fere 
quart* usque ad solis occasum pugnaretur. 

XVI. QittO pfoelio bellum Venetorum totiusque ora> maritime 

Fecturd est. Nam. quum 1 omnis inventus, omnes etiam gravioris 

:otatis, in quibus aliquid consiliv 2 aut dignitatis fuit, co convene- 

rant ; tum,na,vium quod ubique fuerat, 3 unum in locum coegerant : 

luibus amisais, reliqui, neque quo sc reciperent, ueque quemadmo- 

lum oppida defeudereut, habebaut.' 1 Itaquc se suaque omnia CaJ- 

>ari dedideruut. In quos eo gravius* Coesar vindicandum statuit, 

(mi diligentius 5 in reliquum tempu» a barbaris jus legatorum con- 

^ervaretur. Itaque, omni senatu r.ecato, rcliquos sub corona vendidit 

XV IT. Dum hneo in Ve»'etis geruutur, Q. Titurius Sabinus cum 
is copiis, quas a Oa^sarc acoeperat, in fines Unellorum pervenit. His 
prccerat Viridovix, ac summam imperii tenebat earum omnium civi- 
tatutu, qua; defceerant, ex quibus excreitum magnasque ccpias coe- 
iierat. Atque his paueffl di'ebus 1 Aulerei Eburovices Lexoviique, 
•senatu suo interfecto, quod auctores belli esse nolebanfc, portasclaus- 
erunt, sequc cum Yiridovice conjunxerunt ; magnaque praiterea 
multitudo undiqi^cex Gallia perditorum bominum latronumque con- 
venerant, quos spes praidandi studiumque bellandi ab agriculturaet 
quotidiano labore revocabat. Sabinus idoneo omnibus rebus 2 loco 
castris 3 scse tenebat, quum 4 Viridovix contr* eum duuni millium 
spatio 5 c -insedisset, quotidieque productis copils pugnandi' potesta- 
tem faceret ; ut jam non solum hostibus in contemptionem Sabinus 
veniret, sed etiam nostrorum militum vocibus nonnibil" carperetur: 
taotamquc opiuiouem timoris pnubuit, ut jam ad vallum castrorum 



10, $129, Rim. )(j. ,5. Eo gravius, " The more suverelv ;" 

■ ;. It, "So thai." {168. 

4. Quum,' "Although." . 6. Quo dillgentius, §193, Rem. 3» 

XVI. 1. Quum — turn, "Not only — Hut XVII. 1. His paucis diebus, "Within 

also tho-e few days ;" i.«. since the arri- 

ilii, ? I'U val «f Sabinus. 

:!. Nimuin quod ukique l'uerat,"What-,2. Omnibus rebus, " In all respects ;' 

cTcr of ships had been eTerywhcre; M | §161. 

t. e. all the bhips they had every- 3. ('astris, J166. 

win rr. t Quum, "Although. 1 

A. Reliqui — habebant, " The rest had 

neither a place of retreat, nor means 

of defending their towns;" literally, 

" whither they mi^ht retreat, &c." 

{214. |7. Nonnihil, {155. 



5. Spatio, §163. 

6. Hoitibus is object of tho compound 
verbal expression in conlemf 
rtniret. 



DE BELLO GALLICO 



hostes accedere auderent. Id ea de causa faciebat, quod cum tanta 
multitudinc hostium, pra^sertim eo absente, qui sumraam imperii 
teneret, s nisi aequo lofeo, aut opportunitate aliqua data, legato dimi- 
candum 9 non existimabat. 

XVIII. Hac confirmata opinione timoris, idoneum quendam 
hominem et callidum delegit, Galium, ex his, quos. auxiiii causa se- 
cum habebat. 'Huic magnis praemiis pollicitationibusque persuadet, 
uti ad hostes transeat; et, quid fieri velit, 1 edocet. Qui ubi pro 
perfuga ad eos venit, timorem Romauorum proponit ;•' quibus an- 
gustiis ipse Caesar a Venetis prematur,' 2 docet : < neque longius ab- 
esse, quin proxima nocte Sabinus clam ex castris excrcitum edu- 
cat, 3 et ad Cffisarem auxiiii ferendi. ouxsa proficiscatur.' Quod ubi 
auditum est, conclainant omues occasionem negotii bene gereiul: 
amittendam non. esse, ad castra iri oportere. 4 Multaeresad hoc con- 
silium Gallos hortabantur : superiorum dierum Sabini cunctatio, 5 
perfugae confirmatio, inopia cibariorum, cui rei parum diligentee ab, 
iis erat provisum, spes Venetici belli, et quod fere libenter homines 
id, quod volunt, creduni. ITis rebus adducti, non prius Viridovi- 
cem reliquosque duces ex concilio dimittunt, quam ab his sit con- 
cessum, 6 arma uti capiant, et ad castra coirteti'dant. Qua re con- 
cessa, laeti, up explorata victoria, 7 sarmentis virgultisque collectis, 
quibus fossas Romanorum compleant, 6 ad castra pergunt. 

XIX. Locus erat castrorum editus, et paulatim ab imo acclivis. 
circiter passus milld. 1 Hue magno oursu conteriiderunt, ut quam 
minimum" 2 spatii 3 ad se colligendos arhiandosque Romanis daretur, 
exanimatique pervenerunt. Sabinus,, suos hortatus, cupientibus 4 
signuni dat. Impeditis hostibus propter <g£, quae ferebant, onera, 
subito duabus portis 5 eruptionem fieri jubet. Factum est opportuni- 



8. Teneret, §210, c 

9. Dimicandum (esse), §178. 

XVIII. 1. Quid is subject of fieri, and 
quid fieri the equivalent object of 
velil. For the subjunctive, pee §214. 

2. Prematur, §214. 

3. Neque lougius (Sabiuum) abesse &c. 
"That at no later period than the next 
night, Sabinus will lead out &c." — 
Literally, "That (Sabinus) is not far- 
ther than the next night from leading 
(but that Sabinus will lead) out the 
army, &c." Compare the expression 
minime abfuit quin interficeretur, "he 
was very near being elain." The su- 
perlative proxima here has its usual 
position, — in the dependent rather 
than the principal sentence. Com- 
pare §129, Rem. 6. , 



4. Iri oportere, "That it behooved that 
it be gone;" i.e. "that they ought to 
go." Iri is subject of oportere, both 
being impersonal. 

5. Superiorum dierum Sabini cuncta- 
tio, " Sabinus's delay on former 
Jays " Both subjective genitive?. 

6. Priusquam sit concessum, §206, b. 

7. Ut explorata victoria, " As if the 
victory were already gained:" liter- 
ally, "'the victory, as it were, being 
certain." 

8. Compleant. §2l0, a. 

XIX. 1. Passus mille, §153. 

2. Quam minimum, "As little as possi- 
. ble;" §203, Rem. 1. 

3. Spatii, §134. 

4. Cupientibu?, "Eager (for thought)." 

5. Portis, §163.' 



LLUER TERTIU8. 74 

tate loci, hostium ipjcientfa kc defntigatione, virtute militum, su- 
pcriornm pugnaruin exercitatione, ut ne unuin quidem nostrorum 
impetum ferrent*, a.0 statim terga verterent. Qims impeditos inte- 
gris viribus milites nostri consecuti, magnum mimerum eorum occi- 
derunt ; reliquos equites consectati, paucos, qui ex fuga evaserant, 
reliqiierunt. Sic uno tempore et de nayali pugna Sabinus et de 
Sabini victoria Caesar certior factus : civitatesque omnes se statim 
Tlturio dediderunt. Nam, ut" ad bclla suscipienda Gallorum alacer 
ac promptus est animus, sic mollis ac minime resistcns 8 ad calami 
rates perf'erendas mens eornm est. 

XX. Eodem fere tempore P. Crassus, quuui in Aquitaniam pei- 
isset, qure par.-, ut' ante dictum est,' et regionum latitudine et 
multitudifrtS* homiuum ex tcrtia parte Galliae 3 est oestimanda, opium 4 . 
intclliger'et in bis locis sibi bellum gerendum, ubi 5 paucis ante an- 
nis 6 L. Valerias Prseconinus legatus, exercitu pulso, interfectus es- 
set, 7 atque unde 6 L. Mauilins proconsul, impediments amissis, pro'- 
fugisset, 7 non medic-cn liligen^'ani a<~.hibi>ndam intelligebat . 

Itaque, re' i'rumcntf*ia provisa, auxii 's equitatuque comparato, s 
multis | iiMfcfortii a, Oarcasonc et Narbone, 9 qun 

sunt civitates GalliR provincial, fiuifcinue bis regionibus, hominatifn 
eTocatis, in Sojfiktium tines cxercitum introduxit. Cujus adventu 
nito, Sotiateftma'giiis copiis coactis equitat uq.ue, quo 1 " pluri- 
mutn 11 valeban.yftn itinere agmen nostrum adorti, primum equesfcre 
prcelium cominis'brunt : deiode, equitatu suo pulso, atque insequen- 
ribus nostfis, sufeito pi :opias, quas in eonvalle ex insidiis 

collocaverant, ostujiderjnt. Hi, nostros disjectos adorti, prcelium 
renovaverunt. 

! XL. Pu. . -L diu atque acriter, quinn 1 Sotiates, superi- 

nribus victoriia 2 freti, in sua virtute totius Aquitania) salutem pos- 

itam putarent; nostri autem, quid sine imperatore et sine reliquis 

Icgionibus, adolcscentiil%duce, :; efficere possent, 4 perspici cupereut : l 

— - 

ieltqvoe is tho object of conxectuti. — | here mentioncl ocoured in the war 
Observe its emphatic posiffnii. of Sertorius ; see XXIII 

T. I i ••Ac." Tin.- anuc-'i'iit - tie. 7. Inter fee tue e*sot profugisset, . 
?. Minim* reeistena, " Very irreso c 
hue" . 8. Cotnp&rato, §128, Rem, 2. 

,9 ne, N.-ii tmric. \ 168. 

XX . I Ut, $211 Ex (<■). tfcno, |161. 

■ miiiiiiinlnw. §161. M Plurimiini. (160, lltm 3. 

\.k ipiti» parte Galli.c=tcrii» para 1 

»x (iallia. XXI 1. Quum. "Since." 

i Quaoi, ' 12. Victortte, eaoMl abl 

o. Ubi, unde. J129. Rem. 10. |3. Adolescentulo <luce, Jl^J. Aim 1. 

• I'»uci* anto aniii-. "A few years 4 Possent, £214 

2. The events 5. Perspici capertot, "Wire <>>ger f< 



» 



76 DE BELLO GALL1CO 

I 
tandem confecti vulneribus hostes jterga v'e.rtere.. Quorum maguo 
numero interfecto, Crassus ex itinere oppidjim Sotiatium oppugnare 
coepit. Quibus fortite'r resistentibua, vineas turresque egit Illi. 
alias eruptione tentata, alias cunieulis ad aggerem vineasque aotis. 
(cujus rei 6 sunt longe peritissimi Aquitani, propterea quod multis 
locis 7 apud eos nerarioe secturoe sunt), ubi diligentia nostrorum nihil 
his rebus profici posse 8 intellexerunt, legatos nd Crassum mittunt. 
seque in deditionem ut recipiat, petunt. Qua re impetrata, arma 
tradere jussi, faciunt. 

XXII. Atque in ea re omnium nostrorum intentis animis, alia 
ex parte oppidi Adcantuannus, qui summam imperii teuebat, cuuj 
sexcentis devotis, quos illi Soldurios 1 appellant, (quorum hrec est 
conditio, uti omnibus in yita commodis 2 una cum his fruantur, quo- 
rum se amicitiac dediderint ; 3 si quid iis per vim accidat, aut 'eun- 
dem casum una feran* - , aut sibi mortem consciscant : neque adhue 
hominum memoria repertus est quisquam, qui, eo interfecto, cujus 
se aniicitiae devovisset, 4 mori recusaret), 4 cuin iis 5 Adcantuannus, 
eruptionem facere conatus, clamore ab ea parte munitionis sublato, 
quum ad arma milites concurrissent, vebementerque ibi pugnatum 
esset, repulsus in oppidum, tauten uti eadem deditiouis conditione 
uteretur, a Crasso impetravit. 

XXIII. Armis obsidibusque acceptis, Cras.sus in fines Vocatium 
et Tarusatium profectus est. Turn vero barbari commoti, 1 quod op- 
pidum, et natura loci et manu mumtum, paucis diebua, quibus eo 
ventum erat, 2 expugnatum cognoverant, legatos quoquover^us dimit- 
tere, conjurare, obsides inter sedarc, co.pias parare cceperunt. Mit- 
tuntur etiam ad eas civitates legati, qujc sunt citerioris Hispaniae, 8 
finitimae Aquitania? : 4 inde auxilia ducesque arcessuntur. Quorum 
adventu 5 magna cum auctoritate et magna cum hominum multitu- 

. dine bellum gerere conantur. Duces vero ii deliguntur, qui una 
cum Q. Sertorio 6 omnes annos fuerant, summamque scientiam rei 
militaris habere exLstiniabantur. Hi consuetudine populi Roman i 

it to be see* what, &o." The noun-|5. Cum Ut, repeated from cur?i sexcenti-t 

sentence quid possent is subject of thej dtvotis. 

impersonal pertpici, though logically' 

dependent upon it. IXXIII. 1. Commoti, "Alarmed." 

6. Rei, §120, a. 2. Quibus eo ventum erat (a Crasso). 

7. Locis, ^ 1 1>(3. "Alter Crassus had come." {167, 

8. Nihil profici posse, "That no ad- Rem, 2, c. 

Tance could be made:" (that it could p. Citerioris Hispanito, sc. civitates ; 

be advanctd as to nothing; §15»). •! §133. ' 

|4. Aquitanias, {142, Bern. 3. 
XXII. 1. Soldurios, {151, b. S, Advent*. {167. 

2. Commodis, §159, Item. 6. 6. "Q. Sertorio. Quintus Sertorius, a 

;;. Dediderint, §210, b. partizan of Marius, fled to Spain 

4. Devovisset, recusaret, {2 10, b. when Sulla gained the ascande»cy at 



LIBER TERTIU.S. ,77 

loca capere, castramuuirc, connaeatibus 7 riostros intercludere iustit- 
uuut. Quod ubi s Crassus auimadvertit suas copias propter exigui- 
tatem nou facile diduei, liostem et vagari et vias obsidere et castris 
satis prsesidii 9 relinquere, ob earn causam minus commode frumen- 
tum commeaturaque sibi sunportari, in dies hostium numeruui au- 
•reri ; nou ounctandum 1 ' 1 -existimavit, quin pugna decertaret. llac 
re ad consilium delata, ubi onirics idem seritire intcllexit, poslerum 
diem pagnae const ituit. 

XXIV, Prima luce, productis omnibus copiis, duplici acie in- 
stituta, auxiliis in mediam 1 aciem conjectis, quid hostes consilii' 2 
ca-pdrent, 3 exspectabat. Illi, exsi propter multitudinem ct veterem 
belli gloriam paucitatemque nostrorum se tuto dimicaturos existi- 
mabant, tamcu tutius esse arbitrabantur, obsessis viis, commeatu 
intercluso, sine ullo vulnere victoria potiri ; et, si propter inopiam 
rei frumcntariaD Ilomaci sese recipere ooepissent, 4 impeditc's in ag- 
mine et sub sarciais, infcriorea annuo, adoriri cogitabant. 5 Hoc 
co nail to probato ab ducibus, productis Romanorum copiis, sese cas- 
tris tenebaat. llac re perspecta, Crassus, quum sua cunctatione at- 
que opinione timidiores hostes uostros milites alacriores ad pugnan- 
dum effecisseut,'' atque pmnium voces audirentur, exspectari diutius 
nun ojjortcre," quin adcaslra iretw, cobortatus suos, omnibus cupi- 
entibus, ad hostium castfa contendit. 

XXV. Ibi quum alii i'ossas complerent, alii multis telis conjec- 
tis defensorcs vallo munitionibusque 1 depellerent, auxiliaresque, 
juibus ad pugnam non lnultum- Crassus cotifidebat, lapidibus telis- 

quc subminjstraridis* ct ad aggerem 4 cespitibus comportandis spe- 

, j. , j , __ 

Rome, and though defeated and driv- |5. Cogitabant, " They intended." 

en from the country I !ufen-j6. Quum sua cunctatioue atque opin- 

ants of Sulla he retimed, d^n-artd ione (tiinoris), timidiores hostes nos- 



• 



and Blew bis anto^onidk, aa 

Itimsolf, by his wisdom and 
generalship. Against the whole power 
of the Sullan party, till he was 



tros milites, &c, '• When, by their 
own delay and the impression of fear 
(produced upou our men), the too 
timid enemy had made ourmen,&c.' 



assassinated by l'crpenna, B.C. 72. 7. Exspectari diutius non oportere,&c. 

imeatfcus, §163. "That they ought no longer to hesi- 

8. Quod ubi, "Bat when;"}]! 2&, 2£em. I tat e to go to the camp :" ("that it 

19. did not behoove thai it be waited 

V. Pnesidii, §134. longer from going to the camp.") — 

U>. Non cunctandatn, &c.,"IIo thought The infinitive sentence ' depends on 

that he ought tin; to hesitate to (but the vtrbum dicendi implied in voce 

thai he should) contend in battle.'' audirentur. 



■31 



- 



XXV. 1. Vallo munitionibusque, gl'>3 
XXIV 1. Mediam, gl28, Rtm,, 8. m. 3. 

-ilii, §134. 3. Lapidibus telitque '-ubministrandi.-. 

'■'>. Capcrcnt, §214 §177; abl. of manner. 

I. C " Should begin," §197,4. Ad aggtrem, The enemy's rampart, 

Rem. 1 ; §198, (a). not a mound built by the attacking 

g2 



DE BELLO GALL1C0 



ciem atque opinionem pugmntiumpraeberent, quuni item ab hostibus 
constanter ac non timide pugnaretur, telaque ex loco superiore ruissa 
non frustra acciderent; equites, circuniitis bostium castris, Crasso 
renunciaverunt, 'non eaflem esse diligentia ab decumana porta 5 cas- 
tra munita^facilemqueraditum habere.' 

XXVI. Crassus, equitum praefectos cohortatus, ut magnis pras- 
miis pollicitationibusque suos excitarent, quid fieri velit, 1 ostendit 
Illi, ut 2 erat imperatum, eductis quatuor, cohortibus, quae, praesidio 
castris 3 relictae, intritae ab labore erant, et, longiore itinere circuin- 
ductis, ne ex bostium castris conspici possent, omnium oculis men- 
tibusque ad pugnam intentis, celeriter ad eas, quas diximus muni' 
tiones pervenarunt ; atque, his prorutis, prius in bostium castris 
consttterunt, quam plane ab iis videri, aut, quid rei gereretur, cog- 

# nosci posset. 4 Turn vero, clamore ab ea parte audito, nostri redin- 
tegratis viribus, quod 5 plerumque in spe victoriaa accidere consue- 
vit, acrius impugnare copperunt. Hostes undique circumventi, de- 
speratis omnibus rebus, se per munitiones dejicere, et firga salutem 
petere intenderunt. Quos equitatus apertissimis campis consecta- 
tus, ex millium quinquaginta numero, quae , ex Aquitania Cantabris- 
que convenisse constabat, vix quarta parte relicta, multa nocte se 
in castra recepit. 

XXVII. Hac audita pugna, maxima pars Aquitania; 1 sese Crasso 
dedidk, obsidesque ultro niiait : quo in numero fuerunt Tarbelli, 
Bigerriones, Preciani, Vocates, Tarusates, Elusates, Garites, Au.^ci, 
Garumni, Sibuzates, Cocosates. Paucae ultimas nationes, anni tem- 
pore 2 connsae, quod hiems suberat, boc facere negleserunt 

XXVIII. Eodem fere tempore Caesar, ejtsi pro|)e exacta jam aestas 
crat, tamen, quod, omni Gallia. 1 pacata, Morini Menapiique supere- 

• rant, qui in armis essent, neque ad eum unquai: legatos de pace 
raisissent, 2 arbitratus id bellum celeriter confici posse, eo exercitum 



party. This was done only in a reg- 
ular siege. 
5. Ab decumarta porta, "On the side of 
the decuman gate." 

XXVI. 1. Quid fieri velit, §214. Quid 

is subject of fieri. 
•1. Ut, §211, Ex. (e). 
8. Praesidio castris, $144, Rem. 1. — 

Both datives are retained in the pas 

sive. 
4. Prius quam— posset, §206, b, (2).— 

Cognosci and videri are complements 

of posset. Rei, §134, Gereretur, §214. 
•5. Quod, "Which thing," — antecedent 

implied in redintegratit viribus. 



6. Multa nocte, sc. consumpta. 

XXVII 1. Aquilaniaz, by metonomy 
for the states of Aquitania. 

2. Tempore^ causal ablative ; a dative 
df advantage' is also used with con- 
fido. 

XXVIII. 1. Omni Gallja, "All the rest 
of Gaul." As the Morini and Mena- 
pii formed but a small part of Gaul, 
Caesar speaks as if the whole had 
been subdued. 

2. Essent, mississent, contendissent, 
§210, c. 



LIBER QUAUTUS. 79 

adduxit ■ : qui longe alia ratione, ac reliquijjalh,* bellum agere in- 
stituerunt. Nam quod intelligebant maximas nationes, qua) pfroolio 
eontendi«sent, pulsad superatasque esse, continentesque silvas ac pa- 
ludes babebant, eo sesuaque omnia contulertfat. Ad quarum ini- 
tium silvarum quum Crcsav pervenisset, eastrVjue munire instituis- 
set, neque bostis interim vi-us esse f , dispersis in opere nosTris, sub- 
ito ex omnibus partibus silvae evolaverunt/et in nostros impetum 
fee runt. Noatri eeleriter arma ceperunt. eosque in silvaa repule- 
rui.t ; et, coropluribus inter i'eetis, longius impedilioribus, loci.s sc- 
euti, 4 paueos ex suis deperdiuerunt. 

XXIX. Reliquis deincepn dicbu^ Csosar silvas credere instituit ; 
et, ne quia inermibus imprudentibusque 1 niilitibus ab latere impe- 
tus fieri posset, omnem earn niateriam, quffi erat ceesa, eonversam ad 
bostem collccabat, et pro vallo ad utrnmque latus exstruebat,. Tn- 
credibili celeritate magno spatio paucis diebus eonfecto. quum jam 
pecus atque cxtrema impedimenta ab nostris tenerentur, ipsi densi- 
ores ailvas peterent, ejusmodi tempestates sunt con secutEe, uti opus 
necessjirio intermitteretur ; et .contiuuatione imbrium diutius sub 
pellibus- milites continei i mm posscnt. Itaque, vastatis omnibus 
eorum agrii, vicis rediriciuque iucen.'is, Cassar exercitum reduxit; 
etin Aulercis Lcxovirfque, reliquis item civitatibue, quae proximo 
bcllum fecerant, in bibernis collocavit. 



DE BELXO GALLIGO 
f fclBER IV. 

I. Ea, qu;e secuta est. bieme, qui fuit annus Cn. Pompeio, M. 
Crasso consulibus, 1 Usipetes Qermani et item Tencbtbori magna cum 
multitudine honjinum fluruen Rhenum transierunt, non bmge a 

::. Longe nlia ratione ac reliqui Galli XXIX 1. Inermibus imprudeutibus 



In a far different maimer from Un- 
rest of the Gauls ;" ^"in a manner 
far other than the rest of the Gnu's 



ijiir, '• When unarmed uud ofl' their 
guard 
Sub pcliibu* The winter quarters of 



carrie 1 on war. i the Itoraans consisted of log huts, 

4 V Longius impeditiorihus locis secuti. usually Lhatohed with straw. Tbe 

"Having pursued too far. where tbe tenia used in 9 u mater were made of 

ground was more obstructed;" |186 leather or raw hid<*. 
j.'tm. 1 . 

N O T E 8 . 

1. 1. Cn. Pompeio, M.CraifO coTuultbu* "The jear when CneilM Pompey 

. limits annus, — a rare construction.— and Mai is were consuls." 



80 



DE iJELLO GALLlCO 



is belli <interniittitur. Sed 

neque longius anuo T re- 

tr Neque multum frumen- 

pecore vivunt, multumque 



•■ ;ri, quo Riienus iuihiit.'- Causa tiauseundi fuit, quod ab Suevis 
oomplurcs ar.nOvS exagitati bello premebantur, et agricultural pro- 
hibebantur. Suevoxuin gens est b;ag.i maxima et bellicosissirna 
iianorum omniirat <-. III centum pagos habere dicuutur, ex qui- 
bus quotannis Miigula.afilia- 1 armatorum bellandi causa ex Ambus* 
educunt. ©lleliqui, qujpomi ma:ise^int,° se atque illos alunt. Hi 
rursus inviceru ann i anuiajjfcut ;' illi domi remanent. Sio 

neque agricultura, nee vajjio atqufl 
privati ac separati agri^apud eoj nj 
: e uih) in loco incolendi 
ed maximam partem 5 lacte ao 
sunt in venationibus : quce res" 10 ct eibi genere .et quotidiana exerci- 
tatione et libertate vitie (quod, apueris nullo- officio aut disciplina 
:i£suefacti, nihil omnino contra volunbatem i'aciant,) et vires alit, et 
hmna!'.i corporum magnitudine 11 homines efficit. Atque in earn 12 se 
eonsuetudinem ad&uxerunt, ut locis frigidissimis neque vestitus 13 
prseter pelles habeant quidquam, (quaruin propter exiguitatem rnag- 
ua est corporis pars aperta), et lavenlur 14 in tluminibus. 

II. Mercatoribus est ad eos aditus magis eo, ut qusa bello eepe- 
rint. 1 quibus vendant,' 2 habeant, quam quo 3 uliam rem ad se irnpor- 
tari d;esiderent: quin etiam jutnentis, 4 quibus maxime Gallia 5 de- 
iectatur, quteque impenso paran Germani, importatis hi non 

utuntur : T sed, quee s sunt a; parva atque deforniia, bisec 9 

quotidiana exeroitatione, summi ut jdarc laboris, efficiunt. 10 Eques- 
tribus procliis 11 saepe ex equis desiliunt, ac pedibus 12 prceliautur, 
equosque eodem remanere vestigio assuefaciun^; ad quos se celeriter, 



2. Quo Khenus influit, "Into which the 
Rhine Hows." 

3. Agricultura, §103. 

4. Ex quibus ningu'a millia'' " From 
each of which they leada thousand." 

5. Manserint, §210, b. 

6. Affri limits nihil; §134. 

7. Anno, §165. 

8. Fruineuto, abiativo of means. 

9. Maximam partem, sc. victus, §150, 
Hem. ~. 

10. Quse res, i.e. their manner of living. 

11. Innaani corporum maguitudiue, — 
'•Of huge sfize of body ;" §164. 

12. Earn. "Such." 

13. Vestitus limits quidquam, §134 

14. Laveutur, "Wash themselves." 

II. 1. Qua? bello ceperint, "What they 
have taken in war," §210, b; object 
of vendant. - I 

2. Quibus vendant, §2 10, a; object of I 



habeant. The English order is Ut 
habeant quibus vendant quce bello cepe- 
rint. 

3. Quo— quod, "Because." 

4. Jumentis, §159, Rem. 6. 

5. Gallia, by metonomy for Oalli. 

6. Pretio, §162. 

7 Importatis hi noa utuntur, " These 
do not import ;" ("do not use being 
imported.") 

8. Quae, "What ones." Observe the 
emphatic position both of relative 
and antecedent. 

9. Ha3c, '' These ;" object of tfficiunt. 

10. Summi ut siut laboris efficiunt, — 
"They cause to be (horses) of the 
greatest labor ;" i.e. they make ca- 
pable of undergoing the greatest 

' labor. 

11. Proeliis, §167. 

12. Pedibus, §166. 



LIBER QUAHTUdE 61 



ijuuin usus est, recipiun! : nei|ue eurum lugjFibusJP turpius quidi^uani 
Rut iiiertius habetur, quam epfcippiis uti. ^Ltaqfle ad queuivis uume- 
rum ephippiatorum equitum qutimvis pauflgadir'e audent. Vibuin 
ad se omiiino iraportari noti sinunt, quod n| re ad laborom feren- 
duui retnollescert homines atqtif efiVminai i arbitrantur. 

III. Publics 1 maximam putaat esse laudem quam latissime? a 
suis finibus vacare agro.s : had re big n idea r$ 3 magnum nunierum eivi- 
tatlum suam vim sustiuere run posse. Itaque una ex parte a Sue- 
vis circiter mil Ire 4 passuum DC asrri vacare di'eJbntnr. Ad alteram 
partem succedunt Ubii, 5 querum i'uit eivitas ampla atque florens, 
ut 6 c«t captus Germannrutn, et paulo, quam sunt ejusdein generis, 
et ceteris humauioresy propter** quod Rheuuui atltingunt, mub 
tumque ad eos oieruatores ven'iitaut, et ipsi propter propiuquitatem 
G-allicis sunt moribus assuefacii. Hoi quuui s Suevi, niultis ssepe 
bellis experti, propter amplitudinem gravitateuique civitatid fini- 
bus 9 expellere non potuissent, tamen vectigales sibi fecerunt, 10 ac 
multo humiliores iufirmioresquc redegerunt. 

IV. In eadem causa- fucrnnt Usipetes et Tencbtheri, quos supra 
diximus, qui coBl^ures anno* Suevorum vim sustinuerunt ; ad ex- 
tremum tamenflHfe- < litis Germaniae locis 3 trienuium 
vagati, ad Rhenm&pervoni :es regiones 4 Menapii incolebant, 
et ad utramque ri»am fluminis sgros, redificia vicoeque habebant ; 
sed tantae inultii.udiuis adiiu perterriti, ex his jodificiis, quae trans 
llumen habuerant, da$Mgraverant ; et, cis Rbenum dispositis prae- 
sidiis, Geruaanos traw^fe {tfohibebant. Illi, omnia experti, quuflj 
neque ri ■>• inopiai:. uaTiuns, ueque clam truusire 
propter cu*tndias Menapi'.Tum | . :i se in suns » t :<Jr. . 
onesqu* sitnuluverunt; si, rursus revi 

at(|Uf, ouini hoc ktiue/o u;;a uoctc equitatii* confecto, ii»siMn 
nante.sque Me rjir.t', <iui, de Gormanorum dir-eo<su 

13. IS«rum moribtt», ''Accordiug li beypud the ttkinc)." The >\t i> 

theii prbbably incorrect thai 

it Qa.'imtifl puifei, " Hewe»er few.',' both quam and « lie ablative are usi I 

wit h t lie comparative. 
111. 1. Public*, *• In the Mite." Quuid, "Although." 

ffewi 1. 'J. r'iuibas, $ I »',.;. 

8 Svjnijirari depends on pulant, 'That io Veoiigulfa Bibi fecvruui, ■• Tbej 

tributaries t<> them- 
Ilia, £153 tea." 

5 Ad i tcrntil jurteiii >i. :i. 

"The I'bians take the second place. "JIV. i. Caw 

"•Ah." lerui Compare the English, '•lathe 

El puulx, i|iinui (qui) s'u:t pjus'leui lama i . 

oetcriB titiutaniurfH, ■ .in j. \.i.-. J168. 
•ue a li tie iimre c;v:..,...l than -. jltiO. 

'U«(i80 Who i :ir» d( (In ,ii i 4. Qua 

llir r,-.-t (.if the . , it . not the - 




82 DE BELLO GALLIC' > 



per exploratores certiores facti, sine 1 ' nietu trans Rhenum in suos 
vicos remigraverant. His interfectis, navibusque eorum occupatis,, 
priusquam ea pars Menapiorum, quae citra Rbenum quieta in -suis 
aedibuserat, certior floret, 6 flumen^wansierunt, atque omnibus eorum 
aedificiis occupatis, reliq.uam partetlftiemis se eorum copiis aluerunt. 

V. His de rebus Ccesar certierfactus, et infirmitatem Gallorum 
veritus, quod sunt in consiliis capiendis' mobiles, et novis plerum- 
que rebus student, nihil bis committendum 1 existimavit. Est autem 
hoc Gallicae consuetudinis, 2 uti et viatores, etiam invitos, consistere 
cogant ; et, quod quisque eorum de quaque re audierit 3 aut cogno- 
verit, 3 quaerant, et mercatores in oppidis vulgus circumsistat, qui- 
busque ex regionibus veniant, quasque ibi res cognoverint, pronun- 
ciare cogant. His rumoribus atque auditiouibus permoti, de sum- 
mis saepe rebus consilia ineunt, quorum 4 eos- e vestigio pcenitere 5 
necesse est, quum incertis rumoribus serviant, et plerique ad volun- 
tatem eorum Acta respondeant-. 

VI. Qua consuetudine cognita, Caesar, ne graviori bello occur- 
reret, maturius, quam consuerat, ad exereitum proficiscitur. Eo 
quum venisset, ea, quro fore suspicatus erat, 1 facta cognovit, missas 
legationes ab nonnullis civitatibus ad Germanos/ invitatosque eos, 
uti ab Rheno discederent ; omniaque, quaa postulaasent, ab se fore 
parata. 2 . Qua spe adducti Germani latius jam vagabantur, et in 
fines Eburonum et Condrusorum, cmi sunt Trevirorum clientes, per- 
venerant. Principibus Galliae evocatis, Cse^g ea, quae cognoverat, 
dissimulanda sibi 3 existimavit, eorumque aniniis permulsis et con- 
firmatis, equitatuque iuiperr,.toj bellum cum Germanis gerere cOn- 
stituifc. 

VII. Re frumentaria cuthp'&rataj equitibusque delectis, iter in 
ca loca facere coepit, quibus in locis esse Germanos audiebat. A 
quibus quum paucorum dierum 1 iter abesset, legati ab bis venerunt, 
quorum base fait oratio : ' Gernianos neque priores 2 populo Romano 
bellum inferre, nequo tameu' recusare, si lacessantur, quin armis 

Fieret, §£06, b, 2. iVL 1. Qure fore suspicatus erat. The 

subject of fore is qua-. 

V. 1. Nihil his committendum, ''That,2. Omniaque, quae (Germani) postulas- 
nothinir ought tw bo "entrusted to sfnt, ab se fore parata. This de- 
thcm;".t.e. that no reliance ough^l pendson t^everbum dicendi implied in 
to be placed iu their fidelity invilatos, Quse postulassent, "Which 

t. Consuetudinis. §181, Rem. 1. "This j they should demand ;" $197, Rem. 4. 
Gallic custom."' §1 ( J8. a. 

3. Audierit, co;rnoverit„ §214. i |8. iriibi. §145. 

4. Quorum, §135, c. 

5. Eo> poeoitere. Eos is the object.' VII. 1. Paucorum dierum, §132. 
not the subject of the impersoualj2. Priores, -'First;" §65,1. 
poimlerc. 3. Quin armis contendant, "To contend 

in arms." 



LIBER QUARTUS. 83 

eontendant ; 3 quod Gerinanoruni consuetudo haec sit a majoribus - 
tradita, quicunque bellum iuferaut, 4 resistere, neque deprecari : 5 
haee tamen dicere, venisse invitos, ejectos domo. Si suam gratiam 
Roniani velint, posse eis utiles esse amicos : vel sibi agros attribu- 
ant, G vel patiantur eos tenere, quos armis possederint. Scse unia 
Suevis concedere, quibus ne dii quidem inimortales pares esse poi- 
sint : reliquuni quidem in terris esse nemineui, qiieni non superare 
possint.' 

VIII. Ad baec Caesar, qua? visum est, 1 respondit ; sed exitus fuit 
or at ion is,: 'Sibi 2 nullam cum bis amicitiam esse posse, si in Gallia 
remanerent : neque veruiu esse, qui suos fines tueri non potueriut, 3 
alienos occupare : neque ullos in Gallia vacare agros, qui dari tantai 
prsesertim rnultitudini sine injuria possint. Sed licere,* 1 si velint, 
in Ubiorum fiuibus considerc, quorum sint legati apud sc, et de 
Suevorum injuria querantur, et a se auxilium petant : boc se ab 
Ubiis impetraturum.' 

IX. Legati base se.ad suos relaturos dixerunt ; et, re deliberata, 
post diem tertium ad Coosarem reversuros : interea, ne propius se 1 
c:\j-tra moveret, petierunt. ' Xe id quidem' Caesar ' ab se imp%- 
trari posse ' diji^c coguoverat enim maguam partem equitatus ab 
iis aliquot dieJpBjtate- praodandi frumeutandique causa ad Ambi- 
varito* trans 9gosi» missami IIos exspectari equites, atque ejus 
rei causa moram inter} 

X. Mosa profluit«c'nn'iit(' Tfoecgo, qui est in finibas Lingonum. 
arte quadani ex^heno recepta, 'quae appellator Vahalis, insu- 

lam efficit Batavorum, neque longius'ab eo millibu? 1 passuum LXXX 
in Oceanum transit, lthenus autern oritur ex Lcpoutiis, qui Alpes 
incolunt, et longu spatio- per fines Nantuatium, Heivetiorum, Se- 
quanorum, Medioniatricorum, Tribueorum, Trevirorum citatus fer- 
tur ; s et, ubi Otteano appropinquat, in plures diffluit partes, multis 
ingentibusque inaulis effectis, quarumpars magna a fcrii barbaris- 
que natiouibus incolitur, ex quibus sunt, qui piscibus atque ovis 
avium vivere exietimantur, multisque.capitibus in Oceanum influit. 



4. Inferant. f. 2 1 0, b. truth, not a pnrtieular instance 

tore neque deprecari. Theai \. Licere is impersonal, contidt- 

infinitives are in apposition with con 

tuttudo. 
fl. Attribuant, "Let (the Koman«) a* 

sign them fieUs;" J217, Rem. 1. 



Its Bllbjtrt. 

IX. 1. Propios Se, (142, Sim. 4. 
2. Aliquot diebus ante, |lfl7, Bern 



VIII. 1. Quaa visum est sc. respondere, X. 1. Millibu 1 -. gl< 

subject of the impersonal visum ctt. _'. Loogo spati 
2. Sibi, \Hl. - fertur. " Carries itself (t.« 

:. l'..tucrint; g2l0, b. The relative runs) nvifily."' 

•'iit«icc here expresses a general 



S4 UE BELLI) GALL1 CO 

XI. Caesar qi^ojai ab hosto non ai&plius passuum XII millibus 1 
abesset, ut erat consVituturo, ad eiiji ' legati revertuntur : qui, in 
itinerc. congressi, mt;gnopere, ' ne .Ipngius progrederetur,' .orabant. 
Quum id non impetrassent. pctebaijfo,. ' uti ad eoscquites, qui agmeu 
ahfecesaissent, prromitterct, eosqutpjjragoa 2 pfohiberet ; sibique uti 
potestatem faceret in Ubios legatos «iittendi : quorum si principes 
ac senatus sibi jurejurando fidem fecissent, 3 oa conditione. 4 qua 5 a 
C;esare ferretur. so uiuros ostendeban't : ad has res' conficiendas sibi 
tridui spatium darcfc.' Usee omnia Caesar eodem illo pertinere 5 ar- 
bitrabatur, ut, tridui mora interposita, equites eorum, qui abes- 
sent, 6 revertcrentur : taraen ' sese non longius millibus passuum 
'quatuor aquationis causa processurum eo die' dixit: hue postero 
die quam ffequeutistimi 7 convenirent, 8 ut de eorum postulates cog- 
nosceret. Interim ad praM'ectoSj qui cum omni equitatu antecesse- 
ra'ut, mittic, qui ' nunciarent, 9 ne hostes prcclio lncescerent : et, si 
ipsi lacesjerentur, su-tineient, 1 ' quoad ipse cum exercitu propiu* 
accebsisset. 11 

XII. At hostes ubi primuiu uostros equites conspexerunt, quo- 
rum erat quinque millium numerus, quum 1 ipsi no,n amplius DCCC 
equites babercnt, quod ii, qui frutnentandi causa ierant trans' Mo- 
sam, nonduru redieranfc, nibil timentibvis nostris, quod legati eorum 
paulo ante a Cwsarc discesserant, atque is dies induciis 2 erat ab e'is 
pctitus, impefca facto, celeriter nostros pertuijbaverunt. Rursus re- ■ 
sistentibus nostris, consue/tudine sua ad pedes^desiluerunt, suffossis- 
(jue cquis, oonipluribusque nostris dejectis, reiiquos in fugam con- 
jeeerunt, atque ita perterritos egerunt, ut non prius fuga desistc- 
rent, quam in conspectum agminis nostri venissent. 3 In eo prcelio 
ex equitibus nostris interficiuntur quatuor et septuaginta : in his 
vir fortissimus,* Piso, Aquitanus, amplissinio genere 4 natus, cujus 
avus in civitato sua regnum obfinuerat, amicus ab senatu nos'tro ap- 
pellatus. Hie quum fratri intercluso ab hostibus auxilium ferret, 



XI 1. Millibus, §105. l-7. Quam frequentissimi, §203, Rem. 1. 

2. Pugnn, §163. 8 Convenient. ■' Let tiiem assemble ;"' 

i. Si — fecissent, "If the chiefs and; §217, Rem. 1. 

senate of thesu should innke a treaty ■ 9. Qui nunciarent, §210, n. 

with then* by an oath;" — "should! 10. Suslincrent depends on the verb of 

make a pledge to them:" §197, Rem.\ commanding implied in nunciarent : 

4; §138* (a). * §193, Rem. 6, 

4. Conditione, §159, Rem. 6. "Wnat-jll. Aceesstsset. §207, b. 
ever condition should be proposed; 

I >y Caesar." XII 1. Quum, '• Although." 

5. Kddem illo pertjnere, -'Tended toi2. Induciis, §144. 

the same end;", i.e had the same 3. Venisseut, §206, b. The purpose o! 
purpose in view. the horsemen is referred to 

6. Qui abessent is referred to Cuesara|4. Genere, §159, Rem 3. 
stand-point. 



LIBER QUART US. 



85 



Hum ex pericluo eripuit : ipse pquo vuluerato dejectus, quoad pot-. 
it, fortissime reslitit. Quum ipireumventus, myitis vulneribus ac- 
eptis, ceci'iissct, atque id frate&pqui jam prdclio. 5 exccaserat, prooul 
Qiraura advevtisset, incitato cqi$p :=e hostibuS- obtulit, atque inter- 
ictus est. 
XIII.. Hoc facto prcslio, Caesar ueque jam sibi 1 legatos audien- ■ 
Deque conditiones aceipiendas arbitrabatur ab his, qui per do- 
lam atque 'insidias, pctita pace, ultro bcllum intulissent : exspec- 
are- vero, dum hostium copiae nugcrentur equitatusque reyertere- 
ur, BUmmsB dementia* 3 esse judicabat ; et, cognita Gallorum infirmi- 
atc, quantum jam apud eos liostes 4 uno proclio auctoritatis 6 osseut 
onsecuti, 6 sentiebat : quibus ad consilia capienda nihil spatii dan- 
urn 7 existimabat. His constitutis rebas, et consilio cum legatis et 
[urestore commuuicato, ne 8 quern diem pugnro 9 prjetermitteret, op- 
ortuniseima res aceidit, quod postridie ejus diei mane, eadem et 
Ii:v et siiMulatione usi Germani, frequentee, omnibus principi- 
aa majoriSusque natu 10 adhibitis, ad, cum in castra venerunt ; simul, 
■t dicebatur, «ui purgandi causa, 11 quod contra atque 12 esset dic- 
lin, et ipsi petissent, 13 procliura pridie commisisseut ; simul ut, si 
uid 1 * possent, do induciis falleudo impetrarent. Quos sibi Csesav 
'os 1 '' gwisus*nIlos retineri jussit; ipse omnes oopias castris 
dux it, equitatu'm'que, quod rccenti proelio perterritum esse existi- 
labat, agmen subsequi jussit. 
XtV. Acie tripliciinstituta, et celeriter VIII millium 1 itinere 
onfeetd, prius ad hosbfrum castra pervenit, quam, quid ageretur, 2 
'ermar.i sentire possent. 3 Qui,-omnibus robus subito perterriti, e*t 
eleritttte adveutus nostri et discessu 1 suorum, neque consilii haben- 
leque 'irma carpiendi spatio da'to, perturbantur,* copiasne adver- 
iiostem educere, an castra defendere, an fuga salutem petere prae- 
t.° Quorum timor quum f'remitu et concursu significaretur, 



i. I'roelio, §1G3.. 

Kill. 1 Sibi, 5145. 
. Exsplctare is subject of ette. Auge- 

ri-nttfr, {J207. 
. Dementias, §158 
. llottee is subject. 
i Auctoritatis, J1^4. 

sent eonsecuti, {214. 
". Nihil Bpatii damlum, sc. sibi. 

Nc — prsetermitteret, "Not to let 
slip;" in apposition with consilio. 
'.'. Pugnae, " For fighting." 

10. Nam,, J1G1. 

11. Sui purgandi causa, J177, Rem. 3. 
18. Contra atque, "Otherwise than," 

"•contrary to what;" |208. 

H 



13. Petissent is coordinate with the im- 
personal esset dictum. For sub. sec 
§217.' 

14. Quid, §150, Rem. 2. " If they could 
accomplish anything." 

15. Oblatos, sc. esse. 

XIV. 1. Millium, sc. passnum. 

2. Quid ageretur, £214. 

Z. Possent, §200, b, (2). 

4. Et eeleritate et disccssu, in apposition 

with omnibus rebus. 
. r ). 1'irturb.intur, " Are in doubt." 
6. Copiasne &c. — prsesturct, "Whclhcr 

it was belter to lead out their force*, 

&c." 



86 . Dii BELLO GALLICO 

milites nostri, pristini diei perfidia incitati, in castra irruperunt. 
Quo loco, qui celeriter s$mx capere potuerunf, paulisper'no^trig re- 
stiterunt, atque inter ca'rros impedimentaque proelium cotumiserunt : 
at reliqua multitudo puerorum niulierumque (nam cum omnibus 
suis domo 7 excesserant Rhfinumque transierant) passim fugere coepit; 
ad quos cocsectandos Caesar equitatum misit. 

XV. Gerniani, post tergum clamore 1 audito, quum sups inter fici 
viderent, armis abjectis, signisque militaribus relictis, se ex castris 
ejecerunt; et, quum ad confluenteim.MosaD et Rheni pervenissent, . 
reliqua fuga desperata, 2 magno nuraero interfecto, reliqui se in flu- 
men prgecipitaverunt; atque ibi timore, las.situdiue, vi fluminis op- 
pressi perierunt. Nostri ad nnum omnes incolumes, 3 perpaucis 
vulneratis, ex tanti belli timore,, quum hostium numerus capitum 
CDXXX millium 4 fuissct, se in castra receperunt. Caegar his| quos 
in castris retinuerat, discedendi potestatem fecit: illi supplicia cru- 
piatusque G-allorum veriti, quorum agros vexaverant, remanere se 
apud eum velle dixerunt. His Casaar libertatem concessit. 

XVI. Germanico bello confecto, multis de causis Caesar statuit 
sibi Rbenum esse.transeundum : quarum ilia fuit justissima, quod, 
quum videret Germanos tarn facile impelli, ut in.Galliam venire^it, 1 
suis quoque rebus eos timere voluit, 2 quum iutelligerent et posse et 
audere populi'Rornani exercitum Rhenuin transire. Accessit etiam, 
quod ilia pars equitatus Usipetum et Tencbtherorum, quam supra 
commemoravi prsedandi frumentandique causa Mosam transisse, ne- 
que proelio interfuisse, post fugam suorum se trans Rhenum in fines 
Sigambrorum receperat, seque cum iis conjunxerat. Ad quos quum 
Cassar nuncios uiisisset, qui postularent, 3 'eos, qui sibi Galliaeque 
bellum intulissent, sibi dederent,' 4 responderunt : 'Populi Romani 
imperium Rhenum finire : si, se invito, Germanes in Galliam trans- 
ire 5 non aequum existimaret, cur sui quidquam esse imperii 6 aut 
potestatis trans Rhenum postularet ?' ; Ubii autem, qui uni ex Trans- 



7. Domo, §163. 

XV. 1. Clamore, i.e. of the women and 
children. 

2. Reliqua fuga desperata, " Having 
despaired of any farther flight ;" — 
(the rest of their flight being despair- 
ed of). 

3. Ad unum omnes incolumeSj "All 
safe to a man:'' a limitation of the 
predicate. 

4. CDXXX millium limits numerus un- 
derstood, §132; tapitum limits milli- 
um, and hostium limits capitum. 



XVI. 1. Ut yenirent, "To come.*' 

2. Suis quoque rebus eos timere voluir. 
•' He wished them to fear for their 
own condition also ;" §142. 

3. Postularent, §210, a. 

4. Dederent, §193, Rem. 6. 

5. Germanos transire is logically de- 
pendent on cvquum fssc,grammatical]y 
its subject. 

6. Sui quidquam esse imperii, gl34 — 
We would expect sibi, (§143,) but sui 
is used by a species of attraction. — 
Compare quid sui sit eonsilii. 

7. Postularet, §2 17, Rem. 5. 



UliER QUART US. 87 

* * ■ - 

lhenanis ad Cresarem liserant, amicitiam fecerant, obsides 

dederant, magneperc orabant, ' ut sibi aux^Jjum ferret, quod gravi- 
ter ab Suevis premerentur ; vol, si id t'acere occupationibus reipub- 
"Jicse prohiberetur, exercitum modo Rbenum transportaret : id' sibi 
ad auxilium ?>peim{ue reliqui tetnporis satis futuruni : tantuiu esse 
uomen atque opinionein ejus exercitus, Ariovisto palso, et hoc novis- 
simo proplio facte, etiaia ad ultimas Gcrmanorutn u&tiones, uti opin- 
io : i o et amicitia populi Romani tuti esse poasint. Navium. maguaui 
copium«id transportandum exerci'aini ruillicebantur.' 

.Vir. Ca^'u- 'lis do rausis, <{uas eoniaieiiMravi, Rbeiium trails- 
ire decrcvcrat ; sed :iavibulrtransire neque satis tutum esse arbitru- 
batar, nequ« suty, neqiie populi Romani digoitlitia 1 esse statuebat. 
Ifaque, etsi sunnua difficultas faciendi pontis proponebatur propb 
latitudiuoru, rapiditateui altitudinemque ffuininis, tameri id .sibi 
contendendum, aut alitor Don transdueendum exercitum existima- 
bat. Rationem pontis banc instituit, Tigna biua sesquipedalia,f 
paulum ab imo prseacuta, diuiensa ad altitudinem flumniis, iater- 
vallo pedum duorum inter se 4 juugebat. Ilmc quuni. macbinationi- 
bus imrnisga in Humeri defixerat, fistucisque adegerat, 5 non sublicn 
modo derecta ad pertendiculuin, sed prona ac fastigata, ut secun- 
dum naturaui flumvdis 7 procumbcrent: iis" item contraria bina, 8 ad 
eundem modum juncta, intervallo pedum qukdragemtm, ab inferiore 
parte, 9 contra impelum fluminis con versa statuebat. Hrec 

utr:.;, , insu] libus trabibus immit.is, quantum eorum 

;,:::; utrinqUc fibulis ab extrema parte 

i.iebantiu :■' qui:.ms diselusis, atque in contrariam partem re- 



\V11. 1. Dignitatis, $l3ft. "lVvtained| pendiciilnm. "Not perpendicularly* 
. LO (t «.. was 'consistent with,) neither, like a j>ile " 

h:suor the Roman people's dignity.'';?. Secundum naturam fluminis, "Down 
J Sibi, 21f5. ' stream.'* 

bin i i squfpedalia, "Pairs' of,-b. lis item contr.iria bina (tigna)-sUt- 
n fool and a half square." ihe u'ebat/'He also placed pairs (of posts) 
posteuf each pair were two*recl aparU , opposite to these." 
and their length varied according" to Ll Ab inferiore parte, "On. the lower 
the depth of the river. The up$eft side." This limits statutbat. 
row sloped down stream: and the 10. Quantum eorum tignorum junctura 
lower, up stream. The interval he dista.bat. Tl*§ antecedent of guantum 
tween the two posts was just sufii ! is contained in bipedalibut. "H»w far 
cientto Admit the cross beams, fraoa t he ]oining*of those posts was apart,'' 
f/«,whichvupported the materia i.e. "Hie distance from each other at 
, or deepen) of the bridge. wliich the posts were joined togcth- 
thwa/S and supported -r." 
the fl ,\l Hoec— distinehantur. '« Both these 

! Inter se, "From each oth«:r." » cross-beams two feet square bai 

i Fistocisque adegerat, •' vui bad been tot in from above, (which (i.e. 
driven them in with rammer^ ' two feet) wan as-inueha« the joiniog 

i !>on fcubliuce modo directs 1 i ei of those po^ts was distant,) were 



DE BELLO GALLICO 



vinctis, 12 tanta erat opens' firm itudo, atque ea 13 rerum natura, ut, 
quo 14 major vis aquas se int hoc 2 ' 1 artius illigata tenereiitur.. 

Ilase directa ruaterie injecta c^Kjteb^Bfcir, et loiiguriis cratibmque 
consterncbantur: ac tiilii'o" scents ^ubliese et 15 ad inferiorem partem 
fluminis oblique a^^ntur, .e(SB|>ro pafij& e subject vs,et cum cmni 
opere conjunct^, Tim flijnihiie _ieac'iperei™P et alite item supra pon- 
tera mediocri spatio, ut, si a.rborum trunci sive caves dejicienOi 
operis ir essent a barbaris misses, his d^mpso rib .«*» earum rerum vis 
minueretur, ncu ponti nocerent. 

XVIII. Diebus decern, quibus- materia -ccept;: erat comportari, 2 
omni opere effecto, exercitus transdueitur^ Qtesar, ad utramque 
partem pontis firmo pra3sidio relicto, in nne$$5iganibrorum conten* 
(lit. Interim a compluribus civitatibus ad eum legati veniunt, qui- 
bus pacem atque amiciciam petentibus liberaliter respondii, obsides- 
que ad se adduci jubet. At Sigambri, ex eo tempore, quo pons in- 
stitui coeptus est, fuga comparata, bortantibus iis. quos ex Tench- 
tberis atque Usipetibus apud se'habebant, finibus suih 3 excesserant, 
suaque omnia ex'portaverant, seque in solitudinem ac silvas abdide- 
rant. 

XIX. Cffisar, pauccs dies in eorum finibus moratus, omnibus 
vicis redificiisque incensis, frumentisque succisis^se in lines Ubiorum 
recepit; atque iis auxiliuni suum pollicitus,. si ab Suevis premeren- 
tur, 1 base ab iis cognovit ; Suevos, posteaquam per exploratores pon- 
tem fieri comperissent, 2 more suo concilio hahtto, riuncids it. opmes 
partes dimisisse, uti de oppidis dpinigrarent, liberos, uxores puaqii'ts 
omnia in silvas deponerpnt, atque onirics, qui arma ferre possent,'- 
unusi in locum convenire-ut : hunc esse delectum medium 3 fere regi- 
onum earum, 4 quas Suevi obtinerent: hie Romanorum adveutum 
exspectare, atque ibi-decertare constituisse. Quod ubi Caesar com- 
perit, omuibus his rebus confectis, quarum rerum causa transducere 
exercitum constituerat, ut Germanis metum injiceret, ut Sigambros 
uleisceretur, ut Ubios obsidioue'' liberaretjfcdiebus omniuo X et VIII 



kept apart by pairs of clamps at the", 
end, one on each side (xiitHnque)." 

12. Quibus diticlusis, &c. '-These being 
separated and braced' in opposite di- 
rections." 

13. Ea, "Such." 

14. Quo, hoc, nihilo, §168. 

15. Et ad inferiorem partem fluminis. 
&c, "Both obliquely down stream." 

16. Exciperent, §210, a. 

17. Dejiciendi operis, sc. causa. 

XVIII. 1. Quibus, "Within which," 



.<~2.fi. "after:" §167, Rem. 2. 

2. Ccepta erat compoi-tari. Observe 
that the verb ccspi is passive with *. 
passive infinitive as its complement. 

3. Finibus suis, $163. 

XIX. I. Premerentur 2 1 07,' Rem. 4. 

2. Comperissent, §217. 

.3. Medium is complement of detection 

esse. 
-i. Rcgioiium earum, §134. • 
5. Obsidionc, §163. 



LIBEIl QUARTUS. 



8'J 



trans Rhenutn cousump%\ .-ntis ct ad laudem et ad utilitatem pro- 
tectum aTbitratus, se in Walliain^kcpit, pontemque rescidit. 

XX. Exigua parte 3Jfl|tis n 
omiiis Gallia ad septeuj^Hflies 
in Britanniarn proficis 
lis 1 hostibus nostris ii 
tempus anni ad belluu 
fore arbitrabatur, dkfa 
isset, loofl , port ns. 



1a, Cresar, etsi in bis locis, quod 
it, maturje sunt bieuies, taiuen 
<^^HpKt omnibus fere Gallicis bel- 
'rata auxilia intelligebat : et, si 
fii'crot,- tamen magno sibi usui 3 
am adisset, 4 genus bominum pcrspex- 
<visset : quae omnia fere Gallis erant 
incognita. 2<eque cnim temcro praeter niercatores illo adit quis- 
qaam, neque iis ipsis qublquam prccter orani maritimam atque eas 
regiones, quae sunt contra Gallias, notum est. Itaque, evocatis ad 
>e undiquo meroatoribus, n.eque quanta esset 5 insula) magnitudo, ne- 
que quae aut quanta) nationes incoherent, 6 neque quern usum belli 
babercnt, aut quibus institutis utercntur, neque qui essent ad ma- 
jorum navium multitudinem 7 idone! portus, reperire" poterat. 

XXT. Ad biec cognoscenda, priusquam perlculum faceret, 1 ido- 
neuni esse arbitratus C. Volusenuni cum navi longa pra)inittit. Huie 
* niandat, uti, exploratirjinnibus rebus, ad se quaru primum 2 rever- 
tatur : ipse cum omnibus copiis in Morinos proficiscitur, quod inde 
erat brevissii&uS in Britauniam trausjectus. Hue naves undique ex 
Snitimis regionibus et quam superiorc estate ad 3 Veneticum bellum 
lecerat classem, jubejt convenire. Interim, consilio ejus cognito, et 
per niercatores perlato ad Britannos, a couipluribus ejus insula) civi- 
tatibus ad eum legati veniunt, qui polliceantur 4 obsides dare, atque 
imperio populi Rornani obteinperare. Quibus auditia, liberaliter 
pollicitus bortatusque, ut in ca sententia permanerent, eos domum 6 
remutit; et oam bis .una Commium, qucm ipse, Atrebatibus supera- 
tis, regem 7 ibi constituerat, cujus ct virtutem et consilium proba- 
bat, et quern sibi fidelem" arbitrabatur, cujusque auctoritas in iis 
regionibus magni babebatur, mittit. Iluic imperat, quas possit, 
adeat s civitates, bortettfrque, ut .populi llomani fidera sequantur, 
seque celeriter eo venturuui nunciet. Volusenus, perspectis rcgi- 



G. Proj 'return from projkio ; saa'«issub-:XXI. 1. Faceret, §206, b. 



XX. 1. Bellis, gl67. 

i. ]>-ticertt, 3197, Rem. 4. 

8. Sibi usui, §144 

4. Adi'tset, $197, Rem. 4 ; §198, a. 

.".. l-:.«s. : t, £214. 

ti. I'hinn belli, 'Skill in war." 

7. Ail ■ultitudinem, §142, Bern. 2. 

h2 



Quam primum, " As soon as po.«»i 
ble;" §203, Rem. 1. 

3. Ad, "For " 

4. Polliceautur, ^2lO. 

b. Dare, the accusative with infinitive 

ia geirarall; usfed with polliceor. 
G. Domum, §154. 

7. begem, §151, b. 

8. Adeat, §193, Rem. 6. 




onibus, quantum ei facultatisffari potuit, 9 qui navi 10 egredi ac se 
barbaris committere non auderet, 11 quinto die ad Caesarem reverti- 
tur; quseque ibi perspexisset, renunciat. 

XXII. Duin in his locis Ctesar navium parandarum causa mora- 
tur, ex magna parte Morinorum adjourn legati venerunt, qui se de 
superioris temporis cousilio excusjjfeit, 1 quod homines barbari et 
nostra} consuetudinis- imperiti beiluift. 'populo Romano fecissent," 
seque ea, qua) imperasset, 4 facturos pollicerent.ur. 5 Hoc sibi satis 
opportune Caesar accidisse arbitratiis, quod neque post tergum ho's- 
tern relinquere volebat, neque bgili gerendi propter anni tempus 
facultatem habebat, neque has taritularum rerum occupationes 6 sibi 
Britanniae" anteponendas judicabat, magnum his obsidum numermn 
imperat. Quibus adductis, eos in fidem recepit. Navibus circiter 
LXXX onerariis coactis coutractisque, quot 8 satis esse ad duas trans- 
portandas l^giones existimabat, quidquid prasterea navium louga- 
rum 9 habebat, quasstori, legatis prasfectisque distribuit. Huc.acce- 
debant XVIII onerarias naves, quas ex eo loco ab millibus passuum 
VIII 10 ven to tenebantur, quo minus in eundem portum pervenire 
possent. 11 Has equitibus distribuit ; reliquum exercituni Q. Titu- 
ri'o Sabino et L. Aurunculeio Cottre legatis, in Menapios atque in 
eos pagos Morinorum, ab quibus ad eum legati non venerant, dedu- 
cendum dedit. P. Sulpicium Rufum legatum cum eo praesidio, 
quod satis esse arbitrabatur, portum tenere jussit. 

XXIII. His constitutis rebus, nactus idoneam ad navigandum 
tempestatem, tertia«fere vigilia solvit,-equitesque in ulteriorem por- 
tum progredi et naves conscendere et se sequi jussit : a quibus quum 
id paulo tardius esset administratum,'ipse bora diei circiter quarta 
cum primis navibus Britanniani attigit, atquo ibi in omnibus colli- 
bus expositas hostium oopias armatas 1 conspexit. Cujus loci base 



'■>. Quantum ei fac tatis daripoiuit,"A* 
far as an opportunity could be given;" 
an adverbial relative fcentence, limit- 
ing perspectis. 

10. Navi, §163. 

11. Auderet, $210, a. 'Because he did 
not dare." 

XXII. ,1. Excusarent, ^210, a. 

2. Consuetudinis, $135, a. 

3. Fecistent. $190. 

4. Ea quoe imperasset, " Whatever he 
should order." 

5. PollioerentiiT is coordinate with ex- 
cusarent : "And to promise, &c." 

6. Tantularum rerum occupationes, 
"Employment in such slight matters." 



7. Sibi, $145; Britannise, $172. 

ft. Quot, •■Which number ;' : subject _of 

* ogee. 

9.; Navium longarum, $134. "Whatever 
■-■ ships of war he had besides." 

10. Ab millibus passuum octo, "Eight 
miles off;" (away by eight miles ) — 
Abl. of difference. 

11. Quo minus possent, ,v Were prevent- 
ed by the wind from being able,&c." 
Literally, " Were held by the wind 
that they might be the less able,&c." 

• $193, Rem 5. 

XXIII. 1. Expositas hostium copias 
armatas, " The forces of the enemy 
drawn up under arms." 



UUJJJft QUAKTUS. ' , 91 

erat natura ; adeo nnmtibus august i.vj mare euntinebatur, uti ex loeis 
superioribus in litus teluiu adjiei posset. Ilunc ad egrediendum 
nequaquam idoneuur ai bitratus locuiu, dum reliquro naves eo con- 
venient, 4 ad horaiu nonam in aucoris exspeetavit. Interim lepatis 
tribunisque militum eonvoeartis, ei <jh:u ex Voluseno QOgnossef, et 
qua3 fieri vellet, 5 osiendit, nionRitquc, ut rei militaris ratio, 6 max- 
inie ut maritiimv res | , v << lerem atque iDstabilem 

inotuni habereiit, ad M&itiHER teui|Kis onirics res alj ii» adtninis- 
trarentur. s His dimissis, <-t vcntum et ii'stuui uiio tempore nactus 
secmiduui, dato signo ris aneoris, circiter inillia passuuiu 

VII ab eo loco progrcssus, apertw ac piano litore naves constituit. 

XXIV. At barbari,c<tnsilio Ronianonnn cognito, prffiuiisso cqui- 
tat'u et essedariis, que plerumquc generc 1 in proeliis uti consuerunt. 
reliquis copiia subsecuti, uostros navibus 2 egredi prohibebaut. Erat 
ob has causas sum ma difficultas, quod naves propter inagnitudinem 
nisi in alto"' constitui non poterant ; militibus' autem, iguotis loeis,'' 
iuipeditis nianibus, magno etgravi armoruin oaere oppressis, 7 ,-iinul 
et de navibus desilienduin, 8 et in fluctibns con'sistendum, et cum 
bostibus erat puguanduni ! quum illi aut ex arido, aut paululu:i: in 
aquam progrossi, omnibus inembris'-' expediti, noti.ssimis b.c.i.s audac • 
ter tela coujicerent, et equos insuefactus iucitarent Quibus rebus 
nostri perterriti, atque bujus omnino generis 1 " pugnae impcriti, non 
eadem alacritate" ac studio, quo in pedestribus uti proeliia consue- 
verant, utebantur. 

XXV. Quod ubi Caesar animadvertit, naves longas, quorum et 
species erat barbaris 1 inusitatior, et motus ad usum expeditiur,- 
paulum 3 removeri ab onerariis navibus et remis incitari et ad latus 
apertuin bostium constitui, atque inde fundis, sagittis, tormentis, 



kogastis, "Coming close ilmvn to XXIV. 1. Generc, " Kind of troops ;" 

the beacb;" so as to leave *>u t it nai- §J59, Rem. 6. 

row ?pace between the water and the ~. Navibus. §103. 

cliffs. V'iS. Nisi in alio. '-Except in deep water.' 

:;. [doneom, |1*1, h :. Militibut^Uo. 

4. Convenirent, §207. ■ >. Loeis, gl66. 

">. Cognossct, -relief, §214. r, Impeditjf roanibus, §186 

ft, It rei militaris ratio postularent,"As 7. Opprestis ((185, 2, a, )■ agrees with 

the law of military affairs demanded.'' mttitibut. 

The nntecedent of ut is omnes rex ad- 8. Desilienduin. 4o., §178. 

mintttrarentur l'ostulareiit, $210, C. 9. Membris, (lfll. 
7. L't qua, " Since they," i.e. niariti- ID. Generis, (135, a. 

nmres. 11. Alooritote, {,159, Rm. 6 

tf, Vdministrarentur. §103, Rem 6 — 

"That all orders (things) should be XXV. 1. Barbaris, JH.', Rrm. 3. 

executed by them at bis commaiid >, Ad usum expeditior, " Freer for 

and at the precite time." use. 

3. Paulum, §143. 




DE BELLO GALLICO 






husto> propelli ac submaveri jussit : quse res magno usui 4 nostris 5 
lu'iL. Nam et uavium figura et reinorum motu et inusi.tato genere 
tormentorum permoti barbaric constiterunt, ac paulum 3 modo pedein 
rctulerunt. Atque nostris militibus cunetantibus, maxime,propter 
;.i'itu'linem maris, qui decicuSQ legionis aquilaru ferebat, contestatus 
. ul ea res legioni feliciter eveniret : " Desilite," inquit, "com- 
Li.iiiitoiics, nisi vultis aquilam bostibus^prodere : G ego certe meum 
reipublicai atque imperatori ofiicium prrcstitero." 7 Hoc quum mag- 
na* voce dixisset, ex navi se projecit, atque in bostes aquilam ferre 
ccopit. Turn nostri, eohortati inter se, ne tanturn dedecus ;.dmi.tte- 
retur, universi ex navi desiluerunt : bos item alii ex proximis uavi- 
uum conspexissent, subseouti hostibus appropinquarunt. 

XXVI." Puguatuui est ab utrisque acriter ; nostr.i tamen, quod 
ueque ordines servare, ueque firmifcer insistere, neque signa subse- 
qui pi.terant. atque alius alia ex navi, 1 quibuscumque signis occur- 
rerafc, se aggregabat,- magno opere perturbabantur. Hostes vero, 
r.otis omnibus vadis, ubi ex litore aliquos singulares ex navi egre- 
dientes conspexerant, incitatis equis impeditos adoriebantur : plures 
paucos circumsistebant ■: alii ab latere aperto in universos tela con- 
jiciebaut. Qaod quum auimadvertisset Csesar, scapbas longarum. 
navium, item speculatoria navigia militibus compleri jussit, et quog 
labor'antes conspexerat, iis subsidia submittebat. Nostri simul 3 in 
arido constiterunt, suis omnibus consecutis, in bostes Lmpetuni fece- 
runt, atque eos in fugam dederunt ; neque longius prosequi potue- 
runt, quod equites cursum tenere atque insufam capere non potue- 
rant. Hoc unum ad pristinam fortunam Cgesari defuit. 4 

XXVII. Hostes prcelio superati, simul atque 1 se exfuga reeepe- 
runt, statiru ad Gasareni legates de pace niiserunt : 'O.bsides datu- 
ros, quajque imperasset, 2 sese facturos' polliciti sunt. Una cum his 
legatis Commius Atrebas venit, quern 3 supra "denionstraverani a Cae 
sare in Britanniam proemissuui. ' Hunc illi 4 e navi egressum, quum 
ad eos oratoris modo imperator'is 5 inandata pei ferret, comprchende- 



4. Usui, §144. 

f>. Nostris limits usui; #142. 

G. Auuilam hostibus pro.dere. It was 
regarded by the lloniaus the greatest 
disgrace for a legion to lose its stan- 
'dards. 

7. Prsestitero, " I shall have pcrlorm- 
ed :" (i.e. if you allow the eagle to 
fall into the enemy's hands). 

XXVI. 1. Alius alia ex navi, " One 
from one ship, another from anoth- 
er." 

2. Quibuscumque signis,&c, "Attached 



himself to whatever standards he had 
met with." 

3. Simul, "As soon as." 

4. Ad pristinam fortunam C»sari de- 
fuit, " Was wanting to Caesar's pre- 
vious good fortune:" — (was wanting 
to Cseear to his former good fortune.) 

XXVII. 1. Simul atque, "Assoonas." 
2: Quteimperas8et, l, Whatever he should 
order." 

3. Quern is subject of prcemissum (esse) . 

4. Illi, i.e. Britanni: 

5. Imperatoris, i.e. Coesar. 



# 



■ W ^ L1RKK QUARTUS 93 

rant, at(|iie in vincuia o<>n ! Mm,' proelib facto, remiseruut. 

et in petenda pace ejus rei Uulpam hi multitudinem coutulevunt, et 
propter imprudentiam ut ignnsceretur^ petiverunt. Cirsar qucstus 
quod, quum ultro in contifigntem h icem ab se petift- 

Bent, bellnm sine causa ia^ttlissent^igno.^ceve imprudenti®* 5 dixit, 
cbsidesque iuaperavit : (ftrbrom illi tatim dederunt, partem, 

ex Iongiuquioribus ! us sese daturcsdixe- 

runt. Inter efcsuos remigrare runt, principesqtie undi- 

que ponvenirelet se civitat , aendare cocperunt. 

XXVIII. His rubu.s paeeoonfirmata, post diem quartum, quam 1 
est in Britanoiaui ventum, naves XV ill, de quibus supra demon- 
stratum e>t,qtia3 equitea sustuleraut, ex supe/iore pprtu leni vento- 
solveruut. Quee quum appropinqirarent Britannia et ex castris 
viderentur, tap_ta teuipestas buI , ut nulla earum cursum 
tenere posset, scd alioe eodem, undo erant proi'ectee, referrentur, alias 
ad inferiorcm partem insulse, qua est propius solis "occasum, 3 niagno 
sui cum periculo* dejicerentur : qua; tamen, 8 ancoris jactis, quum 
fluctibus complcrentur/' neCefsa'rto adversa nocte" in ahum proveet;o 

utinentcm petjerunt 

XXIX. Ej«m nocte aecidit, ut ecset luna plena ; qui dies mari- 
timos asstus maxi;.".- in 0<scam • •' '.it: rHOstrisque id 
erat incognitum. Ita uno tempore ct Irfngas naves, quibus Csesar 
exercitum transportandum •'uravcra". . ue in aridum subduxe- 
rat, jfestus comglel nerarias, quae ad arrcoras vrant deligata*, 
tempestas aiilietabat ; ncquc ulla nqstris'facultas aut administrandi, 
autauxiliandi oabatur Comjfiljuribus iiavibu." fractis, reliqua i 

*sent, funibus, a: oris rejiq.uii»qu'e armamentis amissis, ad na, . .; ■' 

3um inutiles, 1 magna, id (juod nccesse erat aecidcre,- totius c\(ic;- 

tus perturbatio facta est : ncque enim naves erant aliiv, quibus re- 

irtari pi omnia deei*ant, quae ad reficiendas eas usui 4 sunt ; 

— . _ '.j __ ■ 

6. Imprudentiea, §142. 6. Oompltrenn' ''Rcgim in he fill< d." 

7 Adveran nocte, "Thou»hili< v.'.ght 
II 1. Podi dieni quartum quam. \\-k~ unfavorable ." 

'■ , J: mi. - j 

, Rem. 1. XXIX 1 . Ad ha i 

"Since the" rc.-i 
4. M;ipno suicum periculo. Sm\- here igai] 
ot j< 'li gri nt. peril to them- J 

This 
rtur- 
inmqgno sui dim ptriculo ''(AHunij:!, ban 

ilic attempt ^ . dnngerou 'In which 

one, :" literally, tbey might 

•■their atichoi cvertht-h 197, Rem ! 

cast " . I*. I 



:>i !;:•: CELLO GALLIC ■ 

'*'■ t- 
et, quod omuibus lonstabat, hiemare in Gallia oportere, i'rumentum 
his in locis in hicinenAprovisum non orat. * 

XXX. Quibus rebus eognitis, principes Britannire, qui po3t proc- 
laim factum 1 ad ea, quae juaserat Csesar,facienda convenerant, inter 
se collocuti, quum equites ct naves et fruruentuni Romanis de^sse 
intelligerent, et panckatr^i m'ilituw ex castrorum exiguitate coguos- 

■ nt, qufce line erant etiam 2 angustiora, quod sine impediment^ 
< giones transportaverat, optimum factu es.»e duxerunt, 3 re- 
bellione facta, frumento 4 commeatuque nostros probibere et rem iii 
hieinem producere, quod, iia superatis aut reditu 4 interclusis, nenii- 
ne» postea belli inferajudi causa in Britanniam transiturum oon- 
fidebant. • 

XXXI. Itaque, rfirsus conjuratione facta, paulatim ex castris 
discedere ac suos clam ex agris deducere coeperunt. At Csesar, etsi 
nondum eorum consilia cognoverat, tanicn et ex eventu navium sua- 
rum, et ex eo, quod obsides dare intermiserant, fore id, quod acci- 
dit, suspicabatur. Itaque ad oranes casus sufesidia comparabat : 
namtt frumentum ex agris quotidie in castra conferebat, et quas 
gravissime afflictee erant naves, earum«materia atque sere ad reliquas 
reftciendas utebatur, et qua? 1 ad eas res erant usui, 2 ex continenti 
comportari jubebat. Itaque, quum id summo studio a militibus ad- 
ministraretur, duodecim navibus amissis, reliquis 3 ut navigari com- 

♦ mode posset, 4 efiecit- 

XXXII. Dum ea geruntur, legione ex consuetudine una fru- 
mentasturu missa, quae jappellabatur septima, neque ulla ad id tem- 
pus belli suspicioue intorposita, quum pars hominum in agris re- 
maiieret, pars etiaiu>in castra ventitaret, ii, qui pro portis castrorum 
in statione erant, Cassari renuneiaruut pulverem inajorem, quam 
consuetudo ferret, 1 in ea.parte videri, quam in partem legio iter 
fecisset. Cresar, id quod erat,- suspioatus aliquid novi a barbaris 
initum eonsilii, 3 cohortes, qusc in stationibus erant, secum in earn, 
partem proficisci, duas ex reliquis in, stationem succedere, reliquas 

armari 4 et confosl.iin sese subse'qui jussit. Quum paulo longius a 

bJ( '.' . 

2. Usui" §144. 

3. Reliquis, ".In, or by means of, the 
rest," . . . 

4. posset is impersonal. 

XXXII. 1. Quain consul lido ferre', — 
"Than usual;" §217- 

1. Id quod erat, "Which was the fact;" 
— in apposition with the noun-sei- 
tenoe following. 

8. Cousilii, £134, Rem.-l. 

1. Armnri, "To arm themselves." > 



•j. In lr.emem, ••Forth" winter." 

XXX. 1. Factum, gl8tf,:j, c. 
•J Btiam anguutiora, 'jEven narrower 

than asual." 

'". Optimum facta es-e rluxeriint, — 
"Thought that it was best;" literally, 
"be i i" be done," §179. b. 

•1. Fr#imenio, §163. 

XXXI. 1. Quae, ku ,' "Whatever was 
useful for t hese things." 






m 



\A\:VAi QUARTCS. «* 

castris proces.sisset, suos^aWio.-ibus pre'uii atque.a?gre sustinere et 
conferta legio'ne ex onu -tibus tela conjici atiinium advertit. 

Nam quod, ornni ex rcliijuis partibus aemesso frumento, para una 
erat reliqua, suspicati hosfes hue nostros esse venturos, rioetu in 
Bllyia delituerant: turn dispersos, depositis armis, in mqjendo oecu- 
patos subito adorti, paucis irrterfectis, retiquos ineertis ordiuibus' 1 
perturbaverant : simul equitatu atque essedis eireuindederant. 

XXXIII. Genus hoc est ex essedis pui;n;v : prime per omnos 
partes perequitant, ct tela conjiciunt, atq-jfe ipse terrore equorum et 
strepitu rotarum ordines plerumque pertjirbant ; et quum se inter 
equiturn turmas insinuaverint. 1 ex essedis desiliuut, etpedibus prcc- 
liantur. Aurig;i> interim paulatim ex prcello execdunt, atque ita 
currus colloeant, ut, li illi- a multitudine hostium preniantur, ex- 
peditum ad suos reeeptum habeant. Ita mobilitatem equiturn, 
stabilitatem pedituni in prcoliia prsestanb, ao tantum usu qnotidiano 
et exercitatione efficiunt, uti in declivi a>*. praecipiti loco incitatos* 
equos sustinere 3 ct brevi J moderari ac flectere, et per tenionem per- 
currere et in jugo insistere et hide se in eurrus citissimc recipere 
oonsuerint. 

XXXIV. Quibua rebus, 1 pcrturbatis nostris novitate pugnse, 
tempore oppor^uniesimo Cecsar auxilium tulit : namquc ejus adventu 
hostes constitcrunt, nostri se ex timore- rcceperunt. Quo faclo, ad 
lacessendum et ad committendum pru'linm alicnum 2 esse tempus ar- 
bitrates, suo se'loco 3 continuit, et hrevi tempore intermisso, in cas- 
tra legiones reduxit. Dum brcc geruntur, nostris omnibus occupa- 
tisj qui erant in agris reliqui, discesserunt. Secutrc Mint eontinuos 
complures dies tempestates, qurc 4 ct nostros in castris continefent, 
et hostem a pugna prohiberent Interim barbari nuncios in oitines 
partes dimiserunt, paucitatemque nostrorum milituni suis* prredica- 
verunt, et quanta prreda; facienda; atque in perpetuum sui liber m- 
di 6 faeultas daretur/' si Romanos castris expulissent," demonstravc- 
runt. His rebus celeriter magna multitudine peditatus cquitatus- 
que coacta, ad castra venerurft. 

XXX1Y. '. tjuibus, rebus. " To thes;- 
things," if "tn « .ur men in this con- 
dition ;" — remote object 0,1 lulil. 
2. Aliecum, "Unfavorable." 
3 Loco, ; 

•J. Illi, Li. the soldiers who ride in (ho,4. Quas contfberent, "Hush as to kei ; . 
chariots. §210. 

3. Uti— sustinere consuerint, Thai •">. 3ai liberandi, £177. Rem. 3. 
even on steep and rupped ground 6 Daretar, 1214 

they are in the habit of checking 7. Si expulissent, "If they should 
their horses when at full speed." " 8198, a. 

4. Hrevi, ur. tempore or tpaiio; "Quick- 
ly," or "within a short space." 



5. Incertit ordinibus expresses the cause 
of the confusion ; §186, Rem. J. 

XXXI IT. 1. Insinuaverint, £210. Ran. 
3 



06 ' DE DELLO G.U.UC;). 

XXV. r :;"- t. etsi idem, quod supefforibus diebus acciderat, 
{ovc v ent ftostes pulsi', eeferitate periculum effuge- 

; tanmn :; • • us equites circiter trigiuta, quos Commius Atrebiis, 
Ae q*io ante dictum est, seoum trftisportaverat, legiones in acts pro 

ria contjfituik Comm&so proelio, diutius nostrorum milituin 

is ferre non potueimnt, ac terga verterunt. Quos 

tan to spatio 1 sccati, quantum' 2 cursu et viribus cfficere potuerunt, 

complures ex iis ocoiderunt ; dcinde, omnibus 3 longe lateque afBictis 

incenaisque, Be in castra reeeperunt. . 

XXXVI. Eodom die legati, ab hostibus missi ad Cssarem de 
pace, sen runt. His Caesar numeriim obsiduni, quern antea impe- 
raverat, dupiicavit, eosque in continenteni adduci jussit, quod, pro- 
pi aqua die oequinoctii, iufirmis navibus', hie mi navigationeni subjici- 
endum nou e^istirnabai . Ipse, idoneam tempestatem nactus, paulo 1 
post inediam noeteiu naves solvit, quae o nines incolumes ad continen- 
tem pervenerunt ; sed ex bis onerariae duae eosdem, quos reliquao, 
portus capertr nou potuerunt, et paulo iufra delataa suut. 

XXXVII. Quibu.s ex navibus quum essent ezpositi milites cir- 
citer CCC, atque iri.*castra eoutenderent, Morini, quos Caesar, n 
Britanniam profiots'cens, pacatos . . reliquerat, spe praedae .adducti, 
primo non ita magno 1 riorum numero circumste'terunt, ac, si sese 
interne: nollent, arma ponere, jusseruut. Quum illi orbe facto sese 
dei'enderent, oeleriter ad clamorem hominum 2 circiter millia VI oon- 
veneuunt. Qu;i re nuueiata, Caasar onmem ex castris equitatum suis 
auxilio"' ntisit. Interim nostri milites impetum bos'iuui sustinue- 
runt, atque amplius boris quatuor fortissime pugnaverunt, et, paucis 
vulaeribus acceptis, complures ex iis occiderunt. Postea vero quam 
equitatus* noster in conspectum venit, bostes abjectis armis terga 
verteruut, magnusque eorum numerus est occisus. 

XXXVIII. Caasar postero die T. Labienum legatuni cum iis 
mibus, quas.ex Britannia reduxerat, in Morinos, qui rebeliiouem 

fecerant, misit. Qui quum propter siccitates paludum, quo se re- 
c-iperent, 1 non haberent, quo perfugio 2 superiore anno fuerant usi, 
onines fere in potestatem Labieni'yenerunt. At Q. Titurius et L. 
Cotta, legati, qui in Menapiorum fines legioncs duxerant, omnibus 

XXXV. 1. Tanto spatio, §153. iXXXVU. 1. Non ita magno, "Not so 

'I. Quantum, "As." The antecedent is large (as it. iniglit have been)." 



tanto spatw. 
8. Omnibus, "Every thing." 

XXXVI. 1. Paulo, §108. 
2. Capere, "To reach." 



t. Hominum limits millia, 
3. Auxilio, $H4. 

XXXVIII. 1. Quo si- reciperent, "(A 

place) to retreat to:" §210, a. 
2. Quo perfugio. i.e. the marbhes. 



R QUINTDS. 



eorutn agris fastali lefts incensis, quod 

Menapii se omnes in dc^isisSitiias sllvas abdiderant, se ad Ctcsarerh 
receperunt. Caosardn Belgis omnium legionum bib^erna constituit. 
Eo dux omnino civitates ex Britannia pbsides mj?erunt, reliqmv 
n-gfexevunt. His rebus gestis, ex litefia Csesaris 9 !qierum XX sup- 
[uicatio a senajtu decretn 



BELLO GALLICO 
LIBEIi V. 

I. Lucio Domitio, Appio Claudio consulibus, disoedens ab 
hibernis I'jesar in Italiam, ut quotannis facere consuerat, legatis 
- legionibus prnsfecerat, uti, quam pluriraas possent, 1 
-dificandas, veteresque rcficienda? curarent. 2 Earum 
lum formamque demonstrat. Ad eeleritatem onerandi subduc- 
esque 3 paulo fae.it hmniliorcs, 4 quam quibmi^in nostro mari uti 
mevimr.s; atquc id 1 ' eo magi -.roprtr crebras conamuta- 

ea aMtunta^binus magnos il>i fluetus fieri cognoverat : ad onera 
I multitudinem jumentornm transportaridam paulo latiores, T 
uam quibus in reliquis utimur maribus. Has omnefi :ictuarias s 
tnperat fieri, quam ad rem multum liumilitaH adjuvat. Ea., quae 
-unfc usui 9 ad armaudas naves, ex' Hispania appoftari jubet. Ipse, 
onventibus Gallia^ citerioris pcractis, in Tllyricum proficiscitur, 
Pi tstis fi*5timaui partem provinciae- incursionibus vastari 
udiebat. Eo quum cmtatibue milites imperat, certum- 

ue in locum conveninj jubet Qua re nunciata, Piruslre legatos ad 
vm mittunt, qui doeeattlj 10 ' uibil < urum rcrurn publieo factum con- 
; !i . - paratos esse ' demonstrant c omnibus rationibus de in- 

uriis satisfacerc ' Accepta oratione corum, Ca;sar obsides imperat, 
d certam diem adduci jubet : nisi ita feceriut, 11 sese bcllo 

S. Ex liter-- Casaris, " In consequence, of Cesar's despatches." 
N O T K S . 

Quam plarimaa post>eat, {203, 1 4. Humiiiores, $101, b. # 
1. 5. Quibus, "Those whirh " 

fes tcdificandas, &c .curarcni. 6. Id, .*c. facit. 
"To have ship-? built, 7. Latior«B. te. Tacit. {161, b. 

S. Kubdiictione-*, "Drawing up on land 8. Actuarial* limits fieri. 
The anriont? draw up their Vessels 9. Usui, {111. 
on land when they were not usingjl" Doeeanl, |2l0, ». 
'•hem, and surrounded them, if n> - •-- 1 1. Focorint, §198, a. 
. with fortifications. 

I 



« DE BELLO GALLICO 

«ivitatem persecuturum demonstrat. Ilia ad diem adductis, ut im- 
peraverat, arbitros inter etvit^tes dat'J qui litem sostimeut, poonam- 
que constituant. 

IT. His confectis rebus, convontibusque peractis, in citerioreia 
GalUam revert itur, atque iude ad exercitum'proficiscitur. Eo quum 
venisset, circuitis omnibus hibernis, singulari militum studio, in 
■uinma omnium rerurn inopia, circiter DC ejus generic, cujus 1 supra 
demonstravimus, naves et longas 2 XXVIII in venit instructas, neque 
multum abesse ab eo, 3 quin paucis diebus deduci 'possent. Collau- 
datis militibus, atque iis, qui negotio praefuerant, quid fieri velit, 4 
«stendit, atque omnes ad portum Itium eon venire jubet,- quo ex 
portu coramodissimum in Britanni im.transmissutn esse cognoverat, 
•irciter millium passuum 5 XXX a coutinenti. Huic rei 6 quod satis 
•esse visum est militum, 7 reliquit : ipse cum legionibus expeditis IV, 
ti equitibus DCCC in fines Trevirorum profieiscitur, quod hi neque 
*d concilia veniebaut, neque imperio parebant, Germanosquc Trans* 
rhenanos sollicitare dicebantur. 

III. Haac civitas longe plurimum 1 totius Galliae equitatu' 2 valet,, 
maguasque habet copias peditum, Rhenumque, ut supra, dembnstra- 
vimus, tangit. In ea civitate duo de priucipatu inter se con'tende- 
bant, Indutiomarus et Cingetorix: ex quibus alter, simul atque de 
Caesaris legionumque adventu cognitum est, ad cum venit ; se suos- 
que omnes in ofticio futures, neque ab amicitia Populi Romani de- 
.fecturos confirmavit, quaeque 3 in Treviris gererentur, ostendit. At 
Indutiomarus equitatum peditaturaque cogere, iisque qui per aetatem 
in armis esse non poterant, in Silvam Arduennam abditis, quae ingenti 
magnitudine 4 per medios fines Trevirorum a flumine Rheno ad ici-' 
tium Remorum pertinet, bellum parare i stituit. Sed postea quam 
nonnulli principes ex ea civitate, et familiaritate Cingetorigis ad- 
ducti, et adventu nostri exercitus perterriti, ad Caesarem venerunt, 
«t de suis privatiui rebus ab eo petere coeperunt, quoniam oivitati 8 
consulere non possent, 6 Indutiomarus veritus, neab omnibus desere- 
retur, 7 legatos ad Caesarem mittifc ; ' Sese idcirco ab suis discedere, 



II. 1. Cujus, §129, Rem. 3. 

2. Longas, *c. naves. 

3. Neque multum abesse- ab eo, &c . 
"And that they were far from being 
ready to launch in a few days ;" — 
"that they were not far off from this, 
but that in a few days they might be 
launched." 

4. Velit. §214. 

$. Millium pastuum limits transmissum, 

§132. 
6. Huic rei may limit reliquit, §144, or 



talis. 
7. Militum, §134, limits the relative 
noun-sentence quod sat it ease visum e»L 

III. 1. Plurimum, {150, Rem. Z. 

2. Equitatu, §161. 

3. Quaeque, "And what." Gererenlmr.. 
#414. 

4. Iugenti magnitudine, $164. 

5. Civitati, §142. 
tt. Pos.-eut, §190. 

7. Deaereretur, §1W, Rem. 2, (b). 



..ItfER QUINTUS. 9» 

»tque :id eurn venire nnluisse, nuo 8 faoiliua ciyitatem in officio con- 
tincret, ne omnia no'bilitatis aiscessu plebs propter imprudentiain 
laberetur. Itaque esse eivitatetnv in sua potestate, seque, si Cscsar 
pennitteret, ad cum in castra venturum, ct Buas eivitatisque for- 
tunas ejus fidei permist-urnin.' 

IV. Csesir, etsi ihtelligebat, qua de causa ea dicerentur, 1 qute- 
que cum res ab iustituto consilio deterrcret. 1 tatnen. nc testatem iu 
Trcviri.s eonsumere cogeriwr, omnibus ad ISritannicuni bellum re- 
bus comparatia, Irjdutiomaruro ad se cum ducentia obsidibna venir« 
jussif. His adductis, in iis filio propinquisque ejus omnibus, quoa 
nominatim evi caverat, cotisola'tus Indutiomarum bortatusque est, 
uti iu officio permaueret: u i kilo 2 t amen sccius principibus Treviro- 
rum ad se convocatis, bos singillatim Cingetorigi couciliavit: quod 
quutn "• merito ejus ab *e fieri intflligebat, turn ruagni interesse 4 ar- 
bitrabatur, ejus auctoritatcm inter suns qua in plurimum 5 valere, 
CUJus tarn cgregiam in se Yoluntatem perspexisset. Id factum gravi- 
ter tulit Indutiomarus, suatn gratiam inter suos minui ; et, qui jam 
ante inimico iu nosanimo 6 fuisset., 7 multo gravius boc dolore exaisit 

Y. His rebus constitutis, Caisar ad portum Itium cum legioni- 
bus pervenit. Ibi cognoscit XL naves, quffi in Meldis factte erant, 
teuipestate rejoctas cursum tenQrenKm potuisse, atque eodem, unde 1 , 
eraut profectte, revertisse : reliquas paratas ad navigandum, atqu» y 
omnibus rebus instructas invenit. Eodem totius Gallia? equitatm 
convenit, numero miilium quatuor, 2 priucipesque omnibus ex .civi- 
taiibus : ex q tubus perpaucos, quorum in se fidem perspexerat, re- 
linqiu'ie in Gallu, reliquos obsidum loco secum ducere decreverat ; 
quod, quum ipse abesset, mofum Gallire verebatur. 

VI. Erat una cum ceteris Dumnorix j^Cduus, de quo ab nobis 
antea dictum est. Hunc secum babere in priruis eonstituerat,quod 
eum cupiduiii 1 rerum uovarum, cupidum imperii, magni animi,^ 
magna? inter Gallos auctoritatis cognoverat. Accedebat buc, quod 
jam in concilio /Eduorum Duinnorix dixerat ' sibi a Cacsare regnum 
•iritalis deferri :' quod dictum 3 ^Edui graviter ferebant, iteque re- 
•USandl aut deprecandi causa legat»s r ad C;t'sarem mittere audebaut. 



S Quo, J193, Rem. 3. 



'I. Inimico anim<>, $164, Rem. 1. 
7 Fuissfc*, J(*il0, ». 



IV. 1 Dioerentnr, §214. 

3. Nihilo, | 

'. Quod — lien, "1 hat t )i i h wm <i tl 

Qiiinii turn. "Not only, — but also." 
4 HAgni ioterfase, " Tb»t it was ot 

pr>'»i import&ace," \ 137. 
A. Quain I'lurimum fal-i c, "Br as^re.it ! VI 1. Eum cupidlta, «< ctae. 

up ssibie;" ('-aTuil a« much m pot- 12. Magni iir.inii, jl82, Rem. 1. 

tible ' ) {160. Rem. 3. ' '3 Quod dictum. "Which kaying.' 



V. 1. Unde. J129, Rtm. 10. 

1^. Nnnuro iiiilliuiti qutttu r, "Of four 
ill ■ u-iind in number ;" i'.« numbering 
four thousand, jjltil, 



100 >UE lUXLO GALLH") 

Id factum ex suit hoepvtibus Caesar cognoverat. Ille oninibas prime 
precibus petcrc couteudit, ut in G.il/ia relinqueretur ; parti in, quod 
insuetus navigandi* mare tlmeret, 5 partim, quod religion;' 
diceret 6 impediri. Posteaquam id obstinate sibi negjp-i vidit, oujoi 
spe impetrandi adempta, torincipes Gallia sollicitare, sevocare sin- 
gulo3 hortarique ccepit, uti in contineoti remanpreufc; metn Tern- 
tare, *non sine causa fieri', 7 ut Gallia onini nqbilitate spoliaretur : 
id esse consilium Csesaris, ut, quos in conspKcfaGallite interficere 
vcreretur, hos omncs in Britanniam transductos necaret:' fidem 
reliquis interponere, jusjurandum poscerc, ut, qucd esse ex usu Gal- 
lia? intellexi&seut, 8 communi consilio administrarent.. Haec a codit 
pluribus ad Csesarem dtpferebantur. 

VII. Qua re cognita, Caesar, quod tautum ciyitati JSduoe digni- 
tatis tribuerat, coerceudum atque deterrendum, quibuscumqjue rebus 
posset, Dumuorigem statuebat, quod long"ius ejus 1 amentiam progredi 
videbat, prospiciendum, 1 ne quid sibi ae reipublicro nocere posSet.* 
Itacjue dies circit~*r XXV in eo loco commoratus, quod Corus ve'ntus 
havigaticnem imped iebat, qui magnam partem omnis temporis 3 in 
his locis flare consuevit, dabat operant, ut in oflicio Dumnovigem 
contincret, nihilo 4 tamen secius omnia ejus consilia cognosceret -J' 
tandem, idoneam tempestatem ntfetus, milites equitesqne comscen- 
dere in naves jubet. At, omnium impeditis animis, Xfamnorix cum 
equitibus ^duorum a castris, ihsciente Cajsare, domum discedere 
coepit. Qua re nunciata, Ca&sar, intermissa profectiooe, atque omni- 
bus rebus postpositis, tiaagnam partem equitatus ad e.uni insequeq- 
dum° mittit, retrahique 7 imperat : si vim faciat, neque parent, iu.te.r- 
fici jubet : nihil huno, se absente, pro sano facturum arbitratus, (jui 
pra3sentis imperium neglexisset. 8 Ille enim 9 revocatus resistere ac 
re manu defendcre suorumque fidem imploraro eoepit, saepe elami- 
tans ' liberum se, liberccque civitatis 10 esse.'. Illi, ut erat impera- 



4. Navigandi. §135. n.. mjury to' himself (Cfesar) and the re- 

5. Timeret §190. public." Quid, § 160. Rem. 3. 

G. Dieerct. §190, Rem. 1. 3. Mngpam partem omnia temporis, 

Non -ine causa fieri, '.* That it^nW "Most of the time."" 



A Nihilo, §1(38. Nihil" tamen seciUgis 
a very strong expression : " Ya not' 
a whit the lc-s." 
Cognosceret is coordinate with ron- 



ii'it wiihout a purpose:" — ("tria-tit 
did not happen w.thout cau>e.' ! ) .' 

fi. Quud — inte'lexissent, "Whatever 
they fhould ascertain to.be advanta- 
geous to Gaul." The completion of | fineret. 
the action is here referred to. .6 Insequendum, §177. 

7. Retrain, tc. euui».» e Duinnorix'. 

VII. 1. Prospiciendum {essr) depends 8. Neglexis$et §21.0,C. 

on statuebat understood "That it 9. Enim introduces the proof that Cfle- 
must be seen to."- sar was uot mistaken in nis estimate 

2. Ne quid— posset, "That ho should of Dumnorix. 
'not have jt in his power to do any 10. Liberie civitatis, sc. civem, §133. 



.■ 
J,II5i:ii QUIST0S. 101 

turn, circuinsiatunt bomiueru, atque intefrficiunt ; ni iEdui equitea 
ad CfBsareta fcmnes revcrtuntur. 

VIII. His rebus gestis, Labieno in continentc cum tribus legi- 
dhibus et eqiMtum millibus duobus relicto, ut portus tueretur, et 
rem frum<Hitariam provideret, quceque in Gallia gererentur, 1 cog- 
nosceret, consiliumque projWrjipore et pro re caperet, ipse cum quin- 
que legionibua et pari nunflpo equitum, quern in continenti relin- 
quebat,* 2 solis'occasu naves solvit; et leni Africo proveotue, media 
circiter uocte vento iuteruiisso, cursum non tenuit, et longius dela- 
tus aestUj orta lueo. sub sinistra Britanniam relictam conspexit. 
Tutu rur.-us, sestus commutationem secutus, remis contendit, ut o-.mi 
partem insula; caperet, qua optimum esse egressum superiore estate 
OognoVerah Qua in re aduiodum fuit militum virtus laudanda, qui 
reetoriis gravibusque navigiis, non intermisso retnigandi labore, lou- 
guruin navium cursum ad&quarunt. Accessum est ad Britanniam 
omnibus navibuv' nieridiano fere tempore : neque in qo locd hostis 
est visus, sed, ut postea C;csar ex captivis compcrit, quum 4 magna; 
man us eo eonvenissent, multitudine navium perterrita 1 , (qua 1 cum 
Unuotinis privatisque, quas sui quisquc commodi 5 fecerat, amplius 
D-CCC uno erant visae tempore,) a liture discesserant, ac se in su- 
periora loea abdiderant. 

IX Caesar, exppsito ezercitu, et loco castris idoneo capto, ubi 
■»x captivis cognovit, quo in loco bostiiim copiae consedissent, 1 cobor- 
tibus X ad mure relictis, et equitibus CCC, qui praesidio navibua 
essi in,'- de tertia vigilia ad bostes contendit, eo minus veritus navi- 
Ikih, 3 quod in litore molli atque aperto deiigatas ad ancoram rclin- 
qu.'bat. et praesidio 1 navibus Q. Atrium praelecit. Ipse, n^btu pro 
mUlia passunm circiter XII, hostium'copias conspicatus est. 
Illi, equitatu atque ussedis ad flumen pi'ogressi, ex loco superiore 
r«»a probibere et prcelium oommittere coeperunt. Kepulsi ab 
equhatu, se in silvas abdiderunt, locum nacti cgregie et natura et 
open* fnunituni, quern domestici belli, ut videbatur, causa jam aiite 
pnvpm averant : nam crebris arboribus sucoisis omnes introitus erant 
pwcolusi. Ipsi ex .silvis rari propugrtabant, noitrosque ii.tra muni- 
tions ingredi probibebant. At mifites legionis VII, testudiue fac- 



VII i. I (Jererontur. §214. 



2. 1, pari tiuriicro t (jtiitum (ei nnmero) 

q tern in cuotiiienu reliuqttehat The 

i . were t!iu> tq 'rt'ly divided 

on liuif It-it behind, the other car 

lo Uritain. 

t. < <•!. mil. is iiav.lni", •• With t!' the 

i.l Navibua, \\AL 
t in, "Although." I •». Pricsidiu, $1 U. 

1% 



• r >. Sui commodi. rr. o 



pliut ocrinyen fa La explanatory of 
<j"<r, "Auiouotiftg to moi e ilia a eight 
huudr d." 

IX. 1. Conscdi-sent, fl I 

2. Prsr-idio DHvibtll essi'iit, {111. 5-14 



102 DE BE LLC) GALLIC O I 

ta, et aggere ad mnnitipncs adject", locum ceperunt, cesque ex silvis 



expulerunt, paucis vulnenbu; accepts. Sod eos. fugientes 5 longius 
C;esar prosequi vetuit, et quod loci naturain ignoiflbat, et quod, 
magna parte diei 'eonsumpta, muuitioui 6 castroruui ferupus relinqui 
volebat. 

X. Postridie ejus diei raane tripartita milites equitesque in ex- 
peditionem misit, ut eos, qui fujjerant, persequcfentur. His ali- 
quantum 1 itineris progressis, quum jam extrwpi essejjt in prospectu, 
equites a Q. Atrio ad Caesarern venerunt, ennjpunciareut, 2 ' superiore 
nocte, maxima coorta tempestate, prope omnes naves afflictas, atque 
in litore ejectas esse; quod nequo ancorse > ''funesque subsistereut, 3 
n^que nautae. gubernatoresque vim pati tempestatis posscnt : itaque 
ex eo concursu navium magnum esse'ineommodum acceptum.' 

XI. His rebus cognitis, Caesar legiones equitatumque revocari 
atque jtinere desistere jubet : ipse ad Baves revertitur : eadem fere, 
quae ex nunciis literisque cognoverat, coram perspicit, sic ut, amis- 
sis cireiter XL navibus, reliqua: tamen refici posse maguo negotio 
viderentur. 1 Itaque ex legionibus fabros delegit, et ex contineuti 
alios arcessiri jubet ; Labieno scribit, ut, quam plurimas posset, 2 
iis legionibus, 3 quae sunt 4 apud eum, naves instituat. Ipse, etsi res 
erat multa; operse ac laboris, tamen commodissimum 'esse statuit, 
omnes naves subduci et cum castris una munitione conjungi; In 
bis rebus cireiter dies decern consumit, ne nocturnis quideni tem- 
poribus ad, laborem militum intermissis. 5 Subductis navibus, cas- 
trisque egregie munitis, easdem copias, quasanfe, praesidio 8 navibus 
reliquit: ipse eodetn, unde redierat, proficiscitur. Eo quum venis- 
set, maiores jam undique in euiu locum copias Britannorum convene- 
raut, sunima imperii bellique adrninistrandi* cominuni consilio per 
missa Cassivellauno, cujus fines a maritimis civitatibus fluinen divi- 
dit, quod 8 'appellator Tamesis, a mari cireiter millia passuum LXXX. 
Huic superiore tempore cum reliquis civitatibus coutinentia bella 



f>. Eos fugientft is object of prosequi. structiens which is very rare in Cse- 
C Mumtioni, §144. Bar : potsei being past subjunctive, 

— the regular form of oblique dis- 
X. 1 AliquantbDB.' §168. course alter an historical t^nse — . 



4 2. Ntinciarent, $210. 
. ?,. tMibsisterent, §190. 

XI 1. ll^liquse tamen viderentur, "Yet 
the rest%eemed capable of being re- 
j.aiifd with great bibor." The ante- 
cedent of tamen is implied in a?nissis 
navibus, §185, 1. 

■~A. Quam plurimas posset, $203: §217. 

.3 lis legionibus. ablative of means. 

4. Sunt, — a bleuding of diffeient con- 



while sunt takes the form of direct 
discourse. 

5. Ad laborem militum intermissis, 
'Intervening to the labor of the sol- 
diers;" i e. the soldiers working <lay 
and night. 

G Pues.d.o, £144. 

7. Summa imperii' bellique adminis- 
trnndi, -The control of the govern- 
ment and ofVariying on the war." 

8. Quod, §12», Rent. o. 



LiBEJi QUINTU 



1 M 



intercessorant : ^ed uosir • : aJventu | ■ iuni hunc toti hello 

imperioque pnefeeerant. V 

XII. BritamEe pars interior -1. ii~ itiefilitur, quos natus in in- 
jtuni dictint. i 1 uiari^aha pars ah ii.s, qui prav 
nsa ex Beljris brtinsBfcant : qui o nines fere 
^JLipellantur, quJJVas orti ex civitatibus eo 
lo Ifia.ti' ihi reuiaiifcrftnr, atque agros colerc cce- 
MHnir:i inajtituclo creberriniaque sedificia, 
magnua Humerus. Utuntur aut 
uin pondufl examinatis, pro Dumuio. 



ttula ipsa memqjj 

dab ac belli infes 

iis uominil 

perveneruut, e 

permit. Ilomi 

fere Gallicis conUmilia 

8BTe aut taleis ferreis, a 



limini 
•onsim 



Nascitur ibi plumbum albui is regionibus, in irfari- 

timis, ferrum*; M>d eju.-, exigua ■• ■ : :vre utuntur iraportato* 

Materia cujusque gem ' ,4. ia, est praetor t'aguui atque abie- 

rein. Leporcin ct gab am rem gustare fas lion putant ; haec. 

tamen a hint, animi voluptatisquc eausa '•' Loca sunt temperatio-ra 
<|uam in Gallia, rstnissioribus frigoribus 4 

XIII Insula nitura triquetra, oujus unum latus est contra Gral- 
liam. Ilujus lateris alter angulus, qui est ad Cantium, quo fere 
omnes i \ Gallia naves appelluntur, ad orientem solem ; inferior ad 
meridiem spectat. Hoc latus tenet cifciter millia passuum D. Al- 
teruui vergit ad ffispaniam atquo occiuentem solem, qua ex parte 
est Hibernia, dimidip 1 minor, ut aestimatur, quaui Britannia; Bed 
pari spatio 2 trausmispus atque cj Gallia est in Britanniam. Io hoc 
medio cursu est iusiAu, quae appellatur Mona ; complures practerca 
minores objectai insula existimantur ; d« quibus insulis nonnulli 
soripseruwt, dies continuo^ 3 XXX sub bruma esse noetem. Nos 
nihil de eo perddntationibus reperiebamus, nidi certis ex aqua men- 
-uri> 4 breviores esse quatn in contincnte noctes videbanius. Ilujus 
- longitudo lateris, ut feet illoruni opinio/' DCC Baillium. Ter- 
tium est contra septemtriones, cui parti nulla est objecta terra ; *ed 



by in 

wi hi- n rcci 
Ii- neminit 



\1I. 1. Quos — dicunt, "Who. .they 
(radii on tells were boru in tb« 
land itself." Proditum % ( ettt | I I 
personal ; " that it has been liauded 
down by recol i c I pot bj 

records 

ibus ciYitaturn—nominibus 3. 
I inn c,\ itituni 4. 

mi voluptatisquc causa, " For 
the sake of fancy and amasemenl " 

I. l.va)i--ioTiUa.s frigoribus, 

1. 

■>))] . Dimtdio, gli 

limit - t r oder- 



I "The crossing (Irom ftritain 
ind) is a crowing oi the 

i- Irom Gaul »<> Britain ;" 
i, e. it ia the same distance limn 
Britain t<> Ireland as from Gam m 
Britain; 

centinuos, | ' 
Certis ex aqua tuensuris, l, Bj accu- 
rate water neasarements" riiese 
were made by m 
or hour fi\n<~ tilled wiih --aier. 

I't lei t Si 

opinii i 

um, ic. lon^i 



:<l I)K CELLO GALL1CO 

ejus angnlus Interim maxune ad Gernianiam spectat : huic 7 millia 
pallium DCCC in longitudinem esse existimatur. Ita oninU iusula 
est in circuitu vicies centum milliuni passuum. 8 

XlVfc Ex his omnibus louge sunt humauissimi, qui Cantium in- 
oolun . quae regie- est maritiiua oinnis, ueque multum a Galliea dif- 
fering cunsuetudiue. Interiores plerique 1 frumenta non serunt, sed 
lacte et carrte vivunt, pellibusque sunt vestiti, Omnes vero se Bri- 
tanui vitro infieiunt, quod cxruleum efficit colorem, atque hoc 2 hor- 
ridiore sup* in pugna adspectu: 3 capilluque sunt proniisso, atqae 
om it i parte corporis rasa, praeter caput et labrain superius. Uxores 
eut deni duodeniqqe inter se communes, et maxiine t'ratres cum 
fratribus pareotesque cutn liberis; sed, si qui &unt ex bis nati, 
eorum babentur liberi, quo 4 primuiu vitg| . quasque deducta est. 

X\' Equites hostium essedai 'iique acriter*proelio cum equitatu 
nostnt in itinera conflixerunt, tamen ut 1 nostri omnibus paitibus 
superiores fuerint, atque eo3 in silvas collesque compulerint : sedj 
compluribus interfectis, cupidius insecuti, nouuullos ex euis amise- 
runt. At illi, intermisso spatio, irnpi udentibus nostris atque oc- 
oupatis in inuuitione castroruru, subito se ex silvis ejeceruut, irn- 
petuque in eos facto, qui er&nt in statioue pro castris collocati, acri- 
ter pugnaverunt : duubu>que missis subsidio* 2 cobortibus a Cifsare, 
atijiic bis primis legionum duarum, quum hse, perexiguo intermisso 
ioei »|iatio iuter se, constitisseut, novo getiere puguas perterritie 
nostris, per medios audaoissime perruperunt, seque iude incolumes 
receperunt. Eo die Q. Laberius Durus, tribuiius militum, iuter- 
ficiiur. Illi, pluribus immissis cobortibus, repelluntur. 

XV [. Toto boc in genere pugtise, quum 1 sub oculis omnium ae 
pro castris dimicaretur, intellectual est nostros propter gravitatem 
aniioruni, quod neque insequi cedentes possent,? neque ab siguis dis- 
eedere auderent, minus aptos esse ad bujus generis hostem ; .equites 
autem magno cum periculo proclio dimicare, propterea quod illi 
eti.itn cuusulto plerumque cederent, et, quum paulum ab legiouibus 
aostroa removissent, ex essedis desilireut, et pedibus 3 dispari prcelio 
cou'tenderent. Eijuestris autem proelii ratio et cedentibus et inse- 



7. Huic, gl43. Miilia is subject of 
<. \ entum millium, ac. insula; §132. 

XIV 1. Interiores plerique. "Most oi 
those wild live in i tie interior." 

i Ilo-, "ty tins means." 

S, 1! rridiore adspecta, gl64, Rem. 1 
bo moo cupdlv- prumuso, and omm 



p Tie rasa. 
4. Quo, "To whose house." 

XV. 1. Ut, "So that." 
2 Subsiiio, J144. 

XVI. 1. Q.nim, "Since." 
I. Pussent. §190 . 

J PttLbus, §106. 






jBr V r.U>KK QUIN'TUS. J^ 10.1 

quentibus 4 par atque! idem periculuni inn ^ccodebat liuo, ut 

nunquam cniitVrti, ed r;>.;;i nn.'inisque iirtervallis probliarenitur, 
stationesque di : •roni. atque alios alii deincc] i . ipe- 

• rent,.integriaue <t recentes dcfatigatis suocederent 

XVII. I'ustor.. . is bosvfis in oollibns cdn?Hte* 

runt, rarique se ostendere, ?t 1 pridie no ; r<* 

proelio !a< ilic, <j u o ::i Cftsar pab.u'andi 

causa trea legion* tincin oqukatjim cum C TV- 

m.isisset, repi nto ex '>m a 1 pabu ; dvolaven 

flic, uti abxsignis'ief istere Nostri, acriter in 

eos iir.jictu fa< j i lecerunt, qu 

aubsidio 3 ■• infisi equii • viderent, prseci] 

hostes egerunt : luajrii >|Uo*»ru!;i numoro iiito: focto. neque sui col- 
ligendi 4 ueque :i\\'< edis desiliendi facultatem dcde- 

runt. Ei 5 bac t'u^-a protintis, qurc undique convenejrantj nuxili.i 
discesserunt : neque post id tempus unquam summis° ■nobiscum 
copii- tntenderunt. 

Will. Caesar,' cognito consilioi eorum, ad flumen Tatnesin in 
fines Gassivellauni exercitum du d flunien uno oranino loep 

pcdipn*, 1 atque hoc aigiv, trausu-i potest. t lv> quuui venisset, aci- 
inum auvertit ad alteram fluminitj ripaui magnas esse copia* hostium 
instruotos: ripa auteni erat auctis sudil&us prsefixis inuuita; ejus- 
deuique generis 2 sub aqua defixeG sudes iuniino tegebauturi His 
rebus cognitis a eaptivis pi ue, Caesar, prcemisso eqnitatu, 

confefitini legiones stib.'-eqni jutsit Sed ea*ceJeiitatc atqutvcn im- 
petu mililcs ierunt, qunm ; capitc solo 4 ox a |ua exstar< i:t, : ; ti -: * 
impetum legionuuj at c|jS mi Mistiucre nun post-cnt, rip; 

ae to fugtc maudareir . 

MX. CassiyellaunuH, u! supra demoiistrayimus, i ;a 

ntiouis, dimi , :i. . iniilibu.s - 

esscdariofuu] re) stra servubujb, pauliilumqm; ex 

i>ia excedebat, locisqu .. peditis ac i»Uve>tribaij bcsc cn.-uku! 
• tquc iis regionibus, 1 qi .orat, pc 



i. Ctagffibuf r.t inaequtnliiu 

u :n an git- 
ut <! 

XVI i: L.I'eJi! 

' A' sistercnt. / e. cam< live <>f moan-* ox; .w 

_'. lj i- I.iii geneij- 
I may he eitli ■ \ - 

I llMll .-llilill 

• 
I. Sui Ci.llig '.•,-■ 



100 



DK HELLO OALLICO 



atque homines ex agris in silvas compellebat: et, quum equitatus 
noster liberius prredandi vastandique causa se fn agros effunderet, 
omnibus viis notis semitisque essedarios ex ailvis emittebat, et mag- 
no cufn periculo nostrorum equitum cum iis confligebat, atque boo 
metu 2 latius vagari prohibebat. - Rolinquebatur, ut neque longius 
ab agmine legionum disced:- Caesar patereturj et tantum in agris 
rastandis incendiiaque faciendis hostibus noceretur, 4 quantum labor* 
atque itinere legionarii milites effieere poterant. 

XX Interim Trinobantes,prope firmissimaearum regionum civ- 
Ltas, ex qua Mandubratius adolescens, Ctesarisfidem secutus, ad eum 
in con tin en tern Gallilm vetverat, (cujus pater Imanuentius in ea civ- 
itate regnum obtinue'rat, inlerfectusque erat a Cassivellauno ; ipse 
mortem vitaverat) legates ad Caggfeem mittunt, pollicenturque 
*ese ei dedituros atque ituperata facturos : petunt, ut Mandubratium 
ab injuria Cussivellauni defendat, atque in civitatem mittat, qui 
prsesit, 1 imperiumque obtineat. His* Caesar imperat 2 obsides XL 
frumentumque exercitui, Mandubratiumque ad eos ruittit. llli 
imperata celeriter feceruut, obsides ad numerutu frumentaque niis- 
erunt 

XXI. Trinobantibufc defends, atque ab omni -mill turn injuria 
prohibit^, 1 Cenimagni, Segontiaci, Ancalites, Bibroei, Cassi, legati 
onibus missis sese Caesari dedunt. Ab his cognoscit non longe ex 
co loco oppidum Cassivellauni abesse, silvis paludlbusque munitum, 
quo satis Magnus hominum pecrorisque Humerus convenerit. 2 (Op- 
piduiu autem Britanni vocant, 3 quum silvas irapeditas vallo atque 
fossa munierunt, quo incurxionis hostium vitandae causa convenire 
consuerunt.) Eo broficiscitur cum Iegionibus: locum reperit egre- 
gie natufa atque opere munitum ; tamen hunc duabus ex partibus 
oppugnare contendit. Hostes, paulisper morati, militum nostrorum 
impetum nun tulerunt, seseque alia ex parte oppidi ejecerunt. Mag- 
nus ibi uumerus pecoris repertus, mu'ltique in fuga sunt compreheB- 
•ii atque iuterfecti. 

XX IX. Dum Ikco in his loci* geruntur, Cassivellaunus ad Can-' 
tium, (juod esse ad mare supra demonstravimus, quibus regionibus 



1. Hoc ractu=hujU6 periculi tnofu. 

\ Diicedi ~-i: a miliiibus ; imper40$Al 
construction. 

i Tantum — noceretur, "So much 
tl-» ins* jzc w:ig iloiio " Tantum nrxy be 
subject of noceretur, or equivalent 

;-,CCU8'\tiTC. 

XX. I. Qui prffait, "To govern them';" 
3210. The antecedent is Sfandubfa- 



lixni, the object both of defendtt ami 
mittat. 
2. Hisimper t, 'He demands of them," 
(comiuauds to tbem). 

XXI. 1. Prohibitis, "Protected." 
2. Convenerit;, §"210, c. 
A. Oppidum Tocant, tc. locum; Jl6l, 
b. 



LIBEli QUINTUS 107 

quatuor reges proeerant, Cingetorix, Carviliue, Taximagulus, Sego- 
nax, nuncios mittit,. atque his imperat, uti, coactis omnibus copii*, 

• castra naval ia de impuoviso adoriantur atque oppugnent. 1 li quum 
ad castra venissent, nostri, cruptione facta, multiseorum iuterfectis, 

•capto etiam nobili duce Lugotorige, suos incolumes reduxerunt 
Cassivellaunus, hoc proelio nunciato, tot detriments acceptis, vaFta- 
tiu finibus, maxime etiam permotus defectione civitatium, legates 
per 2 Atrebatem Commium de deditione ad Cicsarem mittit. Cocsar 
quum statuisset hiemem in coutincnti propter repentinos G-alliffl mo- 
tus agere, neque multuni costatis superesset, atque id facile extrabi 
posse iutelligeret, obsfdes imperat, ct, quid in annos singulis veeti- 
galis ;} populo Romano Britannia penderet, 4 constituit : interdieit at- 

1 que imperat 5 Cassivellauno, nc Mandubratio, neu Trinobantibue 
noeeat. 

XXIII. Obsidibus acceptis, extrroitum reducit ad ID arc, navel 
invenit refectas. His deducti.<, quod etcaptivorum magnum nuitterum 
habebat, et nonnullse temperate deperierant naves, duobufl eommc- 
atibus exercitum reportare instituit. Ac sic aecidit, uti ex tanto 
naviuni numero, tut navigationibus, ueque boc, neque superiore an- 
no, ulla omnirmnavis, qua"! militcs pprtarct, 1 desideraretur : at ex 
iis, quffl inanerex eontioenti ad cum remittercntur,* prioris commt- 
atus exposUis militibus, et quaa postca Labieuus faciendas eurave- 
rat ,-! numero LX, perpaucae locum caperent; reliqus fere onmes rc- 
jicereutur. Quas quum aliquandiu^aesar frustra exspectasset, ne 
anni tempore a navigatione excluderetur, quod aequinoctium suberat, 
nccessario angustius milites collocavit, ac sumnra tranquillitate coiir 
seciita, seeuuda inita, quum solvisset, vigilia, prima luce terrain atti 
gh, omnesquo incolumcs naves perduxit. 

XXIV. Subductis navibua, concilioque Gallorum S;«.marobrivae' 
peracto, quod eo anno frumentum ia Gallia propter siccitates angus- 
tius- provenerat, coactus est aliter ac 3 superioribus aim is exercituro 



XXII. 1. Adoriantur atque oppu;:nent, 
" Approach and assault." Jlddtifi 
denote* i be stealthy approach with 
hostila intent ; then the attack at 
unawares ; ojyu^nar* expre^sec an 
i i n assault 
Per, J159, Rem. 6. 



alent t>> a conditional scnteuci',' Pro- 
vided it carried Boldiers." See Book 
II, XXVII. 1. 

•J. Uemitterentur, ? ee Book II, XXV!'. 
1. 

3. Quas Labienus faciendas curaverat, 
" Which Laiiiei'us had bad made.' 



., Vectigalis, {134, Rem. 1. Observe the juxtapoaition of indica- 

4. Penderet, $214. tive and Bubjuflptive. 

i>. lotCtdic i atque imperat, "He lay* 

hit oflmmand and prohibition on Cas-JXXIY 1. SamarobriTte, $106. Exc. 

BiVeUauiiUs." J. Angustius, "More scantily than 

usual." 
XXIII. 1. Quae mili! r* portaret, equir 3. Aliter a". "Otherwise than." 



]08 ;>E BELLO GALLl&O 

in hibtrnis ccdlocarc^fegionesque in jiiv.r ■ civitaie? distribuere : ex 
quibup uaam in Morinos ducendam 4 C. Fabio legato dedit ; alter&ia 
in Ketvio* Q. Oiccrnni : tertian.' in Eesuoh L Roscio ; qnartam in 
Labieno in confinio TJteviroruni hieraare jussit; trefc 
; JJ vit : hi-; M -rassutn quagstorctu, et L. Muriatiu 

. Trebuntiim legates praefecit. Unum legioueni, quam 
pro::i •! • trans Padum eor.soripserat., et cohorfces quinque in Eburo- 
nes, quorum pars maxima es- inter Mosain ae Rhenum, qui sub im- 
perii Anibiorigis et Cativolci x erant, inisit; His militibus Q. Titu- 
rium Sabinuru et L Aurunculeium Cottatu legates prseesse jussit. 
\a I lum distributes 'egionibus, faciiiimo inopise frumenta-' 

r iiB& £ • ' ri [) ftimivTt; atejue iiarum tamen omnium lc t 

< piaster cam, quam L. Roscio in pacatissimamer 
em ducendam dederat) inillibus pas-suum centum 
cont .-. Ep*e interea, quoad legion ea eollocatas, munitaque 

hil; .- ovjsset,* in Gallia morarLeonstituit. 

XXV, Erat in Carnuti; u amnio loco 1 natu's fasgetius, cuius 
in sua civitate regnuin >btmue>ant Huic Caisar, pro t-jut* 
virtia'te at^ue in so- benevoleum, quod .in omnibus bellis singular! 
ejus opera fu«rat usus, majorum locum resf.ituerat. ^JPertium jam 
hunc. annum regnsuteui inimn | multis et.iam ex civitate aue 

toribuSj P ■. fertur ea :es ad Civsarem. Ille yeritu^J 

quod ad plures pertinebatj'rKJ 3 civitja^ eor'uw iuipul.su deSoeret, L 
Plancum cum legione ex Belgiq oeleriter in Carnutes proficisci jubet, i 
ibique liitimar tocme opera cogfiOy«¥i.t^ Tasgetiun) inter fed* ' 

• iipieben$6.s ad se/mitterc. Interim ab omnibus leg;ti? 
qutBstoribu'-que, quiinis legiones transdiderat. certior f actus 
.hiberna perventum, 5 loeuriique bibernis 6 esse munitum. 

XXV L. Diebus circitcr XV, quibus 1 in hiberna ventum est, in- 
itium repentini tumultas ae defectidnis ortum est ab Ambiorige 
Cativolco : qui quum ad fines regni s'ui Sabino Cottasque- prassto fti- 
isscnf, frumeiuumque in hiberna comportavisseut, ludutiom 
viri numiis impulsi, suos concitaverunt, subitoquc nppressis' ligua- 

toribus, magna manu eastra oppugnatum 3 venefunt. Quum eeleriter 

A 

■1. Dwrndam exftrespei purpose : ir^." Cognoverit. §-10. b. 
uppliec] in thv p,yo follow- 15. Perventum ir. esse. 
nces. Hihe'mis. ''.. 144. ' 

:The scarcity! 

XXVI. 1. QuiUui. -Fifteen >l>xy.'. after 

&c." §107, Rem. 2 
I. Sabino Cottsgque, §14'2, Hem. 8.— 
"Though the}' had met Sabinu* •snl 
I Cotta " 

Oppugnatnra, §17u 



<>. 


Iuopia 


l'rum 






i t ptov 


]>10!1» 




6. 


Co^Tl • 




XXV i . 


Loco. 




i 


III --. 




Hem. ?. 


g 









LIB Ell QUINTUS. ( 109 

"uostri anna cepu&ent, vail limbic ascendissenff ? atque, una ex parte 
Uispanis equitibus emissis, eqnestri prcclio superiores fuisseufc, des- 
perata re, bostes suos ab oppuJMatione reduxerunt. Turn suo more 
conclamavcrunt, uti aliqui ex nostris ad colloquium prodirent; 'Ha- 
bere sesc, qu; uumuni dicere vejlent, quibus rebus contro- 
versias miuui possaflgiperaroiit.' 

XXVII. jMittft-uT 1 ad eos colloquendi causa C. Arpineius, eques 
Romanus, familiaris Q. Titurii, et Q. Junius ex Hispania quidam, 
qui jam ante mUf Cncsaris ad Anibiorigem ventitare consueverat 
apud quos Ambiorix ad hunc modum locutus est : 'Sese pro Caesaris 
in se beneficiis pha'ximum ei confiteri deber<e,- quod ejus opera sti- 
pendie liberates esset, quod Aduatucis finitimis suis pendere con- 
suesset, quodque ei et fittus et fratris filius ab Caosare remissi essent, 
quos Aduatuci, obsidum numero missos, apud se 3 in servitute et 
catenis tenuissent : neque id, quod fecerit 4 de oppugnatione castro- 
ntm, aut judicio aut volunlate sua fecisse, sed coactu civitatis ; sua- 
esse ejusmodi imperia, ut nou minus baberet juris 5 in se multi- 
tudOj quam ipse in niultitudincin. Civitati 8 porro banc fuisse "belli 
causa m, quod repentinre Gallorum conjurationi resistere non potu- 
erit . id" se facile ex bumilitate sua probare posse, quod non adeo 
sit imperitus rerum, 8 ut suis copus populum llomanum se superarc 
posse coufidat : sed esse GaliukWrjmmu'ne consilium ; omnibus biber- 
nis Crcsaris oppugnandis' J bunc esse dictum diem, ne qua legio al- 
teram lcgioni subsidio venire posset ; non facile Gallos Gallis negare 
potuisse, praesertim quuni de rccupe'-anda coin muni libertate con- 
silium initum vidcretur. Quibus quoniam pro pietate 10 satisfecerit, 
babere se nunc rationem officii pro beneficiis Csesaris ; n monere, 
orarc Titurium pro hospitio, ut suae ac militum saluti 1 - cousulat : 
magnam nianum Germanorum conductarn llbenum transisse ; banc 
affore biduo. Ipsorum esse consilium, 1 •"• velintne 1 * prius, quam finit 
imi sentiant, u ' cductos ex hibernis milites aut ad.Ciceronem aut ad 
Labienuui deducere, quorum alter millia passuurn' oirciter L, alter 

\X.VII. 1. Mittitar, §126, Rem.l,(U\ 9. Hibernis oppugnandis, gl-14. 
.'. Confiteri {se) debere; as seae . x I) Pro pietate, " or the sake of p:i- 
pressed above, it is omitted befojL triotism." 

debere: so frequent a rcjieiition womKH. Pro beneficiis Caesaris, " That he 
be inelegant now has regard for his duty in 

refers to Adualun. ni ieration of the kindnesses of I 

ceril; observe fhe change to aj. sar. - ' 
pnni.'iry tense. [12. Saluli, 

6. Juris. $134, Rem. 1. t 18. Ipsorum esse conbiliuta, " That it 

Civitati. 214*. is their business to decide; fa de- 

■. i.e. the facl that the Eburones termination belongs to themselves)." 
had revolted in consequence of a gen-! 14. Velintne, "Whether they will." 
eral uprising of the Gauls. utiant, \1' 

. Rerum, \\ 5, a. 




no 



DE BELLO GALLILO 



paulo aniplius ab his absit. Illud se pollieeri, et jurejurando con- 
firmare, tutuni iter per fines suos daturum ; quod quuni faciat, et 
oivitati scse consulere, quod bibernis 16 levetur, et Ca^sari pro ejus 
Hieritis gratiam referre.', Hac oratione habita, discedit Ambiorix. 

XXVIII. Arpineius et Junius, quae audierunt, ad legatos defe- 
runt. Illi, repentina re perturbati, etsi ab hoste ea dicebantur, non 
tamen negligenda existimabant : uiaximeque hac re permovebantur, 
quod civitatem ignobilem atque humilem Eburonum sua sponte 
populo Romano bellum facere ausam, 1 vix erat credenduni. Itaque 
ad consilium rem deferunt, magnaque inter eos exsfstifc controversia. 
L. Auruoculeius compluresque tribuni militum et piimorum ordi- 
num centuriones, 'nihil temere agendum, neque ex bibernis injussu 
Csesaris discedendum '- existimabant: ' quantasvis magnas 3 ctiam 
oopias Germanorum sustineri posse munitis bibernis ' docebant : 
'Rem esse testimonio, 4 quod primuni hostium impetum, multis ultro 5 
vulneribus illatis, fortissime sustinuerint: re frumentaria non premi: 
interea et ex proximis hibernjs, et a Csesare conventura subsidia :' 
posfremo, ' quid esse 6 leviuf aut turpius, quam, auctore hoste, de 
aummis rebus capere consilium V 

XXIX. Contra ea Titurius ' sero facturos ' clamitabat, ( quum 
majores hostium manus, adjunetis Germanis,convenissent, aut quum 
aliquid clamitatis in proximis bibernis esset acceptum : brevem con- 
sulcndi esse occasionem : Csesarem arbitrari profectimi in Italian!: 
neque aliter Carnutes intefficiendi Tasgetii consilium fuisse captu- 
ros ; neque Eburones, si ille adesset, tanta cum centemptione nostri 
ad castra venturos esse: non hostem auctorem, sed rem spectare: 
subesse Rhenum ; magno esse Germanis dolori 1 Ariovisti mortem et 
superiores nostras victorias: ardere Galliam. tot contumeliis acceptis 
sub populi Romani imperium redaetam, superiore gloria rei mili- 
taris exstincta.' Postremo, ' quis hoc sibi persuaderet, 2 sine certa 
re Ambior.igem ad ejusmodi consilium descendisse ? Suani senten- 
tiam in utramque partem esse tutam : si nil sit durius, 3 nullo jpe- 
riculo ad proximam legioneni perventuros; si Gallia omnis cum 
Germanis consentiat, unam esse in celeritate positam salutem. Cot- 
tae quidem atque eorum, qui dissentireht, consilium quern haberet 4 

16. Hibemis, §163. |6. Quid esse, §?14, Rem. 5. 

KXIX. 1. Dolori, §144. 

2. Quis hoc sibi persuaderet. Observe 
here a variation' from the general 
rule; §214, Rem. 5. A verb of ask- 
ing [interrogavit,) must be supplied. 

3. Si nil sit durius, "If nothing unu- 
sual- has happened ;" — (if there is 
nothing more difficult than usual). 



XXVIII. 1. Ausam, ec. esse. 

2. Discedendum, §178. 

3. Quantasvis magnas. A very strong 
expression. " Any force, however 
large." 

4. Testimonio, $144. 

5. Ultro illatis, "Inflicted on the other 
party." 



LIBER QUISTUS. Ill 

• 
exitum? In quo si non prasens periculum, at certe longinqua ob- 

sidione fames esset pertimescenda.' 

XXX. Hac in utramque partem disputatione habita, quum a 
Ootta primisque ordinibus 1 acriter resisteretur, " vincite," inquit, 
;c si ita vultis," Sabinua; et id clariore voce, ut magna pars raili- 
tum exaudirot: "Neque 2 is sum," inquit, " qui gravissime ex vobis 
mortis periculo terrear :? hi sapient, et si gravius' quid acciderit, 4 

te rationetn reposeent : qui, si per te Itceat, perendino die cum 
proximis bibornis conjuncti, communem cum reliquis belli casuni 
sustineant, ne et relegati louge ah ceteris aut ferro aut fame 

iutereant." 

XXXI. Consurgitur ex eonsilio; eomprebendunt utrumque et 
orant, *ne Btfa dissensions et pertinacia rem in suuitnuni periculum 
deducant : facilem esse rem, sen maneant. sen proficiscantur, si 
modo unum oranes scntiant ac probent ; centra iu dissensione nnl- 
lam so salutein perspicere.' Res disputatione. ad raediam noctem 
perducitur : tandem dat Cotta permotus 1 mauus ; superat seutentia 
Sabini. Pronunciatur prima luce ituros : consumitur vigiliis reli • 
qua pars noctis, quum- sua quisque miles circumspiceret, quid secum 
porta re posset, 3 quid ex instrumento 4 hibernorum relinqucre coge- 
retur. Omnia exeogitautur, quare nee sine periculo maueatur, et 
languore niilitum et* vigiliis periculum augeatur. 5 Prima luce sic 
ex castris proficiscuntuf, ut, qui bus esset persuasum 6 non ab boste, 
sed ab homine amioissimo Ambiorige consilium datum, longissimo 

line maximisquc impedimentis. . 

XXXII. At lr -<<■>. posteaquam ex nocturno fremitu vigilii^r^ue 
de profectione eorum senseruht, collocatis insidiis bipartite in silvis 
opportuno atque occulto loco, a miHibus 1 passuum circitcr duobus, 
llomanoriim adventum exspectabaut : et, quum se major pars ag- 



I. HiVberet, {214 ; »c. interrogavit. •':. Quare — augeatur. All the reasons 

arc ill •u^ht oyer why they can nei- 
XX 1. Primis ordinibus=prinioru.m | ther stay ntit go without danger. — 
ordinum ceuturionibus . ••All things are thought over, — both 

J. Xerjue. expresses tin- nbruptoea? "f why they oanuot stay without danger, 
strong feeling. This is one of tin and (how) lh.o danger is increased by 
few instances ia which Rresar U8es the weariness and watching of the 
direct discourse, soldiers" * 

'■'>. Qui— terrear, ''I am not the niiiiHn 6, Ut qutbus easel persunsam, "As 
he frightened, &c (persons would set out j who had been 

4 Acciderit. §198, a. persuaded." A merely suppos'ed case. 

'.XXI 1. Permotus, '• Brought orcrXXXll. 1. A miHibus, &c, "About 

by >iicii_' persuasion." Ci Uawas noi (wo miles off." This expression may 

frightened, be resolved by supplying castris, — 

Itturo, "Sine '■away from the camp by about two 

::. Posset, §214. mill 

I Ex iostrumanto, 8 134, Rem. t. 



112 DE BELLO GALL1CO 

minis in magnam convallem demisiss'et, ex u,traque parte ejus vallis 
subito se ostenderunt, novissimosque premere, et primos probibere 
adscensu, atque iniquissimo nostris 2 loco proefium connuittere etcpe- 
runt. 

XXXIII. Turn denium Titurius, ut qui 1 nihil ante providisset, 
trepidare, concursare cohortesque drsponere; bcec tamen ipsa tiinide, 
atque ut 2 eum omnia deficere viderentur : quod plerumque iin a'cci- 
dere consuevit, qui in ipso negotio consilium capere coguntur. At 
Cotta, qui cogitasset 3 hcec posse in itinere accidere, atque ob Paiii 
causam profcctionis auctor non fuisset, nulla in re communi salutt 
deerat; et in appellandis cohortandisque militibus impemtoris et 
in pugna militis officia prtcstabat. Quumque propter longitudinem 
agminis minus facile per se omnia obire, et quid quoque loco facien 
dum esset, 4 providere posseut, jusserunt pronunciare, ut impedi- 
menta relinquerent, atque in orbem consisterent. Quod consilium 
etsi in ejusmodi casu*reprehendendum non est, tamen incommode 
aecidit : nam et nostris militibus spem minuit, et hostesad pugnam 
alacriores 7 effecit, quod non sine summo timore et desperatione id 
factum videbatur. Pneterea aecidit, quod fieri necesse erat, ut 
vulgo milites ab signis discederent, quse quisque eorum carissima 
haberet, 8 ab impedimentis petere atque abripere properaret clam ore 
ac fletu omnia complerentur. 

XXXIV. At barbaris consilium non defuit : nam duces eorum 
tota acie pronunciare jusserunt, ' ue quis ab loco discederet : illo- 
rum 1 esse prgedauij atque illis reservari, quascumque Komani reJi- 
quissent: 2 proinde omnia in victoria posita existiuiarent.' 3 Erant et 
virtute et numero pugnando 4 pares ; nostri tamen etsi 5 ab ducc et a 
fortuna deserebantur, tamen omnem spem salutis in virtute pone- 



2, Nostris limits iniquissimo; §112. 

XXXIII. 1. Ut qui, &c, " As (one 
would do) who has made no provis- 
ion before hand ;" a supposed case, 
hence the subjunctive. 
Ut — vider«ntur, " (In such a way) 



pression. See Book II, XXVII, 1. 

XXXIV. 1. Illorum, §133. The leaders 
do not include themselves with the 
soldiers as sharers of the booty : the 
direct discourse would be " Veslra est ' 
prceda atque vobis, §c." Hence the 



that all his senses seemed to fail use of illorum and illis instead of 
him." ! suam and sibi, which would have been 



Qui cogitasset, " Because he had 
thought;" £210. 

4. Quid faciendum esset, "What ought 
to be done." 

5. Jusserunt (centuriones) pronunciare. 

6. Militibus may be remote object of 
minuit, or dative of disadvantage. 

7. Alacriores, §151, b. 

8. Haberet, an indefinite general ex 



used had the leaders included them- 
selves. 

2. Reliquissent, "Should leave; - ' §19S. 
a. 

3. Existimarcnt, §217, Rem. 1. 

4. Virtute, numero, pugnando, all abla- 
tives of limitation, §161, the first two 
limiting pugnando pares. 

5. Tamen etsi. more emphatic than etsi. 



LIBER QUINTUS. 



11? 



bant, et, quoties qureque cohors procurreret," ab ea parte lnagnxn 
hostium numerua eadebat. Qua re animadversa, Ambiorix prouun- 
ciari jubet, ut procul to.\:\ conjieiaut, meu propius accedant ; et quau 
in partem Itomani impetuui feeeriut, 7 cedant : levitate armorum et 
quotidiana exercitatiope nihil iis noeeri posse : 8 rursus se ad sign* 
recipientes'jrisequantur. 1 '' 

XXXV. <SQno prse'eepto ab iis diligentissime observato, quuM 
quajpiam cohors ex orbe exces.'-erafc atque impetum fecerat, hostel 
velooissime "refugicbant Interim cam partem nudari necesse erat, 
et ab latere aperto tela recipi. Rursus, quum in eum locum, und» 
orant egresei, reverti cooperant, ct ab iis, qui cesserant, et ab iis, qiri 
proximi steterant, circuniveoiebantur ; sin autem locum tenere vel- 

nt,' noc virtuti locus relinqucbatur, neque ab tanta multitudine 
oonjeeta tela conferti vitare poterant. Tamen tot incommodia con- 
flictati, multis vulneribus aeceptis, resistebant ; et magna parte dfei 
corisumpta, quuui a prima luce ad horam octavam pugnaretur, uihib, 
quod ipsis esset indignum, 2 committebant. Turn T. Balveutio, 3 qui 
saperiore anno primum pilum duxerat, viro forti et magna? auctori- 
tatis, utrumque femur tragula transjicitur : Q. Lucanius, ejusdea 
ordinis, fortissime puguans, dum circumvento filio subvenit, intes- 
flcitur. : L. Cotta, legatus, omnes cohortes ordinesque adhortaus, ia 
ndversum os 1 funda vulneratur. 

XXXV [. His rebus permotus Q. Titurius, quum procul Ambi- 
origem suos cohortantem conspexisset, interpretem suum, Cn. Pom* 
peium, ad eum mittit, rogatum, 1 ut sibi militibusque 3 parcat. Ille 
appellatus respondit : 'Si velit secum colloqui, licere ; sperare a 
multitudine impetrari posse, quod ad militum salutem pertineai; 
ipsi vero nihil nocitum iri, 3 iaque earn rem se suam fidem inter- 
ponere.' Ille cum Cotta saucio comniunicat, 'si videatur, pugna wi 
excedant, et cum Ambiorige una colloquantur : pperare, ab eo de 
nua ac militum salute impetrare posse.' Cotta se ad armatam hoa- 
tem ituruin uegat, atque in eo constitit. 



ft. Procurreret, $210, Rem. 8. 

T. Feeeriut, §198, a. 

S. Nihil iis tioceri posse, "That no 

damage could be dune them." Nihil, 

|165: fa, 1 1 4i. 
t» Se recipieutes, $c. Roraanos. 
10. lnsequantur, JJ17, Rem. 1. 

XXXV. I. Vellenl, {197, Rem 4. 

2. Quod ipais esset indignum, "Which 
would be unworthy of themselves (if 
committed); §197, Iter*. 1, b.--Jpti$. 

it 



$16'->, Rem. 2. 

3. Tito Balventio, {147. 

4. In adrersum os, "Full in the tnoatfh 
(or face)." The accusative U used 
with reference to the motion of tfe* 
stone — "into his faoe turned towards 
it." 

XXXVI. 1. Rogatum, J17I, a. 
2. Sibi militibusque, $142. 
i. Nihil nocitum iri, " That no bora 
will hs done." See XXXI V, 8. 



114 



.DE BELLO GALL1CO 



XXXVII. Sahinus, quos in prscsentia tribunes militum circum 
se habebat et primorum ordinum centuriones, se sequi jubet ; et 
quuin propius Ambiorigem 1 accessiseet, jussus arma abjicere, im- 
peratum facit, suisque, ufc idem faciant, imperat. Interim, dum de 
conditionibus inter se agunt, longiorque consulto ab Ambiorige in- 
stituitur sernao, paulatim circuinventus interficitur. "Turn vero suo 
more victoriam 2 conclaniant, atque ululatum tollunt, impetuque in 
nostros facto, ordines perturbant. Ibi L. Cotta pugnans interfici- 
tur cum maxima parte militum ; reliqui se in castra recipiunt, unde 
erant egressi : ex quibus L. Petrosidius aquilifer, quum magna mul- 
titudine bostium premerctur, aquilam intra vallum projepit, ipse 
rjro castris fortissime pugnans occiditur. Illi 33gre ad noctem op- 
"iugnationem sustinent: noctu ad ununi omnes, desparata salute, se 
ipsi interficiunt. Pauci, ex prcelio elapsi, incertis itineribus per 
>;ilvas ad T. Labienum legatum in hiberna perveniunt, atque eum 
de rebus gestis certiorem faciunt. 

XXXVIII. Hac victoria sublatus Ambiorix, statim cum equi- 
tatu in Aduatueos, qui erant ejus regno* finitimi, proficiscitur ; ne-. 
quenoctem neque diem intermittit, peditatumque se subsequi jubet. 
Re demonstrata, Aduatucisque concitatis, postero die in Nervios 
nervenit, hortaturque, 'ne sui in perpetuum liberandi 2 atque ulcis- 
cendi Romanos pro iis, quasacceperint, injures occasionem dimiV- 
tant : interfectos esse legatos duo, magnamque partem exercitus in- 
terisse ' demonstrat; 'nihil esse negotii;, 3 subito oppressam legio- 
nem, quse cum Cicerone hiemet, interfici ; se ad earn rem ' profite- 
tur * adjutorem.' Facile hac oratione Nerviis persuadet. 

XXXIX. Itaque, confestim dimissis nunciis ad Centrones, Gru- 
dios, tievacos, Pleumoxios, Geiduoos, qui omnes sub eorum imperio 
sunt, quam maximas manus possunt, cogunt ; et de improvise ad 
Ciceronis hiberna advolant, nondum ad eum fama de Titurii morte 
perlata. Huic quoque accidit, quod fuit necesse, ut nohnulli mili- 
tes, qui lignationis munitionisquc causa in silvas discessissent, 1 re- 
pentino xquitum adventu interciperentur. His circumventis, mag- 
na manu Eburones, Nervii, Aduatuci atque horum omnium socii et 
clientes legionem oppugnare incipiunt : nostri celeriter ad arma con- 
ourrunt, vallum conscendunt. JEgre is dies 2 sustentatur, quod om- 



XXXVII. 1. Ambiorigein, §142, RemA. 
2. Victoriam, §150, Rem. 2. 

XXXVIII. 1. Regno, §142, Rem. 3. 
2. Sui liberandi, §177, Rem. g. 

■i. Nihil esse negotii, i( That it is no 



troublrfor the legion'to be suddenly 
overpowered and cut to pieces." 

XXXIX. 1. Discessissent, see Book II 

XXVII, 1. 
2. Is dies, i.e. the assault of' that day 



L1BEH QUJSTUS. Ufi 

nein spem hoste»iu celeritate pon -bant, atqu< i viciori- 

am, in perpctr 10 victorc? eouWebaift. 

XL. Mitiuntur ad Caesarem eouf'esftn.ab Citopou - litcric, mag- 
nis propositus urtpmiis, si pertulissimt.] *>b,sepsis omnibus viis, missi 
intcrcipiuntu a ex oa hi quam munitipnis causa c 

portaverant, turret ^dmodum CXA ejfcitantur incredibili qeleritate : 
qua? deesse open 1 -' videbantur, perfieiuntur. Hostes. poster*) die, 
fiiulto itoaioribus copiis coactr?, castra op'pugnant, fossa m ooiupleut. 
Ab nosh-is cnAem ratione, qua pridie, resistitur : hoc idem deincepk 
reliquis fit die&us. Nulla pars nocturni temporis ad laborem inter- 
mittitur : uon segris. non vulr.eratis i'aeultas quietis datur : qusecum- 
que ad proximi diei oppugnationcm opufi 8 sunt, noctu eomparantur: 
naultae prseustae s gnus muialium pilorum gpuier-us institui- 

tur; turres contabulantur, pinuae lorioreque ex'oraubus attexun^ur. 
Ipse Cicero quum tenuissiuia valetudine 4 esset, ne' i,*..i>uiiuui qui- 
dfiiu sibi tenipus ad quieiem reliuquebat, ut ultro 5 militum eoucursu 
ac vocibus sibi pareere cogeretur. q 

XlA. Tunc duces principeeque Nervioruni, qui aliquem sennonis 
aditum 1 causanique amicitiic cum Cicerone habebant, col'oqni sese 
velle dicunt. Facta potestate, eadem, quae Ambiorix cum Titurio 
egerat, commemorant. * omnem esse in armis Galliam, Germanos 
Rhenurn transisse, Caesaris reliquorumque hiberna oppugnari.' 
Addunt etiam de Sabini mortc Ambiorigem ostentant fidei faci- 
undae causa : 2 ' Erfare eos ' dicunt, 'si quidquam ab his> 3 prjesidii 
sperent, qui^uis rebus diffidart ; sese tamen hoc esse in Ciccrcnem 
populumque Romanum ammo, 4 ut nihil nisi hiberna recusent, utque 
banc inveterascere consuetudinem nolint : licere illis incoluniibus' 
per se ex hibernis disccdere, et, quasctunqfte in partes velint, sine 
metu prpficisci.' Cicero ad hcoc unum modo respondit : '.Non sse 
suetudineni populi Romani ullam accipere ab hoste armato con • 
ditionem : si ab armis di.scedere velint, se adjutore utant ur, G lega- 
tosque ad Cajsarcui mitlant : sperare pro ejus juntitia, quae pctie- 
rint, impetraturos.' 

XL. i. Si pertuliseent, "If they should |2. Fidei faciumhe- cmsa, "For the pur- 
carry them through." ■ • of producing Ix.'lief"' i r.proving 
-. Uperi, §142. what they 

' Opus, JLBO, Rem. ]. 8. His. Observe that the demonstrative 

i Tenutssima vnletudine, §164\itonj 5. of the first person i-^ used, according 

Though ho wr.s in very fceHle lo ine form of direct discourse; — 

health.'' "from these fCsesar and the r 

lira is here an adjective limiting v. lion: we have just mentioned." 

conevrtu. 4. Hoc ammo, "01 euch disposition ; " 

XLI. 1. Aditum. This resulted from 5. Incolum 

their former friendly relations with; 6. Utautur, " Let them employ him, 
Cicero. fa " §217, Bern. 1. 



110 DL BELLO GALLICO 

XLH. Ab hae spe repulsi Nervii, vallo pedum XI et fossa pedum 
XV hiberna ciagunt. Hasc et superiorum annorum con'suetudine 1 a 4 
nostris eognoverant, et, q'uosdam de eiercitu nacti captivos, ab his 
doeebantur: ;-ed, nulla fsrramentoruui copia, 2 quae sunt ad hunt) 
tisum idonea,, gladiis cespitem circumcidere, mouibus .sagulisque 
terrain exhaurire cogebantur . Qua quidem ex re hominum multi- 
tude) cognosci potuit: nam minus horis tribus millium X in circuitu 
suunitionem perfecerunt : reiiquisque diebus turres ad altitudinetn 
valli, falces testudinesque, quas iidem captivi docuerant, parare a$ 
latere cocperunt. 

XLIII. Septimo oppugnationis die, maximo coorto vento, fer- 
veutes fusili ex argilla glandes* fundis et fervefaeta jacula in casas,. 
anas more Gallico stramentis erant tectse, jacere coeperunt. Ha* 
celeriter ignem comprehenderunt, et venti. magnitudiue in omuem 
ca8trorum locum distulerunt 2 Hostes, maximo clamore insecuti, 
quasi parta jam atque explorata victoria, turres testudine'sque agere 
et scalis vallum ascendere cocperunt. At tanta inilitum virtus atque 
ea 3 praesentia animi fuit, ut, quum 4 undique flamtna torrerentur. • 
maxiiiiaque telorum raultitudine premorentur, suaque omnia impedi- 
menta atque omnes fortunas conflagrare intelligerent, non modr> 
demigrandi causa de vallo. decederet nemo, scd pasne ne respicerei 
quidem quisquam; ac turn omnes acerrime fortissitneque pugnarent. 
Hie dies nostrifc lotige gr^vissimus fuit; sed tamen hunc habuit even- 
turn, ut eo die maximus hostium numerus vulneraretur atque inter- 
ficeretur, ut 5 se sub ipso vallo constipaverant, recesSumque primiu 
ultimi non dabant. Paulum quidem intermissa flamma, et quodam 
loco turri adacta et contingente vallum, tertise cohortis centurioneii 
ex eo, quo 6 stabant, loco recesserunt, suosque omnes removerunt ; 
nutu vocibusque hostes, si iatroire vellent, 7 vocare coeperunt, quo- 
rum progredi ausus est nemo Turn ex omni parte lapidibus con> 
jectis 8 deturbati, turrisque succensa est. 

XLIV. Erant in ea legione fortissimi viri centuriones, qui jam 
primisordinibusappropiuquarent, 1 ' T.Pulfio et L. Varenus. Hipep- 



XLII 1. Superiorum annorum consue- 
tudiae, «• By their acquaintance in 
foruittr years. " 



t. Nulla ferrnmentorum copia, "There^. Si introire vellent, " Tbey began k» 
being no supply of irou fool.«i;" 3 l?li,- invite theih to come in if they chose " 
Rem. 1. '8. Conjtctit; participial conjunctiva 



XLIII. 1. Fer»entes fusili ex argilla 
glandes, " Ked hot bulls of melted 
clay" 

i. Distulerunt, «e. ignem. , 

8. Ea, "Such." 



4. Quum, "Although.*' 

5. Ut, "Since." 

6. Quo. §'6b\ 



construction : — " by stones tbrowR 
from every side." 

XLIV. . 1, Qui — appropinquareni ex- 
presses the result of fertistimi. 



LIBEK QUINTUS. 11? 

petuas inter so contitayersias habebaut^ q^nam auteferretur,- omni^ 
busque anil is de loci* summis simultatil^fc^fcouteudebaiit. Ex ii> 
Pulfio, quum acerrimf^ad munitions PwilM|* ur > "quid 4 dubitas," 



inquit, " Varene ? aut quem locum probanda? virtutia tuae spectaa ? 
hie dies, hie dies de nostris coutroversiU judicabit." Hree qumn 
dixisset, proedditj extra munitioner, qtioeque pars hostium eont'ortis- 
sinia visa est, in earn trrumpit. No V r arcnus quidem turn vallo suse 
continet, 5 s*cd omnium veritus cxistimatio'ueni subsequitur. Mediocri 
spatio relicto, Puifio pilum in hostes mitiit, atque unum ex muititu- 
dine proeurrcntem transjicit, quo percusso et exanimato, hunc scutis 
protegunt hostes, in ilium tela universi conjieiunt, neque dant rc- 
.■▼rediemli facultatom Transfigitur scutum Pulfioni, et verutuni in 
balteo defigitur. Avertit hie casus vaginam, et gladium educerc co- 
lanti" dextram moratur niauum : impeditum hostes circumsistunt. 
Succurrit inimious illi Vareuus, et laborar.ti subvenit. Ad hunc go ■ 
coufestim a Pulfioue emnis multitudo convertit ; ilium veruto trans- 
ixum arbitrantur. Occursat ocius gladio, cominusque rem gerit 
Varenus, atque, uno interfecto, rcliquos paulum propellit : dum cu- 
pidiut instat, iu locum dejectus inf'erioreui s coucidit. Huic rursus 
ciremtnvento fert subsidium Pulfio, atque ambo incolumes, compluri- 
bus interfectis, summa cum laude seee intra muuitiones recipiunt. 
Sic fortuna in contentione et eortamine utruiuque versavit, ut alter 
alteri inimicus auxilio salutiquV* ees'et^neque dijudio'ari posset, uter 
utri virtutc anteferendus videretur. 10 

XLV. Quanto 1 erat in dies gravior atque asperior oppngutttio, et 
naxime quod, magna parte militum eonfeeta vulueribus, res ad pau- 
>it,atem defensortito pervenerat, taiito 1 crebriores literal nuaciique 1 I 

rem mittebantur : quorum pars deprehensa in conspectu i 

rurum milituiu cum cruciatu neoabatur. Erat unus intuB Nervim-, 

lOioine Vertico, loco natus honesto, qui a prima 2 ptisidione ad <'iec- 

ronem perfugerat, suanique^pi thlem praestiterat. Hie servo spe lib- 

ertatis magnisque persuadet prcetniis, ut literas ad Caesarem deferat 



.'. Ahteferretur, ?214. within the rampant." 

t. Simuitatibus. The plural expr03s&4u3 l'u Irioni, \ N7 
the numerous occasions ou which 7. > nanti, "As he attempts ;" (lo him 
ihelrivalry wa« manifested: — ' wifhi attempting); 
tin' greatest rivalry" on now.;, uccaB rem, -Lower thin tl 

f i.t a bole or hollow. 
1. Quid, "Why?" The ac ' o salutique,$144. 

the i"> nl which an action or motion 10. Videretur, '• Which one seemed 
limes also the pom - worthy* of being preferred to the 
which a motion i :ich ; oilier;" 

J 154') Henc. . the 

"ere XLV. 1. Quanto, tanto, §168. 

Varena.xquldem-.ontinet,*Wheu _' Prima . 8. 

indeed Varenua d not keep him- 



11 8 DK BELLO GALLICO 

i 
Has ille in jaculo illigatas effert, et Gallus 3 inter Gallos sine ulla 
suspicione versatus, ad Caesarem pervcnit. Ab eo de periculis Cice- 
ronis Iegionisque coguoscitur. 

XL VI. Caesar, acceptis Uteris hora circiter undecima diei, statim 
nuncium in Bellovacos ad'M. Crassum quaestorem mittit, cujus hi- 
berna aberant ab eo raillia passuum XXV. Jubet media nocte 1 le- 
gionem proficisci, celeriterque adse venire. Exiit cum nuncio Cras- 
stis. Alterura ad C. Fabium le'gatum mittit, ut in Atrebatium fines 
legionem adducat,- qua sibi 3 iter faciendum pciebat. Soribit Labieno, 
si reipublicae commodo faeere posset, cum legione ad fines Nervio- 
rum veniat: 4 reliquam partem exercitus, quod paulo aberat longius, 
uon putat exspectandam ; equites circiter quadringentos ex proximi* 
hibernis cogit. 

XL VII. Hora circiter tertia ab antecursoribus de Crassi adventu 
certior factus, eo die inillia passuum viginti progreditur. Crassum 
Samarobrivee praeficit, legionemque ci attribuit,' quod ibi impedi- ' 
menta exercitus, obsides civitatum, literas publicas frumenturnque 
omne, quod eo tolerandae biemis causa devexerat, relinquebat. Fab- 
ius, ut imperatum erat, non ita multum 1 inoratus, in itinere cum le- 
gion* occurrit. Labienus, interitu Sabini et casde cobortium cogni- 
ta, 2 quum omnes ad eum Trevirorum copise venissent, veritus, jie,° 
si ex hibernis fuga> similem prpfectionem iecisset, 4 bostium impetum 
sustinere non posset, prresertiiih quos recenti victoria efferri' sciret, 5 
literas Caesari remittit, quanto cum periculo legionem ex hibernis 
educturus esset : 6 rem gestam iu Eburonibus perscribit : docet, om- 
nes equitatus peditatusque copias Trevirorum tria millia passuum 
longe 7 ab suis castris consedisse. 

XLVIII. Cresar, consilio ejus probato, etsi, opinione 1 tfcium le- 
gionum dejectus, ad duas redierat, tameu unum communis salutis 
auxilium 2 in celeritate ponebat. Venit-magnis intineribus in Ner- 
viorum fines. Ibi ex captivis cognoscit, .quae apud Ciceronem geran- 

■',. Gallus, predicate nomiative,limitin^|3. Ne, $193, Rem. 2. Ne non is equiva- 
versattis ; " passiDg a Gaul among lent to ul. 

Gauls, -without any suspicion." 4. Si — fecisset, "If he should make." 

5. Prce.-ertim quos sciret, -'Especially 



XL VI. 1. Media nocte, $167. 
•.'. Ut—udducat depends on nuncium 
mittit, which is -equivalent to a verb 
. of cofnmaudin<jf. 
::. Sibi, §145. 
4. Veniat, §193, Rem. G. 



XLVII. 1. Non ita multum, '-Avery 
short time ;" (not so much as he 
might have delayed). 

2. Cognita, $12b\ Rem 1, ['2). safety 



when he knew them to be elated by 

their recent victory." 
G. Esset, $214. 
7. Tria millia passuum louge, "Three 

miles distant." 

XLVIII I. Opinione, §163. " Disap- 
pointed in his expectation.". 



short time;" (not so much as he 2. Unum communis salutis auxilium, 
might have delayed). "The only hope (help) of the common 



LIBLK QU1NTUS. L19 

tur, quantoque in periculo res sit. Turn cuidam ex equitibus Gallis 
magnis prremiis persuadet, uti ad Ciceronem epistolam deferat. Hants 
Grcecis conscriptam Uteris mittit, ne, intercepta epistola, nostra ab 
hostibus consilia cognoscantur. Si adire non possit, monet, ut tra- 
gulam cum epistola ad amentum deligata intra munitiones castrorum 
abjiciat. In literis sorib.it, ' se cum legionibus profectum celeritor 
kffore:' hortatur, *ut pristinam virtutemretineat,' Galium, periouluro 
itus, ut crat praeceptum, tragulain mittit. Haec casu ad turrim 
a'dbaesit, nequd ab nostris biduo animadversa, tertio die a quodam 
jnilite conspicitur : dempta ad Ciceronem defertur. Ule pe.rlectam 8 
in co'nvcntu militum recitat, maximaque ojnnes lsetitia afficit. Turn 
fumi incendiorum prociil ridebantur, quffi re$ omnem dubitationem 
adventus legionum expulit. 

XLIX. Galli, re cognjta per exploratores, obsiJionem relin'quunt, 
ad Caisarem omnibus copiis contendtlut ; eaa erant armatorum circi- 
ter,millia LX. Cicero, data facilitate, Galium ab eodera Vei'tioone, 
quern supra demonstravimus, repetit, qui literas ad Ca^sarem refe- 
rat: 1 hunc admonet, iter eaute diligentorfque faciat :- p'erscribit in 
literis ' liosfes ab se disccssisse, omnemque ad eum multitudinem 
convertisse.' Quibus literis circiter media nocte, Caesar, allatis, suos 
facit certiores, eosque ad dimicandum animo confirmat: posteru die 
luce prima movet castra, et circiter millii passuum quatuor progres- 
sus, trans vallera maguam et rivuin multitudinem hostium conspica- 
tur. Erat magni periculi res, cum tantis copiis iniquo loco dimicare. 
Turn, quoniam liberatum obsidione Ciceronem soiebat, eoque onini 
no remittendum 3 de celeritate existimabat, consedit, et, quam aequis- 
simo potest loco, castra commnnit. Atquc baoc, etsi erant exigua per 
se, vix hominuni millium VII, 4 praesertim nullis cum impediments, 
tamen angn-tiis viarum, 5 quam maxinie potest, contrabit, eo consilio, 
ut in suml||am eontemptionem hostibus' 1 veniat Interim, speculator- 
ibus in onines partes dimissfs^explorat, quo commodissime itinere 
Valleni transire possit." 

L, Bo die, parvulis equestribus pruliis ad aquam factis, utrique 
sese suo loco continent; Galli, quod ampliores copias, qure nondum 
convenerant, exspectabant ; Caesar, si forte thnoria silftulatione bos- 
tes in suum locum elJcere possetJ ut 2 citra vallem pro castris proelio 



3. Pcrlcctarrf, " After first reading it I. Yu hominum millium septcm, like 
. himself.' 1 exigua limits trant, 5132. Rem. 1. 

5. Angustiis viuruin, " By the narrow- 
XLIX. 1. Kcferat. 3210. ncea of the streets." 

2. Facial, J193, Rent 6. Hostibus, JM7. 

3. I'.oque omnino remittendum, "And 7. Possit, J21 1. 
therefore that he ought to relax alto- 
gether from his (former) speed." L. 1. Si posset, tc. exspectabat,"Co9sar 



120 



DE BE LLC G ALU CO 



contenderet ; si id efficere non possefc, ut, exploratis itineribus, ini- 
nore cum perieulo vallenj, rivumque transiret. Prima luce hostiuu' 
equitatus ad castra accedit, proeliumque cum nostris equitibus coru- 
mittit. Ctesar cousulto equites ccdere, seque in castra recipere ju- 
bet ; simul ex omnibus partibus castra altiore vallo muniri, porta? 
que obstrui, atque in bis administrandis rebus quam maxime con- 
cursari et cum simulatione timoris agi 3 jubet. 

LT. Quibus omnibus rebus bostes invitati copias transducunt, 
aciemque iniquo loco constituunt ; nostris vero etiam de vallo dedu 
ctis, propius accedunt, et tela intra munitiouem ex omnibus, parti- 
bus conjiciunt; proeconibusque circummissis, pronunciari jubent, 
' seu quis Gallus seu Roraanus 1 velit ante lioram tertiam ad se trans- 
ire, sine perieulo licere; 2 post id tempus non fore potestat'em :' ac 
sic nostros contempserunt, ut, obstructis iu speciem portis singuli 
ordinibus cespitum, quod ea non posse introruiupere videbantur 
alii vallum manu sciridere, alii fossas complere inciperent. Turn 
Caasar, omnibus portis erupt ione facta, equitatuque emisso, celeriter 
bostes dat in fugam, sic, uti ouvnino pugnandi causa resisteret nemo ; 
magnum que ex eis numerum occidit, atque omnes armis 3 exuit. 

LIT. Longius prosequi veritus, quod siWre paludesque intense- 
debaut, neque etiaui parvulo detrimehto illorum locum relinqui vide 
'^at, 1 omnibus suis incolum-ibus copiis, eodem die ad Ciceronem per- 
-renit. Xustitutas turres,' 2 testudines hiunitinnesque bostium admi- 
ratur : producta legione, cognoscit non decimum quemque esse relic- 
Lum militem sine vulnere. Ex«bis omnibus judicat rebus, quant, 
cum perieulo et quanta cum virtute siut 3 res administratis : Cicero- 
nem pro ejus merito legionemque collaiidat : centuriones singillatim 
tribunosque militum appellat, quorum egregiam fuisse virtut,em tes- 
timonio Ciceronis cognoverat. De casu.Sabini et, Cottse •«er|Mi'ar ex 
captiris cognoscit. Postero die, couci'one habita, rem gestarsr pr »- 
ponit, milites consolatur et confirmat r q.uod detrimentum culpa et 
temeritate legati sit acceptum, boc aequiore animo ferendum docet, 
quod, beneiicio deorum immortalium et virtute eorum expiato iu- 



was waiting-to see whether he could. 
&c." Si is here interrogative, and ut 
expresses a result; while si below is 
conditional, and ut expresses a pur- 
pose 

2. Ut citra, &c,"So that. < l cc *' 

3. ConcursaH and agi are impersonal. 

LI 1. Seu quis Gallus sen Romanus, 
;i If any one, either Gaul or Roman, 

&c.'" 



2. Licera. "That it is in his power (to 
do so)." 

3. Armis, § 1 GO. 
» 

Lll. 1. Keqne — rideba*, "And also 
• (because) he saw that their position 

was abandoned with no trifling loss." 
2. Institutas turres, "The towers that 

had been built." 
■■',. Slat, §214. 



LIBER QUINTUS. 121 

commodOj neque bostibus diutina Iaetatio, neque ipsis longior dolor 4 
velinquatur. 

LIII. Interim ad Labienuni per Itemos incredibili celcritate de 
victoria Ca?saris fatna perfertur, ut, quum 1 ab hiberuis Ciceronis 
abessct millia passuuin circiter LX, coque post boratn nonani diei 
Csasar pervenissct, ante mediam noctem ad portas castrorum clamor 
iriretur, quo clamore significatio victorias gratulatioquc ab Reniis 
Labieno fieret. 2 Hac fama ad Treviros perlata, Indutioinarus, qui 
postero die castra Labieni oppuguaro decreverat, noctu profugit, 
■opiasque'omnes in Treviros reducit. Ceesar Fabium cum legione 
in sua remittit hiberna, ipse cum tribus legionibus circum Saiuaro- 
brivam trinis 8 Eibernis liiemarc constituitj et, quod tanti motus 
• Gallia) exstiterant, totam biemem ipse ad exercitum manere de- 
crevit. Nam illo incommodo de Sabini morte perlato, omnes fere 
OalliflB civitatos de bello cousultabant, nuncios legationesque in 
) tunes partes dimittebant, et, quid reliqui consilii caperent, 4 atque 
initio i.nitium belli fieret, explorabant, nocturnaque in locis desertia 
concilia habebant. Neque ulluiu fere totius biemis tempus sine 
Bollicitudine Cassaris interccssit, quin aliquem de conciliis ac motu 
Q-allerum nuncium acciperet."' In bi.s ab L. Roscio legato, quern 
legioni XIII praefecerat, certior est factus, ' maguas Gallorum copias 
earum civitatum, qua; Armoric:e appe'.lantur, oppugnandi sui causa 
iVenisse : neque longius 1 ' millia passuum VIII ab hibernis suis 
abfuisse; sed nuncio allato de victoria Caesaris, discessisse, adeo, ut 
fugae similis discessus' videretur.' 

LIV. At C;csar, principibus cujusque civitatis ad se evocatis, 

alios territando, quum se scire, qua; fierent, 1 denuncfciret, alios co- 

'.andd, maguam partem Galliae in officio teuuit. Tamen Senozes, 

ft ct vitas in primis firm a et magna? inter Gallos auctoritatis, 

quem Csesar apud eos regeni coi>*tituerat, (cujus frater 

.^onBBigu.-, adventn in (Jalliam Caesaris, cujusque majorea regnum 

obtiaperant), interfiecre publico consilio coDati, quum ille praisen- 

sisset ae profugisset, usque ad fines insecuti, regno domoque expule- 

runt: et, mi&sis ad Caesarem eatiefaciendi causa legatis, quum is 

'omnem ad se senatum venire jussissct, dicto audientes nbn fuerunt. 

Tantum apud homines barbaros valuit' esse repertos aliquos princi- 



Longior dolor, " Too long a grief." 



out. his leceiving." 
t I, ngius, §165, Rem. 4. 



[LIV. 1. Fierent, §214. 



.'.111. 1. Ut quum, 'So that although. 

2. Fieret, Hook II. XXVI 1, 1. 

3. Trims, i e. one t» each legion. l2. QdSB, §120, Rem. 6. 
•1. Quid— caperent, 'What other de- 3 Adrcntu, \\ 

sign they should form." 1. Tantum valuit. • b'o much influence 

'». Quin (=^quo non) acciperet, '-With did it have.' The fo'lowing infinitive 
K 



122 



DE BELLO GALLICO 



pes belli inferendi,' tantamque omnibus voluntatum commutatio- 
nem attulit, ut, prseter iE&uos et Renios, quos praccipuo semper 
honore Crcsar habuit, altero9 6 pro vetere ac perpetua erga populum 
Ronianum fide, alteros pro recentibus Gallici belli officiis, 7 nulla 
fere civitas fuerit non suspecta nobis. Idque adeo baud scio miran- 
dumne sit, 8 quum 9 compluribus aliis de causis, turn maxime, quod, 
qui virtute belli omnibus gentibus prajferebantur, 10 tantum se ejus 
opinionis 11 deperdidisse, ut a populo Romano imperia perferrent, - ;". 
gravissime dolebant. 

LV. Treviri vero atque Indutiomarus totiusbiemis nullum tem- 
pus intermiserunt, 1 quin trans Rhenum legatos niitterent, 2 civitates 
aollicitarent, pecunias pollicerentur, magna parte exercitus nostri 
mterfecta, multo 3 minorem superesse dicerent partem. Neque tamen 
ulli civitati Germanorum persuaderi potuit, ut Rbenum transiret, 
quum 4 ' se bis expertos ' dicerent, ' Ariovisti bello et Tencbtberorum 
transitu, nori esse amplius fottunam tentandam.' Hac spe 5 lapsus 
Indutiomarus, nibilo minus copias cogere, exercere, a finitimis equos ' 
parare, exsules damnatosque tota Gallia magnis prceiaiis a-d se alli- 
cere coopit. Ao tantam sibi jam iis rebus in Gallia auctoritatem ' 
eomparaverat, ut undique ad eum legationes concurrerent, gratiam 
atque amicitiam publice privatimque peterent. 

LVI. Ubi intellexit ultro ad se veniri, 1 altera ex parte Senones 
Carnutesque conscientia facinoris instigari, 2 altera Nervios Aduatu- 
cosque bellum Romanis parare, neque sibi voluntariorum copias de- 
fore, si ex finibus suis progredi coepisset ; 3 armatum concilium iu- 
dicit, (hoc more Gallorum est initium belli,) quo lege communi 
i>mnes puberes armati convenire consuerunt; qui ex iis novissimus 
venit, in conspectu multitudinis omnibus cruciatibus affectus neca- 
tur. In go concilio Cingetorigem, alterius principem factiqpis. 
generum suum, (quern supra demonstravimus, Ctesaris secutum 



sentence, though logically dependent 
on valuit, is grammatically its subject 

5. Principes belli inferendi, " Leaders 
in carrying on the war." 

t5. Alteros, §127, Rem. 6. 

7. Gallici belli officiis, "Services in the 
Gallic war." 

8. Mirahdumne sit, " Whether it is to 
be wondered at." 

,6. Quum — turn, "Not only — butllso." 

10. Qui prcefcrebantUT is subject of do- 
lebant. 

11. Ejus opinionis, "Of that prestige." 

LV. 1. Nullum tempus intermiserunt, 
"Allowed no time to pass." 



2. Quin (=quo non) mitterent, "With- 
out sending," 

3. Multo, §168. 

.4. Quum, "Since." 
5.. Spe, §163. 
6. Nihilo, §168. 

LVI. 1. Veniri, sc. a finitimis civitati- 
bus. 

2. Senones Carnutesque instifiari. The 
Senones had expelled and attempted 
to kill their king CaTarinus, and the 
Carnutes had .slain their king Tas> 
getius, both of whom were under 
Csesar's protection. 

3. Si ooepisset, "If he should begin." 



LIBER QUINTUS. 123 

d , , • ■ o non .liscessisse,) hostem 4 judicat, bonaque ejus publicat. 
confcctMl in conc ; lio pronunciat, arcessituni se a Senoni- 
rnutibus aliisque conipluribus Gallice civitatibus, hue 5 iter 
>er fines Remorum, eorumque agros populaturuni; ac 
. m id faciat, 6 Labieni oastra oppugnatufum : quae fieri 
Mpit. 
Labienus quuin ct loci nature et manu rnunitissiruii cas- 
i ret, de suo ac legionis periculo nihil timebat ; ne quam 
in rei bene gerendai dimitteret, cogitabat. 1 Itaque a Cin- 
atque ejus propinquis orationc Indutiomari cognita, quani 
i' habuerat, nuncios mittit ad fiuitimas eivitates, equites- 
[ue e.vocat : iis certUm diem convenieudi dicit. Interim 
lie cuia omni equitatu Indutiomarus sub castris ejus 
r. alias ut situm castrorum cognosceret, alias colloquendi 
rrit&ndi causa : equites plerunique omnes tela intra vallum 
ant. Labienus suos intra niunitiones continebat, timoris- 
I ioncm, quibuscumque poterat rebus, augebat. 
[II. Quum majore in dies contemptrbne Indutiomarus ad cas- 
eret, nocte una, intromis»is equitibus omnium finitimarum 
i. .(uos arcessendos curaverat, 1 tanta diligentia omnes suos 
intra castra continuit, ut nulla ratione ea res cnunciari aut 
ros perfeiri posset. Interim ex consuetudine quotidiana 
arus ad e:i>tra accedit, atque ibi magnam partem diei con- 
juites tela conjiciunt, ot magna cum contumelia verborum- 
d pugnam evocant. Nullo ab \10stri9 dato response, ubi 
r, sub vesperum dispersi ac disfcipati discedunt. Subito 
dualm* p rii,« oniuein equitatum emittit; prsecipit atque 
profcrritia hqstibus atque in fugam conjectis, (quod 
'Viit 'accidit. videbat,)- unum omnes petaut 4 Indutioruarum ; 
(juem prius vulneret, quam ilium interfectum viderit/' 
ra reliquurura spatiuin nactun/' ilium effugere nolebat : 
oponit iis, qui occiderint, prsemia : submittit cohortes equi- 
jidio. Comprobat homijiis consilium fortuna, et, quum 

JIM, l». I for."' 

M:igiifi contumelia Tcrborum, "V T ery 
;>iry of the Honours and in>ulting language." 

■'. P&cipit and lMerdicit are limite I 

jc-|«ctiv»lv by pctiint and vulntrrt. 
I Petunt, 5193, Hem. fi. 
. h. 
Mora reli.juorum epatium nudum, 
" Having pained tim< 
caused by killing the rest." 
7 Taulo, §1(4. 



J206, b. 

1 .-.'.it. .-it. ■ 'i\ us forming 
toripc, "From Cingetorii ' 



QuOf s curaverat. 

he bad caused to be called 



124 



DE BELLO GALLICO 



unurn omnes peterent, iu ipso fluminis vado deprebeirsus Indutioma . 
rus interficitur, caputque ejus'reiertur in castra: redeunte 
quos possunt, consectantur atque occidunt. Hac re cognita, on 
Eburonum et Nerviorum, quae convenerant, copine discedunt ; ptiulo 
que 7 habuit post id factum Cresar quietiorem G-alliam. 



DE BELLO G\LLICC 
LIBER VL 



I. Multis de causis Caesar, majorem Gallise motum exi 
per M. Silanum^ C. Antistium Reginum, T. Senium, legato, de 
turn babere iustituit: .simul ab Cn. Pompeio 1 proconsul- pet;^ 
quouiani ipse 3 ad urbem cum imperio reipublicse causa rema ien 
quos ex Cisalpina Gallia coDsulis Sacramento rogavisset,' 1 : 
convenire et ad se proficisci juberet : 5 magni 6 interesse etian 
liquum tempus ad opinio'nem Galliae 7 existimans, tantas vide; 
facultates, ut, si quid esset in bello detrimenti acceptum, 8 n 
id brevi tempore sarciri, sed etiara majoribus adaugeri 9 copits },q S _ 
set. Quod quum Pompeius et reipublicse et amicitise 10 tf 
celeriter confecto per suos delectu, tribus ante exactam bic 
constitutisetaidductis legionibus, duplicatoque earum cohort 
mere, quas cum Q. Titurio aniiserat, et celeritate et copiiJOd 
quid populi Roinani disciplina atque opes possent. 



NOTES.' 



1. Ab Cn. Pompeio. Ponipey had|6. 
been consul the year before, and .va>|7„ 
governing the province of Spain as 
proconsul. 'He chose, however, to re 
main at Rome, for the ostensible pur- 
pose' of supplying the city with corn, 
while his lieutenant.* were sent to 
command in Spain. 
Ipse, "Himself," as opposed to his 
legates. jit. 

Remanent, As he alleged ; §210, c 
Quos — rogavisset, "Whom he hadJ9. 
enrolled with the consul's oath;" i.e. | 
whom he had sworn in the year be j 
fore, while consul. Rogare is the*' 
term used for administering the-oathjK 
to a soldier— "asking " him to<take 
it. The Romans retained the shadow 
of civil liberty long after they had 
lost the substance. 
Juberet, £193, Rem. 6. 



Magni, §137. 

Ip reliquum tempus ad opini 
Galliee, " That it was of : 
port.ince for the future opini 
Gauls." Facultates videri i 
of interesse. The Gauls wou 
rally be elated by the succe- 
biorix in destroying the fori 
Ootla and Sabinus 

Esset acceptum, "Should b 
ed;" §198, a. 

Adaugeri, ll More than made up ;' 
literally, "Made greater than ever." 
The loss is here put, by m. 
for the person sustaining it. 
. Et reipublicoe et amicitice 
set, " Had paid this tribut 
the state and tofriendship;' 
done this thing for the sake 
the public good and of his frier ■■• 
for Cresar. 



LIBER SEXTUS. 125 

II. Interfecto Indutiomaro, ut docuimus, ad ejus propinquos a 
Treviris imperium defertur. Illi finitimos Germanos sollicitare et 
pecuniam polliceri non desistunt : quum ab proximis inipetrare non 
possent, 1 ulteriores tentant. Inventis nonnullis civitatibus, 2 jure- 
jurando inter se confirmant, 3 obsidibusque de pecunia cavent : 4 Ani- 
biorigem sibi societate ct foedere adjungunt. Quibus rebus cognitis r 
Caesar, quum undique belluui parari videret, Nervios, 5 Aduatuoos, 
Menapios, adjunctis Cierbenanis omnibus Germanis, esse in arniis, 
Senones ad imperatum non venire, et cum Carnutibus finitimisque 
civitatibus consilia communicare, a Treviris Germanos crebris lega- 
tiouibus sollicitari; maturius sibi 6 de Joello cogitandum putavit. 

III. Itaque nondum bieme confecta, proximis IV legionibu* 
coactis, de improviso in fines Nerviorum oontendit, et, prius quara 
illi aut convenire aut profugere possent, 1 magno pecoris atque homi- 
num numero capto, atque ea prfeda militibus concessa, vastatisque 
agris, in deditiouem venire atque obsides sibi dare coegit. Eo celer- 
iter eonfecto negotio, ruraus legiones in hiberna reduxit. Concilia 
Gallia; primo vere, uti instituerat, indicto, quum reliqui praeter 
Sentmes, Carnutes Trevirosque vemssent, initium belli ac defectionis 
boc' 2 esse arbitratus, ut omnia postponere. 3 videretur, concilium Lu- 
tetlam Parisiorum transfert. Confines erant bi Senonibus, civita* 
temque patrum memoria conjunxerant ; sed ab boc consilio abfuia- 
se 4 existimabantur. Hac re pro suggestu pronunciata, eodem die 
cum legionibus in Senomes 8 proficiseitur, magnisque itineribus eo 
pervenit. 

iy. Cognito ejus adventu, Acco, qui princeps ejus consilii fue- 
rat, jubet in oppida multitudinem convenire; conantibus, 1 prius 
quam id effici posseb, 2 adesse Romanos nunciatur; necessario sen- 
tentia desistunt, legatosque deprecandi causa ad Caesarem mittunt ; 
adeunt per ^Eduos, quorum antiquitus erat in fide civitas. Liben- 
ter Cfesar petentibus ^Eduis dat veniam, excusationemque accipit ; 



II. it. Quum — possent, " Since they 
couM not obtain help." 



Inventis nonnullis civitatibus, i. e 13- Postponere, "That he might seem t© 



that -were willing to help them. 
t. Confirmant, sc. amicitiam or foeaus. 
4. Obsidibusque de pecunia cavent, 

11 Amd provide by hostages for the 

payment of the money." 



2. Hoc, i.e. their neglect to attend tht 
council. 



Nervios. This tribe had been nearly i viri. 



deem every thing else of aecondary 
importance." 

Ab hoc consilio abfuissc, "To havr 
had nothing to do with the plot' 
of the Senones, Carnutei, and Tre- 



exterminatcd (see Book II, 28), yet 
it was ready to try again the fortune 
of war. 
•i. Sibi, $146. 

III. 1. Possent, §206, b, (2). 

k-2 



5. In Senones, "Against the Senones.' 

IV. 1. Conantibas, M While they were 

endeavoring to do to." 
3. Posset, $206, b, (2). 



126 



I 



DE BELLO QALLICO 



quod sestivuni tempus instantis belli, non quaestionis 3 esse arbitra- 
batur. Obsidibus iinperatis centum, hos iEdMB custodiendos tradit. 
Eodem Carnutes legatos obsidesq"ue mittunt, usi deprecatoribus 4 
Renris, quorum erant in clientela : eadem ferunt responsa. Peragit 
concilium Caesar, equitesque imperat civitatibus. 

V. Hac parte Gallioe pacataj totus et mente et animo 1 in belluin 
Tr«virorum et Ambiorigis insistit. Cavarinum 2 cum equitatu Sen- 
onum secum proficisci jubet, ne quis aut ex bujus iracundia aut ex 
eo, quod meruerat, odio 3 civitatis motus exsistat. His rebus consti- 
tutis, quod pro explorato babebat, Ambiorigem proelio non esse con- 
csrtaturum, reliqua ejus consilia animo circumspiciebat. Erant 
Menapii propinqui Eburonum finibus, perpetuis paludibus silvisque 
umniti, qui uni ex Gallia 4 de pace ad Csesarem legatos nunquam 
miserant. Cum iis. esse bospitium Ambiorigi 5 &ciebat : item per 
.Treviros venisse Germanis 6 in amicitiam cognoverat. Htec prius 
illi" detrabenda auxilia existimabat, quam ipsum bello lacesseret ; 8 
ne, desperata salute, aut se in Menapios abderet, aut cum Trans- 
rbenanis congredi cogeretur. Hoc inito consilio, totius ex^vcitus 
impedimenta ad Labienum in Treyiros mittit, duasque legioues ad 
cum proficisci jubet : ipse cum l.egionibusexpeditis quinque in Men- 
apios proficiscitur. Illi, nulla coacta manu, loci praesidio freti, hi 
silvas paludesque confugiunt, suaque eodem conferunt. 

VI. Caesar, partitis copiis cum C. Fabio. legato et M. Crasso 
i|ua3store, celeriterque effectis pontibuS,- adit tripartito, aedificia. 
vicosque incendit, magno pecoris atque bominum numero pp.titur. 
Quibus rebus coacti Menapii, legatos ad eum pacis petendoo " causa 
mittunt. Ille, obsidibus acceptis, bostium se babiturum numcro 
confirmat, si aut Ambiorigem aut ejus legatos finibus suis recepis- 
.sent. 1 His confirmatis rebus, Commiudi Atrebatem cum equitatu 
oustodis loco in Menapiis relinquit ; ipse in Treviros proficitfftur. 

VII. Dum haec a Caesare geruntur, Treviri, maguis coactispedi- 
tatus equitalusque copiis, Labienum cum una legione, quae in eorum 
finibus biemabat, adoriri parabant : jam que ab eo non longius biduj 



8. Instantis belli non quffistionis esse, 
" Was (the time) for active war, not 
for judicial investigation ;" $133. 

I. Deprecatoribug, "As intercessors." 

V. 1. Totus et mente et animo, "With 
his whole heart and soul;" — a very 
strong expression. Totus limits in- 
siitit. 

ii. Cavarinum ; see Book V, 54. 

'>. Odio. The adherence of Cavarinus 



to Caesar gate his own people abund- 
ant reason to hate him ; though it is 
not likely that Caesar would call such 
hatred deserved. 

4. Ex GaUia,by metoiiomy for ez Gallis. 

5. Ambiorigi, §143. 

6. Gcrmanis,.§147. 

7. Illi, §163, Rem. 3. 

8. Lacesseret, §206, b. 

VI. 1. Si recepissent, §198, a. • 



UvER SEXTO'S . t 127 

via" aberant, quum duas veuisse legiouea missu Caesaris 1 cognoscunt. 
Tositis castris a ruillibus passuuin XV,- auxilia Germanorum exspec-' 
'are constituent. Labienus, hostium eoguito consilio, sperans temer- 
itate eorum fore aliquam dimicandi facultatem, prnesidio cohortium 
V irnpedimcntis' rclicto, cum XXV cohortibus magnoque equitatu 
contra hostium 4 profioiscitur, ct, M passuum intermisso spatio, uastra 
f-nmmunit. . Efat inter Labienum atquc hostem 4 difficili transitu 
liumen ripisque proeruptis : 5 hoc aequo ip.se transire in animo liabe- 
bal, neque bostes t.ransituro existimabftt. Augebatur auxiliorum 
quotidie spes Loquitur in consilio palam, < quoniam Gberuiani ap- 
propinquare dicantur, sese suas exetcitusque fortunas in dubium 
non dcvocaturuui, ot postero die prima luce castra moturum.' Ce- 
loritcr h&c ad bostes defcruntur, 6 ut ex rnagno Gal lo rum equitatua 
auiaero nonuullos Gallicis rebus raw re natura cogebat. Labienus 
Tioctu, tribunis militum primisque urdinibus 7 coactis, quid sui sit 
c >n.silii, s proponit, et quo facilius bostibus timoris det suspicionem, 
majore strepitu et tumultu, quam popnli Romani fert consuetudo, 
Castra moveri jiibet. His rebus fugie simileni profectioncm efficit. 
Haec quoque per cxploratmes ante lucem, in tanta propinquitate 8 
castrorum, ad bostes deferuntur. 

VIII. Vix agmen novissimum extra munitioner procesBerat, 
quum Galli, cohortati inter se, ' ne speratam praidam ex manibus 
ilimitterent; longum esse, 1 pertorritis Romania, Germanorum aux- 
ilium exspeetare ; neque suam pati dignitatem, ut tautis copiis lam 
oxiguam manum, prscsertim 'fugienUinr atque impeditam, adoriri 
don audeant ;' flumen transire et iniquo loco proolium eommittere 
non dubitant. Quae fore- suspicatus Labienus, ut omues citra flu- 
men eliceret, cadem usus simulationc itineris, placide progredieba- 
tur. r f um, pr-Binis&is paulum impcdinie-ntis'tftque in tumulo quo- 
daw^ollocatis: " Ilabetis," 3 inquit, " milites, quam pctistis, facul- 
tate^t hostem impedito atque iniquo loco tenetis : prtwstate eandem 
: o&is diicibus virtutem, quam lepenumero imperatori preeatitistis : 
:idesse eum et ha^c coram ceruere, existimate.'' Simul signa ad 



VII. 1. Missu C;esans, see ch. f>. |8. Quid sat sjt tfQnsiln,»ee Book I. XXI 

1 A inillihus passuuni quindecini. it. 10 

a Caesare millibus (§108) passuum 9 Jn tanta propinquitate cuetroruin, 
quindrcim. "Since the camp was so near." 

■'• Impediment™, remote object of re 

lirl " VIII > 1. Longum esse, "That it was 

I Hostem Observe the interchange of too long. ,r 
the singula* with the pJu^aL 2. Qua; fore, " That this would hap 

pis prrerupti*, §164. pen 

feruntur, "One reported.'' 3. H<t),rtit. Another instanc of direct 

l'riniis ordiuibut-=primorum OOurae : CaaamafB it only whgie 

nam centurionibus. great animation is to be expressed 



r28 



DS BELLO GALLICO 



ho'stem converti aciemque dirigi jubet, et paucis turmis prsesidio* 
ad impedimenta dimissis, reliquos equites ad latera disponit. Ce- 
lariter nostri, clamore sublato, pila in hostes immittunt. Illi ubi 
praeter spem, 6 quos 6 fugere credebant, infestis signis ad se ire vide- 
runt, impetum modo ferre non potuerunt, ac primd concursu in 
fugam eonjecti, proximas silvas petiverunt : quos Labienus equitatu 
consectatus, magno numero interfecto, compluribus captis, paucis 
post diebus civitatem recepit :. nam Germani, qui auxilio 4 veniebant, 
percepta Trevirorum fuga, sese domum contulerunt. Cum iis pro- 
pinqui Indutiomari, qui defectionis auctores fuerant, comitati eos, 
ex civitate excessere. Cingetorigi, quern ab initio permansisse in 
officio demonstravimus, principatus atque imperium est traditum. 

IX. C.sesar, postquam ex Menapiis in Treviros venit, duabus de 
causis Ehenum transire constituit : quarum erat altera, quod auxilia 
oontra se Treviris miserant j 1 altera, ne Ambiorix ad eos receptum 
haberet. His constitutis rebus, paulum 2 supra eum locum, quo ante 
exercitum transduxerat, facere pontem instituit. Nota atque insti- 
tuta ratione, magno militum studio, paucis diebus opus efficitur. 
Firmo in Treviris prsesidio ad pontem relicto, ne quis ab iis subito 
raotus oriretur, reliquas copias equitatumque transducit. Ubii, qui 
ante obsides dederant, atque in deditionem venerant, purgandi sui 3 
causa ad eum legatos mittunt, qui doceant 4 * rieque ex sua civitate 
auxilia in Treviros missa, neque ab se fidein lsesam :' petunt atque 
orant, * ut sibi parcat, ne communi odio Germanoruni 5 innocentes 
pro nocentibus poenas pendant : si amplius obsidum velit, dare ' c 
pollicentur. Cognita, Caesar, causa, reperit ab Suevis auxilia missa 
esse ; Ubiorum satisfactionem accepit ; aditus viasque in Suevos 
perquirit. 

X. Interim paucis post diebus fit ab Ubiis certior Suevos omnes 
ununt in locum copias cogere, atque iis nationibus, quae sub eorum 
aint imperio, denunciare, uti auxilia peditatus equitatusque mittant. 
His cognitis rebus, rem frumentariam providet, castris idoneum 
locum deligit, Ubiis imperat, ut pecora deducant, suaque omnia ex 
agris in oppida conferant, sperans, barbaros atque imperitos hdm- 
ines, inopia eibariorum adductos, ad iniquam pugnandi conditionem 
posse deduci.: mandat, ut crebros exploratores in Suevos mittant, 



4. Prsesidio, $144. 

5. Praeter spem, "Contrary to their ex- 
pectation." 

6. Quos, "That those who." Quos cre- 
debant is subject of irt. 

IX. 1. Quod miserant is predicate nom- 
inative after trat. 



Pamlum, §153. 

Sui purgandi, §177, Rem. 3. 

4. Doceant, J210, a. 

5. Germanorum is objective. 

6. Dare. Observe that a complementary 
infinitive is used hare instead of an 
infinitive sentence. 



v ; 

LIBLK SEXTDS. 1-'-' 

quaxjue apud eos gerantur,* cognoscant. Illi imperata faoittnt, et, 
paueis diebus intermissis, referunt, * Suevos omnes, posteaquam cer- 
tiores nuncii de exercitu Romanorum venerint,'-' cum omnibus su:s 
pociorunjque copiis, quas coegissent, penitus ad extremes fines sese 
recepisse : silvam esse ibi infinite magnitudine, qua; appellator' 
Bacenis; hanc longe introrsus pertinere, et, pro nativo muro objec- 
tam, Cheruscos ab Suevis Suevosque ab Choruscis, injuviis incursi- 
onibus(]ue* probibere : ad ejus iuitium silvoe BuftVOS adventum Ro- 
manorum exspectare constituisse.' 

XI. Quoniain ad hunc locum perrentum estj non alienum 1 *' s >"' » 
videtur de Galliae Gernianiaeque moribus, et ijiio' 2 differant 8 etc- na- 
tiones inter sese, proponere. In Gallia non solum in omnibus civl- 
tatibus atque in omnibus pagis partibusque, sed paene etiam in sin- 
gulis domibus factiones «unt : eirumque factionum principes sunt, 
qui snmniam auatoritatem eorum judicio habere existimantur, quo- 
rum ad arbitrium judiciumque summa omnium rerum consiliorum- 
que redeat. 4 Idque ejus rei causa antiq'uitua iustitutum videtur, 
ne quia ex plebe contra potcntiorem auxilii 5 egeret : suos eniuiquis- 
que opprimi et circnmveniri non patitur, ucoue, alitor si faciant/' 
ullam inter suos babent auoforitatem. Hrec eadem ratio est in 
Minima 7 totius Gallia; : nuinque onirics oivitates in partes divisSD 
sunt duas. 

XII. Quuin Cfesar in Gallia m, vc nit, alterius faetionis principes 
prant .-Edui, alterius Sequani. Hi qu'um per so minus valerent, 

1 summa auctoritas antiquitus erat in j^Eduis, raagnoeque eorum 

t clientelae, Germanos atque Ariovistum hi bi adjunxerant, ens- 

ad ne magnis jacturis pollicitationibusque perduxerant. r'r< 

^fci^ompluribu* factis-seoundis, atque omni'uobilitate .vlcunn 

nP^tfccta, tantum potentia antecesseraut, uC'magnam partem clien- 

U) .Ivluis ad sc trausducercnt, obside^que ab iis principum 

filios acciperent, et publice jnrare cogerent, nihil ae contra Sequarios 

-ilii inituros; et partem finitimi agri, per vim oceupatatoi, posf-i- 

ilereut, 1 Galliocque totius principatnni obtinerent. Qua necessitate 



v. 1. Quse gerantur, §214. 1 4. yu-.rum — rodent, " To yfha>e. , 

Vcni'iint. £217. ment ami decision the dtterc.ii 

Appellatur : tbe author b assertion. of all measures and pram 
. Iiijurp;' iiicursionibuyque, {ltf3 Ah red." 
Suevu and ub Chrrvtcit limit the com 6 Auxilii, \\Zl>, d 
j'OiinJ verbal expression injuriit irc- f> Alii er ^ i feciaijt, i.e. Derrnil 
curtionihusquc prohi •• imposed 

7. Suiuma, >*( mi." 

A 1. Ali(.-nui;i, "Foreign to the sub- 
ject," "irrelevant ' XII. I. Posslderent, "Wen- holding/' 
. "In wlm; |I81. from pott'dto and not pomitio, i 
I, liitlerant, J2M meant u> take poMesaion 



130 DE BELLO GALLICO 

adductus Divitiacus, auxilii petendi causa Roinam ad senatuni ,pro- 
fectus, 2 infecta re redierat. Adventu Caesaris facta commutatione 
rerum, obsidibus .JMuis redditis, veteribus clientelis restitutio no- 
vis per Caesarem comparatis, (quod hi, qui se ad eorum amicitiam 
aggregaverant, meliore conditione atque sequiore imperio se uti vi- 
debant), reliquis rebus eorum, s gratia dignitateque amplificata, Se- 
quani principatum dimiserant. In eorum locum Remi successerant ; 
quos 4 quod adaequare apud Caesarem gratia intelligebatur, ii, qui 
propter veteres inimicitias nullo modo cum ^Eduis conjungi poterant, 
se Reinis in clientelam dicabant. Hos illi diligenter tuebantur. Ita 
et novam et repente collectam auctoritatem tenebant. Eo turn statu 
res erat, ut longe principes haberentur iEdui, secundum locum dig- 
nitatis Remi obtinerent. 

XIII. In omni Gallia eorum hominum, qui aliquo sunt numero 1 
atque honore, genera sunt duo : nam plebes psene servorum babetur 
loco, quae per se nihil audet, et nulli adhibetur consilio. Plerique, 2 
quum aut aere alieno aut magnitudine tributorum aut injuria poten 
iiorum prerauntur, sese in servitu^m dicant nobilibus: in hos eaden* 
omnia sunt jura, qriae dominis 3 in servos. Sed 4 de his duobus gener- 
ibus alterum est Druidum, alterum equitum. Illi rebus divinis in- 
tersunt, sacrificia publica ac privata procurant, religiones interpre- 
tantur. Ad hos magnus adolescentium ntfmerus disciplinae causa 
concurrit, magnoque ii sunt apud eos honore. Nam fere 5 de omni- 
bus controversiis publicis privatisque constituunt ; et si quod est ad 
raissum facinus, si caedes facta, si de hereditate, si de finibuscont 
vexsia est, iidem decernunt; praemia po3nasque constituunt : si qui 
aut privatus aut publious eorum decreto non stetit, sacrificiis inter- 
dicunt. Haac poena apud eos est gravissima. Quibus ita est inter- 
dictum, ii numero impiorum ac sceleratorum habentur : iis omnes 
decedunt, aditum eorum sermonemque defugiunt, ne quid ex conta- 
gione incommodi accipiant : neque iis petentibus jus redditur, neque 
honos ullus communicatur. His autem omnibus Druidibus praeest 
unus, qui summam inter eos habet auctoritatem. Hoc mortuo, si 
qui 6 ex reliquis excellit dignitate, succedit : at, si sunt plures pares. 




not used by Csesar. [XIII. 1. Aliquo numero, §164, 






Romam profectus. See Book I, cb 
XXXI. 

3. Ueliquis rebus eorum,. " Their con- 
dition in other respects being im- 
proved ;" literally, " their other af- 
fairs beiag enlarged." The predicate 
amplijtcala, though belonging alike to 

• rebus, gratia, and dignitate, agrees 
with the nearest noun. 

4. Quos=et eos, subject of odcequare. 



any consideration," who are e' " 
counted. 

2. Plerique, ie. of the plebs. 

3. Dominis, §1'43. 

4. Sed, " But to continue the narra- 
tive." 

5. Fere usually stands after the limited 
word, but here precedes omnibu$. 

6. Si qui is more indefinite than si quia. 
Compare Book I, XLVIIJ, 12. 



LIBER SEXTUS. 131 

suffragio Pruidum allegitur," nonnunquaui etiani armis de principatu 
contendunt. Hi certo anni tempore in finibus Carnutuin,qu?e regio 
totius Gallioe media habetur, considunt in loeo consecrate Hue om- 
nes undique, qui controversias habent, conveniunt, eorumque decre- 
tisque judiciis parent. Disciplina in Britannia reperta, atque inde 
in Galliam translata esse existimatur. Et nunc, qui diligentiue 
earn rem cognoscere volunt, plerumque illo discendi causa profici?- 
cuntur. 

XIV. Druides a bello abesse consuerunt, neque tributa una cum 
reliquis pendunt ; militia; vacationem omniumque rerum habent im- 
munitatem. Tantis excitati prjoiniis, et sua sponte multi in discipli- 
nam 1 conveniunt, et a parcntibus propinquisquc mittuntur. Mag- 
num ibi 2 numerum versuum ediscere dicuntur : itaque annos non- 
nulli vicenas in disciplina permanent. Neque fas esse existimant 
ea 3 Uteris mandare, quum 4 in reliquis fere rebus, publicis privatisque 
rationibus 5 Gratis Uteris utantur. Id mihi duabus de causis insti- 

**tuisse videntur ; quod neque in vulgum disciplinam efferri velint, 
neque eos, qui discant, literis confisos, minus memoriae studere. 
Quod fere plerisque accidit, ut, prresidio literarum diligentiam in 
perdiscendo ac memoriam remittant. In primis hoc volunt persua- 
dere, non interire animas, sed ab aliis post mortem transire ad alios: 
atque hoc maxime ad virtutem excitari 6 putant, metu mortis neg- 
lecto. Multa praeterea de sideribus atque eorum motu, de mundi ae 
terrarum magnitudine, de rerum natura, de deorum immortalium vi 
ac potestate disputant, et juventuti tradunt. 

XV. Alterum genus est equitum. Hi, quum est usus, atque ali- 
■Bbdjjellum incidit, (quod ante Cajsaris adventum fere quotannis 
♦c^iiere solebat, uti aut ipsi injurias inferrent, aut iliatas propulsa- 
rent) omnes in bello versa'ntur : atque eorum ut quisque est genere 
copiisque amplissimus, ita plurimos circum se**ambactos clientesque 
habent. Hanc unam gratiam potentiamque noverunt. 1 

XVJ. Natio est omnis Gallorum admodum dedita religionibus ; 
atque ob earn causam, qui sunt affecti gravioribus morbis quique in 
procliis periculisque versantur, aut pro victimis homines immol.mt, 

' se immolaturos vovent, administrisque 1 ad ea sacrifioia Druidi- 
mjj^s utuntur; quod, pro vita hqminis nisi hominis vita reddatur, non 

, Icgitur, sc. prueses. [6. Excitari, se. homines. 

XIV. 1. In di?c ; plinam, " To attcncVXV. 1. Hanc — norerunt, 'This is the 
their instruction." only popularity and political influence 

2. I hi, i.e. in their schools. with which they are acquainted." 

■".. Ea, it. the contents of these verses. 

4. Quum, "Although." XVI. 1. Administris, •• As their a- 

6. i; Uionibus, "Transactions." gents." 



1 3*2 



t)E BELf.O QALLICO 



: liter 2 dcoruru imrfortalium numen placari arbitrantur : pub- 
liceque ejusdem generis habent instituta sacrificia. Alii irumani 
magnitudine simulacra babent, quorum contcxta vimioibus 3 membra 
vi,vis homifiibus coin pi en t, quibus sticcensis, cireuinveuti flamraaex- 
aiiimaatuf homines. Supplicia eorum, qui in furto aut in latrociiiid 
aut aliqtta noxa sint comprebensi, 4 gratiora diis immorfalibus esse 
arbitrantur ; sed, quum ejus generis eopia deficit, etiam ad irmocen- 
tium supplicia descendunt. 

XVII. Deum maxime Mercurium 1 eolunt : hujus sunt plurima 
simulacra, buoc omnium inventorem artium ferunt, bune viantni 
atque itinerum ducenuhuuc ad quajstus pecuniaa niercaturasque ba- 
bere vim maximam arbitrantur. Post hunc, Apollinem et Marteni. 

.in et Mincrvam : de bis earidem fere quam reliquoe gentes 
opiuionein; Apollinem raorbos depellere, Mincrvam operuin 
icioriim initia tradere ; Jovem inoperiuui coelestiutn tenere; 
Martem bella regeie. - Huic, quum proelio dimicare coustituerunt, 
ea, qua? bello oeperint, 2 plerumque devovent. Qnuni superaverunt. 
animalia capta immolant, reltquas res in unuru locum confcrunt. 
Multis in civitatibus barum re rum exstructos tumulos locis conse- 
eratis conspicari licet : neque. .«a3pe accidit, ut ncglecta quispiara 
religbmo, aut capta upud se occultare, aut posita toltere 3 auderet ; 
Tavissimumqur ci rci suppliciiira cum eruoiatu constitutuui est. 

XVIII. Galli se omnes ab Dite patre prognatos predicant, idque 
•b Druidibus proditum dicunt. Ob earn causam spatia omnis tem- 
poris 1 uon nuraero dierum, sod noctium finiunt; dies natales e1 
mcnsiurn et annorum initia sic observant, ut noctem dies subsccjua 
tnr. 2 In reliquis vitra institutis hoc fere ab reliquis diffcrunt, qnrM 

2. AliUr. The use of aliu-s and aliter\ their own gods to whom it seemed U 
does not correspond with our use ofj hare aDy resemblance. The Mercurj 



' thcr and otherwise, which in English 
exclude the thing with which the 
comparison is made 1 . Thus the ei- 
pres-ion "itinerc exquisitn per Divi- 
ti.cum. qu6d ex aliis ei maximam ti- 
dem hkWebut " (Book I, 41.), if liter 
ally rendered, makes incorrect Eng 
lish, as LHvitiucus was not one of the 
other*, according to our idiom. 

3. Viminiotei, the material; $160. 

4. Sint comprehensi, §-10, b. 



in this place is probably the Odi«*bi 
Wodeu " (whence our Wctlae'sdayJ 
"of the northern nations; Apolloj 
the god Belenus : Mars, the god 
Thor" (whence Thursday); "Jupittfr, 
the Gal'ic god Tar in orTaranin ; and 
Minerva is perhaps the goddess of 
the liiogn." — Zompt. 
2. Qu* bello ceperiut, " Which they 
shall have taken." 



:;. A\;t nhptajj &c... "Either to hide with 
himself wh*t lie had captured (and 
XVI f. 1. Merrurium. " Thie cannot! convert it to his own use), or carry 
have been the Mercury of the Ro off what had been placed (in one of 



man* : and it must be borne in mind 
that both Greeks and Romans, when 
they became acquainted with a new 
divinity in a foreign country, forth- 
with identified it with t lie one among 



the consecrated mounds) 

XVIII. I. Fpatiu omcis temporis, "All 

periods of time " 
2. Ut noctem dies subsequatur. The 



LIBER SEXTUS. 133 

,-ucs liberos, nisi quuni adoleverint, ut mAus militice sustinere pos- 
. int, 3 palam ad se adire non patiuntur; filiumque puerili setate in 
publico, in conspectu patris assistere turpe ducunt. 

XIX. Viri, quantas pecuniae ab uxoribus dotis nomine accepe- 
runt, tantas cz suis bonis, oestimatione facta, cum dotibus communi- 
cant. Hujus omnis pecuniae conjunction ratio habetur, fruetusque 1 

crvnntur : uter eorum vita superarit,'-' ad eum pars utriusquo cum 
ructibus superiorum temporum pervenit. Viri in uxores, sicut in 
liberos, vitas necisque babent potestatem. Et quum pater familisc 
llustriore loco uatus, decessit, ejus propinqui conveniunt, et, do 
norte si res in suspicionem venit, de uxoribus in servileni modum 3 
]ufCstionem babent, et si compe'rtum est, 4 igni atque omnibus tor- 
tis excruciatas interficiunt. Funera sunt pro cultu Galloruni 5 
u.agnifica et sumptuosa; omniaque, qua? vivis cordi fuisse arbitran- 
tur, in igneni inferunt, etiam animalia: ao paulo supra hanc memo- 
riam servi et clientes, quos ab iis dilectos esse constabat, justis fu- 
ueribus confectis, una cremabantur. 

XX. Quse civitates commodius suam rem publicam administrare 
tiniantur, babent legibus sanctum, 1 si quis quid de re publica a 

finitjniis rumore ac fama acceperitj uti ad magistrdtum deferat, neve 
cum quo alio communicet :• quod saepc bomines temerarios atque im- 
peritos falsis rumoribus terreri et ad facinus impclli, et de summis 
rebus consilium capere cognitum est. Magistratus, quse visa sunt, 
occultant ; quceque esse ex usu judicaverint, 2 multitudini produnt. 
DejyPutblica nisi per concilium loqui non conceditur. 

Gcrraani multum ab tiac consuetudine differunt : nam 
xe Druides babent, qui rebus divinis pra^sint, 1 neque sacrifioiis 
t. 2 Deorum numero eos solos ducunt, quos cernunt, et quo- 
rum aperte opibus juvantur, Solem et Vulcanum 3 et Lunam : rcli- 

e fai ".1 ^juidem acceperunt. Vita omnis in venationibus atque 

, . , — _ — + 

Gauls, like the Jews, reckoned from! the style of living among the Gauls." 
sunset to sunset. 
S. Ui — potiin — the result ofXX. 1. Sanctum agrees with the noun- 

adoh sentence uti deferat, the object of ha- 




bent. "They have established by law 
that whoever has heard anything &c. 
shall tell it to the magistrates." — 
(J'tis, quid, and quo, nre indefinite 



XIX. 1. Fructus, "The interest." 

2. 1'ier eorum vita ( § 1 G 1 ) snperarit, 

'•Whichever of them lives longest." 

Observe that in uter, eorum and eum, i §89. 

the more worthy gender ] 1 'udicaveriut, §210, (b) 

8. In tcrvilom modum. Amonj; 

Romans a slave might be examined XXI. 1. Pnesint, §210, a. 

by torture . but it-was unlawful so to^2. Sacrifices non stu<"ert„ "Theytrive 



examine a freeman. 

Si compertum est, sc. qu<»d orat sus- 
l>cctum. 

Pro cultu Gallorum, "Considering 

L 



but little attention to sacrifices." It 
is not implied that they neglect them 
altogether. 
Vulcanum^ the impersonation of fir*. 



134 



DE BELLO GALLICO 



in studiis rei militaris consistit : ab parvulis 4 labori ac duritiae stu- 
dent. Qui diutissimc iinpuberes 5 pernianserunt, maximam inter 
euos ferunt laudem : hoc ali staturain, ali hoc vires nervosque con,- 
firmari putant. Intra annum vero vicesimum feininae hotitiam ha- 
buisse in turpissimis habent rebus : cujus rei nulla est occultatio, 
quod et proniiscue in fluminibus perluuntur, 6 et pellibus aut parvis 
rhenonum tegimentis utuntur, magna corporis parte nuda. 

XXII. Agriculturac non student ; majorque pars victus eorum 
in lacte, caseo, came consistit : neque quisquam agri modum certum 
aut fines habet proprios, sed magistrates ae principes in annos sin- 
gulos 1 g'entibus cognationibusque hominum, qui una coierint, 2 
quantum et quo loco visum est agri 3 attribuunt atque anno post 
alio 4 transire cogunt. Ejus rei multas afferunt oausas : ne assidua 
consuetudine capti, studium belli, gerendi agricultura 5 commutent ; 
ne latos fines parare studeant, potentioresque humiliores possessioni- 
bus expellant ; ne accuratius ad frigora atque aestus vitandos 6 aedi- 
ficent; ne qua oriatur pecuniae cupiditas; qua ex re factiones dis- 
sensionesque nascuntur : ut animi sequitate plebem contineant, quum 
suas quisque opes cum potentissimis 7 aaquari videat. 
» XXIII. Civitatibus maxima laus est quam latissimas circum se 
vastatis finibus solitudines habere. Hoc proprium 1 virtutis exists 
inant, expulsos agris finitimos cedere, neque quemquam prope audere 
consistere : simul hoc se fore tutiores arbitrantur, repentinao in- 
cursionis timore Bublato. Quum bellum civitas aut illatum defen- 
dit, aut infert, rnagistratus, qui ei bello praesint, 2 ut vitae necisque 
habeant 3 potestateni, deliguntur. . In pace nullus communis est ms 
istratus, sed principes regionum atque pagorum infer suos jus dio^fe? 
controversiasque minuunt. Latrocinia nullam habent infamiam, 
quae extra fines cujusque civitatis fiunt ; atque ea juventutis exer- 
cendae ac desidiae minuendae causa fieri praedicant. Atque, ubi 
quis 4 ex principibus in concilio dixit, ' se ducem fore, qui sequi 



4. Ab parvulis, " From earlj child- 
bood." ■ 

5. Impuberes, "Unmarried." 

6. Perluuntur,"They wasb themselves," 
"bathe." 

XXII. 1. In singulos annos, " For a 
year at a time." 

2. Qui coierint is viewed from the stand- 
point of the rnagistratus ac principes 
rather than from that of the author ; 
while visum est, indicative, places in 
a strong light the absolute jurisdic- 
tion of the chiefs. 

3. Agri limits quantum. 



4. Alio, "To another place." 

5. Agricultura, §162. 

6. • Vitandos agrees with the nearest 
uoun. 

7. Potentissimis=opibus potentissimo- 
rum. 

XXIII. 1. Proprium, {151, (b). 

2. Qui praesint, §210, Rem. I, (latter 
part). 

3. Ut habeant expresses the resultaimed 
at in qui prcesint, "So as to have." 

4. Ubi quis. The indefinite quis is used 
cfter ubi as well as si, ne, num, ec, 



LIBER SEXTUS. 136 

velint, profiteauiur ; 6 consurgunt ii, qui et causani et bominem pro- 
bant, suumque auxilium polliceutur, atque ab multitudine collau- 
dantur: qui ex lis socuti non sunt, in dcsertoruin ac proditorum 
numero ducuutur, omniumque iis, reruni postea fides derogatur. 
Hospites violate fas non putant ; qui quaque de causa ad eos ven- 
erint, 6 ab injuria probibeut, sanctosquc babent ; iis omnium domus 
patent, victusque communicatur. 

XXIV. Ae fuit antea tempus, quum Germauos Galli virtute 
superareut, ultro bella inferrent, propter hominum multitudinem 
agrique inopiam trans Rbcnum colonias mitterent. Itaque ea, quw 

L fertili.-sima sunt, Germanise loea eircum Uercyuiam silvam, (quam 
Eratostheni et quilmsdam Grsecis fama no tain esse video, quam ilM 
Orcyniam appellaut,) Volcffi Tectosages oeeupaverunt, atque ibi 
consederunt. Qua) gens ad hoc tempus iis, sedibus sese coiitinet, 
sumniamque babet justitias et bellica: laudis opinionem ■? nunc quo- 
que in eadem inopia, egestate, patientia, qua Germani, permanent, 
eodem victu et'cultu corporis utuntur ; 'Gallis autem provincial pro- 
pinquitas et transmarinarum rerum notitia multa ad copiam atque 
usus largitur." Paulatfm assuefacti superari, multisque victi proc- 
liis, ne se quideni ipsi cum illis virtute comparand 

XXV. IIujus Hercyniaa silva;, qua) supra demonsfcrata est, lati- 
tudo novem dierum iter expedito 1 patet : non enim alitor finiri pot- 
est, neque mensuras itinerum noverunt. Oritur ab Helvetiorum et 
Xemetum et Rauracorum fiuibus, rcctaque fluminis Danubii rcgione 2 

l pcrtinet ad fines Daoorum et Anartium : hinc so ilectit sinistrorsus/ 1 
jHfceisis ab flumine regionibus, miiltarumque gentium fines propter 
rKgriitudincm- attingit : neque quisquam est bujus Germanic, 4 qui 
-e aut adisse ad initium ejus silva) dicat, 5 quum dierum iter LX 
rit, fi aut, quo ex loco oriatur, acceperit. 7 Multa in ea gen- 
i ra ferarum nasoi constat, qua; reliquis in locis visa non sint : s ex 
quibus, quflB maxime differant ab ceteris, et memorise prodenda vide- 
antur, brec sunt. 

■ - Velint, g210, b; proliteantur, §217,jXXV. . 1. Expedito, "Foraman irith- 
Rcm. i. out baggage.' 1 

aerint, §2 2. Recta— rcgione, 'In a etraigbt line 

(following the direction) of the river 
CXIV. 1. Summiun-epinioiicm, " Tbe| Danube." 
highest reputation for justice is, i.$. northward. 

warlike glory." 1 Hujus Germania, "Ihthigpart ol 

luli.'i— Inrgitnv. " Furnish many Germany;" — a subjunctive genitive. 
js for abundance and utility."— limiting quitqitam. 
The agreement of the verb with the 5. l>icat, §210, b. 

eral nominatiTcs.tbough *i Quum processerit, l *Altbougli he 
very common in Latin, i^ not alio* <■ may bare pnic" 
ble in English. 7. Acetptrit is coordinate with- dint- 

Visa Bittt,differa«it,Yideantar,$210.c. 



130 



DE EELLO GALLICO 



XXVI. Est bos cervi figura, 1 cujus a media fronte inter aures 
unum cornu exsistit, excelsius magisque directum his, quae nobis 
nota sunt, cornibus. Ab ejus sumroo, sicut palniae, 2 rami quam 
late 3 diffunduntur. Eadem est feminae marisque natura, cadem 
forma magnitudoque cornuum. 

XXVII. Sunt item, qure 1 appellantur alces. Harum est con- 
similis capreis figura et varietas pellium ; sed magnitudiae paulo 
antecedunt, mutilfoque sunt cornibus, 2 et crura sine nodis articulis- 
que habent ; neque quietis causa procumbunt, neque, si quo afflictse 
casu conciderint, erigere sese aut sublevare possunt. His sunt ar- 
bores pro cubilibus : ad.eas se applicant, atque ita, paujum modo 
reclinatae, quietem capiunt : quarum ex vestigiis quam est animacl- 
versum a venatoribus, quo se recipere consuerint, 3 omnes eo loco 
aut a radicibus subruunt, aut acciQunt arbores tan turn, utsumma . 
species 4 earum stantium relinquatur. Hue quum se consuetudine 
reclinaverint, infirmas arbores pondere affligunt, atque una ipsfe 
concidunt. 

XXVIII. Tertium est genus eorum, qui uri appellantur. Hi 
sunt magnitudine paulo infra elephantos ; specie et colore et figura 1 
tauri. Magna vis eorum, et magna velocitas : neque homini, neque 
ferae, quam conspexerint, 2 parcunt. Hos studiose foveis captos in- 
terficiunt. Hoc se labore durant homines adolescentes, atque hoc 
genere veuationis exercent ; et, qui plurimos ex his interfecerudt, 
relatis in publicum cornibus, quas sint 3 testimonio, magnam ferunt 
laudem. Sed assuescere ad homines et mansuefieri, ne parvuli qui- 
dem excepti, 4 possunt. Amplitudo cornuum et figura et spe cjgfr , 
multum a mostrorum bourn cornibus 5 difiert. Haec studiose' coy? 
quisita ab labris 6 argento circumcludunt, atque in amplissimis epulis 
pro poculis utuntur. 

XXIX. Caesar, postquam per Ubios exploratores comperit Sue- 
vos sese in silvas recepisse, inopiam frumenti veritus, quod, ut supra 



XXVI. 1. Eos cervi figura, §164, Rem. 
2. * 

2. Palmae, sc. a sumrno. 
• 3. Quam late. The use of quam with 
the positive is comparatively rare. 

XXVII. 1. Qute, §129, Rem. 5. Caesar 
had evidently seen none of these an- 
imals ; hence the absurd description 
given of them. The seriousness with 
which such a writer relates these 
things, shows the readiness of the 
ancientato credit any s'ory, however 
marvelous. 

2. Cornibus, §161. 



3. Consuerint, §214. 

4. Summa species, " The general "ap 
pearance." 



XXVIII. 1. Specie, colore, ngura,gl6 

2. Quam conspexerint, §210, b ; 
they have once got a sight ef him." 

3. Qu» sint, §210, a. 

4. Ne parvuli quidem excepti,~ "Not 
even when caught very young." 

5. Cornibus^amplitudine et figura et 
specie cornuum. 

6. Ab labris, "On'the rim," the part 
touched by the lips. 



M : 



LIBER SEXTU§. f , 137 

demonstravirnus, minim e omnes Germani agricultural student, con- 
stituit non progredi longius ; sed, ne omnino metum reditns sui bar- 
baris 1 tollerct, atque ut eorum auxilia tardaret, reducto exercitu, 
partem ultimam pontis, qua; ripas Ubiorum contingebat, in longitu- 
dinem pedum CC rescindit; atque in extremo ponte turrim tabula- 
torum quatuor constituit, prajsidiumque cobortium XII pontis tuendi 
causa ponit, magnisque eum locum munitionibus firmat. Ei loco 
prcesidioque C. Yolcatium Tullum adolescentem praefecit : ipse, 
quuni maturescere frumenta inciperent, ad bellum Ambiorigis pro- 
fectus, [per Arduerfham silvam, qua* est totius Galliaa maxima, atque 
ab ripis Rheni finibusque Trevirorum ad Norvios pertinet, millibus- 
que amplius D in lougitudiuein patet,] L. Minucium Basilum cum 
>>inni cquitatu proemittit, si quid celeritate itineris atque opportuni- 
tate temporis proficerc possit ; 2 monet, ut ignes fieri in castris pro- 
hibeat, ne qua ejus adventus procul significatio fiat : sese confestim 
.-ubsequi 3 dicit. 

XXX. Basilus, ut imperatum est, facit; celeriter contraque om- 
nium opinionem confecto itinere, multos in agris inopinantes depre- 
bendit ; eorum indicio ad ipsum Ambiorigem contendit, quo in loco 
'•urn paucis equitibus esse dicebatur. Multum, 1 quum 2 in omnibus 
rebus, turn in re militari potest fortuna. Nam sicut magno accidit 
casu, ut in ipsum incautum atque etiam imparatum incideret prius- 
' que ejfes adventus ab bominibus videretur, 3 quam fama aut nunciis 
Jl affeftetur ; 4 sic magna; fuit fortune, 6 omni militari instrumento 
quod circ\>m se habebat, erepto, rhedis equisque comprehensis ipsum 

tg^re 6 mortem. Sed boc eo factum est, quod, redificio circumdato 
a, (ut sunt fere domicilia Grallorum, qui vitandi aostus causa ple- 
rumque silvarum ac fluminum petunt propinquitates,) comites fam- 
ifflPresque ejus angusto in looo paulisper equitum nostrorum vim 
sustinucrunt. His pugnantibus, ilium in equum quidam ex suia in- 
tuiit : fugientem silva) texerunt. Sic et ad subeundum periculum 
et ad vitandum 7 multum fortuna valuit. 

XXIX !. Barbaris, §163. A prepo-j all (other) things" Not only is 
^pition, ab, de, or ex, is usually ex-J "other" frequently used in Latin 
pressed with tollo. where we omit it, (see XVI, 2 ) but 

Si quid possit is rather interrogative it is frequently omitted where we 
than conditional :-"(To see) whether use it. 
he can accomplish anything." 3. Vidtrttur is coordinate with vncide- 

■-'ubsequi. The infinitive present is ret. 

used for a future when the certain 4. Afferretur, |206. b. (2). 
performance of an action, or attain-|5. Magnm fortunse, §144. " A great 
ment of a wish, is referred to. piece of luck." 

...... Ar , \ s - Ipsum effugere is subject of fuit. 

\\\. 1. Multum, J150, Rem. 3. 7. Subeundum, vitandum. Both these 

2. Quum omnibus rebus, "Not only in; gerundives have ft causative sense ■ 



138 DE BELLO GALL1CO 

XXXI. Anibiorix coplas suas judiciohe non conduxerit, 1 quod 
proelio dirnicandum non existiinarit, 2 an tempore exclusus, 3 et repen- 
tino equitum adventu prphibitus, quuin reliquum exercitum subse- 
qui crederet, dubium est : Bed certe, clam dimissis per agros nun- 
eiis, sibi quemque consulere jussit : quorum 4 pars in Arduennam 
silvam, pars in continentes paludes profugit ; qui proximi Oceanum 5 
fuerunt, hi insulis sese occultaverunt, quas sestus efficere consue- 
runt : multi, ex suis finibus egressi, se suaque omnia alienissimis 
crediderunt. Cativolcue, rex dimidiae partis Eburonuin, qui una 
cum Ambiorige consilium inierat, retate jam corffectus, quum labo- 
rem aut belli aut fugae ferre non posset, omnibus precibus" detesta- 
tus Ambiorigem, qui ejus consilii auctor fuisset, taxo, cujus magna 
in Gallia Gernianiaque copia est, se exanirnavit. 

XXXII. Segni Condrusique, ex gente et numero Gerrnanoruni, 
qui sunt inter -Eburones Trevirosque, legatos ad Caesarem miserunt 
cratum, ' ne se in hostium numero duceret, neve omnium Germano- 
rum, qui essent citra Rhenuni, unam esse causam judicaret : nihil 1 
se de bello cogitasse, nulla Ambiorigi auxilia misisse.' Caesar, ex- 
plorata re quaestione captivorum, 2 si qui ad eos Eburones ex fuga 
convenissent, ad se ut reducerentur, imperavit : si ita fecissent, fine?: 
eorum se violaturum negavit. Turn copiis in tres partes distributis, 
impedimenta omnium legionum Aduatucam contulit. Id castelli 
nomen est. Hoc fere est in mediis Eburonum finibus, ubi Titurius 
atque Aurunculeius hiemandi causa consederant. Hunc quum reli- 
quis rebus 3 locum probabat, tum'quod superioris anni munitiones 
integrae manebant, ut militum laborem sublevaret. Praesidio im- 
pedimentis legionem XIV reliquit, unam ex iis tribus, quas pro^'* 
ime conscriptas ex Italia transduxerat. Ei legioni castrisque Q. 
Tullium Ciceronem prasficit, ducentosque equites attribuit. 

XXXIII. Partito exercitu, T. Labienum cum legionibus tribus 
ad Oceanum versus 1 in eas partes, quae Menapios attingunt, proficis- 
ci jubet : C. Trebonium cum pari legionum mimero ad earn regio- 
nem, qua3 Aduatucis adjacet, depopulandam mittit : ipse cum reli- 
cs uis tribus ad flumen Saaldem, quod influit in Mosam, 3 extremasque 

6. Precibus, i.e. for evil, "curses." 

XXXII. 1. Nihil, §155. 

2. Captivorum ia objective. 

3. Reliquit rebus, causal ablative. For 
the usual construction, see §159, 
Rem. 2. 

XXXIII. 1. Ad oceanum versus, by 
tmesis for adversus oceanum. ' 

2. Quod influit in Mosam. Caesar's Qe 



" both in causing him to be exposed 
to danger, and in causing him to es- 
cape it." 

XXXI. 1. Conduxerit, §214. 

2. Existimarit, §190, Rem. 1. 

-3. Exclusus and prjhibitus are coordi- 
nated with judicio as expressions of 
cauBe. 

4. Quorum, §129, Rem. 7. 

5, Oceanum, 5142,' Rem. 41 



LIBER, SEXTU8. % " 139 

ArJuennse partes ire constituit, quo cum paucis equitibus profectum 
Ambiorigem audiebat. Discedens, post ditem septiuium scse revcr- 
surura confirniat : quam ad diem ei legioiyj>«iquse in prsesidio relin- 
quebatur, frumentum deberi sciebat. « Labienum Trebouiumque 
hortatur, si reipublicne commodo 3 facere possint, ad earn diem rever- 
tantur ; ut, rursus communicato consilio, exploratisque bostium 
vationibus, aliud belli initium capere possent. 

XXXIV. Eratj ut supra demonstravimus, nianus certa nulla, non 

oppidum, non presidium, quod *e armia defenderet j 1 sed' in omnes 

partes dispersa multitudo. Ubi cuique aut vallis abdita, aut locus 

silvestris, aut palus impedita spem prsesidii aut salutis aliquam of- 

ferebatj consederat. Haec loca vicinftatibus' 2 erant nota, magnam- 

que res diligentiam requirebat, uon in summa exercitus tuenda, 

v nullum enim poterat universis ab perterritis ac disperses periculum 

accidere,) sed in singulis militibus eonservandis ; quae tamen ex 

parte 3 res ad salutem exercitus pcrtinebat. Nam 4 et praedse cupid- 

itas multos longius evocabat, et silvse incertis occultisque itineribus 

confertos adire probibebant. Si negotium confici stirpenique bomi- 

nutn sceleratorum interfici vellet, dimittenda3 plures manus, didu- 

cendique erant milites : si contiriere ad sign* manipulos vellet, ut 

instituta ratio et consuetudo exercitus Romani postulabat, locus 

ipse erat prajsidio barbaris, neque ex occulto insidiandi et dispersos 

circumveniendi singulis deerat audacia. At in ejusmodi difficulta- 

tibus, quantum diligentia provideri poterat, providebatur ; ut potiu* 

in nooendo aliquid omitterefctxr, 5 etsi omnium animi ad ulciscendum 

ardebant/' quam cum aliquo detrimento militum noceretur. Caesar 

^frftnitimas civitates nuncios dimittit, omnes ad se evocat spe pra)da 

-ad rl^ripiendos Eburones, ut potius in silvis Grallorum vita, quam 

■nanus miles 7 periclitetur ; simul ut, magna multitudine circum- 

fusa, pro tali facinore stirps ac nomen civitatis tollatur. Magnus 

undique numerus celeriter convenit. 

XXXV. Hfec in omnibus Eburonum partibus gerebantur, dies- 

• ography is here at fault : the Scheldt: some damage (to the enemy) rather 

does not flow into the Mcuse. than to harm them at the expense of 

. UeipublicaB commodo, "With advan- hi* soldiers.'' Literally, " bo that 

tage to the state." something was left off in injuring 

(the enemy), rather than it wa« in- 

XXXIV. 1. Defenderet, J2 10, b. I jured (to them) with lo&s of his 

ciuitatibus=vicinis. soldiers." Noceretur is connected by 

x parte, "lu part. - ' Every soldier j quam to omitlerctur. 

surprised and cut off weakened the 0. Ad ulciscendum ardobant, " Were 

army. burning for revenge." 

■ explains in singulis, $c. 7. Legionctrius miles, by metouomy for 

• r .. It potius otnitteretur, quam uoce- legionarii mililis vita. 
retur, "So that he preferred to forego 



140 



-tihi.;r;i 



BELLO GALLICO 



que appetebat septimqjajraiein ad diem Cassar ad* impedimenta legi- 
onemque reverti constiWHJrat. Hie, quantum in bello fortuna pos- 
sit, et quantos afferat casus, cognosci potuit. Dissipatis ac perterritis ' 
hostibus, ut denionstravimus, manus erat nulla, quae parvam mode- 
causam timoris afferret. 1 Trans Rhenum ad Germanos pervenit 
fama, diripi Eburones, 2 atque ultro 3 omnes ad prasdam evocari. 
Cogunt equitum duo millia Sigambri, qui sunt proxinii Rheno, a 
quibus receptos ex fuga Tenchtheros atque Usipetes supra docui- 
mus: transeunt Rhenum navibus ratibusque, XXX niillibus passuum. 
infra eum locum, ubi pons erat perfectus, praesidiumque ab Caesarc 
relictum :.primos Eb.uronum fines adeunt, multos ex fuga dispersos 
excipiunt, magno pecoris numero, cujus sunt cupidissimi barbari, 
potiuntur. Invitati praeda, longius procedunt : non hos palus, in 
hello latrociniisque natos, non silvee morantur : quibus in locis sit 
Caesar, ex captivis quaerunt ; profectum longius reperiunt, omnem- 
que exercitum discessisse oognoscunt. ' Atque unus ex captivis, 
" quid vos/' inquit, " hanc miseram ac tenuem sectamini praedam, 
quibus licet jani esse fortunatissimis ? 4 Tribus horis Aduatucam 
venire potestis : hue omnes suasfortunas exercitus Romanorum con- 
tulit : proesidii tantum 5 est, ut ne murus quidem cingi possit, neque 
quisquam egredi extra munitiones audeat." Oblata spe, Grermani, 
quam nacti erant praedam, in occulto relinquunt ; ipsi Aduatucam 
contendunt, usi eodem duce, 6 cujus haic indicio cognoverant. 

XXXVI. Cicero, qui per omnes superiores dies praeeeptis 1 Cse- 
saris summa diligentia milites in castris continuisset, 2 ac ne calonem 
quidern quemquam 8 extra munitionem egredi passus esset, septimo 
die diffidens de numero dierum Caesarem fidem servaturum, qua 
longius eum progressum audiebat, neque ulla de ejus reditu fama 
afFerebatur ; simul eorurh permotus^vocibus, qui illius patientiam 
paene obsessionem appellabant, siquidem ex castris egredi non liceret; 
nullum ejusmodi casum exspectans, quo, novem oppositis legionibus 
maximoque equitatu, dispersis ac paene deletis hostibus, in millibus 
passuum III offendi posset ; 4 quinque cohortes frumentatum in proxi- 



XXXV. 1 Qasa afferret,"To produce." 
1. Diripi Eburones is equivalent accu- 
sative, limiting the verbal phrase ad 
Germanos pervenit fama—Gemani 
adiverunt. 

3. Ultro=ad libitum, "Any one who 
pleased was invited to come and 
plunder for himself." ' 

4. Fortunatissimis, §174, Rem. 3. 

5. Tantum, "So little." 
0. Duce, § 127, Rem. 1. 



XXXVI. 1. Prteceptis, " According to 
orders." 

2. Qui — continuisset, "Though he had 
kept." Qui, like quuin is followed by 
the subjunctive when it has a con- 
cessive force. 

3. Quemquam. Quisquam is sometimes 
used as an adjective with a personal 
appellative. 

4. Quo posset, §210, b. " By which 
any evil could befall within three" 
miles." 






LIBER SEXTUS* ^x. 141 



I 

ins Oitu. 



imas segetes rnisit, quas inter et castra unu^Lftbiuo collis inteierat. 
Complures erant in castris ex legionibus Wfn relicti ; ex quibus, 
qui hoc spatio dierum convaluerant, circite* CCC sub vexillo una 
littuntur : magna praeterea multitudo caloaum, magna vis jumento- 
rum, quae in castris subsederat, facta potestate, sequitur. 

XXXVII, Hoc ipso tempore et casu Germani cquites interveni- 
unt, protinusque eodem illo, quo venerant, cursu ab decumana porta 

i castra irrumpere conautur : ncc prius sunt visi, objectis ab ea 

■ arte silvis, quam castris nppropir.quarent, 1 usque eo, ut, qui sub 

;all6 tenderent 2 mercatores, recipiendi sui facultatem non babercnt. 

opinantes nostri re: nova perturbantur, ac vix primum impetum 

ohors in statione sustinot. Circumfunduntur ex reliquis hostes 

/;;rtibus, si quern aditum reperire possent. 3 iEgre nostri' portas 

uentur, reliquos aditus locus ipse per se munitioque defendit. Totis 

repidatur castris, atque alius ex alio causam tumultus quacrit : ne- 

jue quo signa ferantur, neque quam in partem quisque conveniat, 

provident. Alius capta jam castra prouunciat ; alius, deleto cxer- 

•itu atque imperatorc, victores barbaros venisse contendit : plerique 

novas sibi ex loco religiones fingunt, Oottaeque et Titurii calamita- 

teni, qui in eodem occidarint 4 castello, ante oculos ponunt. Tali 

lore omnibus perterritis, confirmatur opinio barbaris, 5 ut ex cap- 

1 1 audierant, nullum esse intus presidium. Perrumpere nituntur, 

seque ipsi adbortantur, nc tantam fortunam ex manibus dimittant. 

XXXVIII. Erat aeger in praesidio relictus P. Sextius Baculus, 
[Ul primum piluin ad Caesarem 1 duxerat, cujus mentionem superior- 

ibus^froeliis fecimus, 2 ac diem jam quiutum cibo caruerat. Hie, dif- 
fros*3suai atque omnium saluti, inermis ex tabernaculo, prodit : 
unininere hostea, atque in summo esse rem discrimine : capit ai m„ a 
prbximis, atque in porta consisjit. Consequuntur bunc ceuturiones 
ejus cobortis, quae in statiune erat : paulisper una proclium eustinent. 
linquit animus Sextium," gravibus acceptis vulncribus : yogie, per 
manus tractus, 4 servatur. Hoc spatio interposito, reliqui sese confir- 
niant tantum, ut in muuitionibus consistere audeant, speciemque de« 
feDsorum praebeant. 

XVII. 1. Appropinquarei. .XXYIII. 1. Ad Cacsarem=apuu Cffi- 

sarem. 
rent=in tentoriia,e8sent Th»- 2. Mentionem fecimus. Sec Book II, 
;• ■! cu.mp followers were not 25 ; III, 6. 

-tay in the camp, but iinquit animus Sextium, "Scxtiui 

I them on the outs-He! faints." 

irt. J. Tor manus tractus, " Dragged from 

Si posscnt, "(To nee) whether thej I mdto hand," or perhaps, "through 
d." the ranks " of combatants. 

4. Occiderint, ^TO, c. 
6. Barbaris. {147. *^^ 



142 DE BELLO GALLICO 



XXXIX. IntexiM^onfecta frunientatione, milites nostri clanio- 
rem exaudiunt ; jjH^urrunt equites, quanto res sit in periculo, cog- 
noscunt. Hie verotmlla niunitio est, qua? perterritos recipiat i 1 modo 
conscripti atque usus militaris imperiti ad tribununi militum centu- 
rionesque ora convertunt : quid ab his prgecipiatur exspectant. Ne- 
mo est tarn fortis, quin rei novitate per.turbetur. 2 Barbari, signa 
procul conspicati, oppugnatione desistunt : redisse priino legiones 
credunt, quas longius discessisse ex captivis cognoverant : poste,a, 
despecta paucitate, ex omnibus partibus impetum faciunt. 

XL. Calones in proximum tumulum procurrunt : bine celeriter 
dejecti, se in signa mauipulosque conjiciunt : eo magis 1 timidos per* 
terrent milites. Alii, cuneo facto, ut celeriter perrumpant, censent, 2 
quoniam tam propinqua siut 3 castra ; et, si pars aliqua circumventa 
ceGiderit, at 4 rcliquos servari posse confidunt :' alii, ut in jugo eon- 
sistant, atque eundem omnes ferant casum. Hoc veteres non probant 
milites, quos sub vexillo una profecto's docuimus. Itaque inter se 
cohortati, duce C. Trebonio, equite Romano, qui eis erat propositus, 
per medios hostes perrumpunt, incolumesque ad unum omnes in cas- 
tra perveniunt. Hos subsecuti calones equitesque eodem impetu, 
militum virtute servantur. At ii, qui in jugo constiterant, nullo 
etiam nunc usu rei militaris percep.to, neque in eo, quod probave- 
rant, consillo permanere, ut se loco superiore defenderent, neque 
cam, quam 5 profuisse aliis vim celcritatemque viderant, imitari pot 
uerunt ; sed, se in castra recipere conati, iniquum in locum demis 
erant. Centuriones, quorum nonnulli ex inferioribus ordinibus rel- 
iquarum legionum virtutis causa in superiores erant ordines bujus 
legionis transducti, ne ante partam rei militaris laudem amitterent, 
fortissime pugnantes eonciderunt. Militum pars, horum virtute 
submotis hostibus, prseter spem incolumis in castra pervenit ; pars 
a barbaris circumventa periit. 

XLI. Germani, desperata expugnatione castrorum, quod nostros 
jam constitrsse in munitionibus videbant, cum ea praeda, quam in 
silvis deposuerant, trans Rheuum sese receperunt. Ac tantus fuit 
etiam post discessum hostium terror, ut ea nocte, quuni C. Volusenus 
missus cum equitatjj ad castra venisset, fidem nonfaceret, adesse cum 
incolumi Ccesarem exercitu. Sic omnium animos timor praeoccupav- 
i rat, ut, pnene alienata mente, deletis omnibus copiis 1 equitatum tan- 



* 






XXXIX. I. Recipiat, §210, a. 
'2. Quin perturbetur, " As not to be 
alarmed." 

XL. 1. Eo magis, "The more ;" §168. 
2. Censent, "They derfrmine." Hence 



m 



the final sentence as a complement. 

3. Sint, §190. 

4. At, "At least." 

5. Quam is subject of profuisse. 

XLI. 1. Omnibus copiis, " All his 



LIBER SEXTUS. Htf 

turn 2 se ex fuga recepisse dicerent, neque, injAumi exercitu, 3 G-er- 
raanos castra oppugnaturos fuisse contende^MU Qucm timorem 
Cresaris adventus sustulit. 

XLII. Reversus ille, eventus belli non ignorant, unum, quod co- 
hortcs ex statione et praosidio essent emissae, questus, 'nc miniino 
qnidem casu 1 locum relinqui debuiBse,' 3 multum 3 fortunam in repen- 
tino bostium adventu potuisse judicavit; multo etiam araplius, quod 
prene ab ipso vallo portisque castrorum barbaros avcrtissent. 4 Qua- 
rum omnium rerum maxime admirandum videbatur, quod Germani, 
qui eo consilio Rhenum transicrant, ut Ambiorigis fines dcpepula- 
rcntur, ad castra Romanorum delati, optatissimum Ambiorigi benc- 
ficium obtulerant. 

XLIII. Caesar, rursus ad vexandos bostes profectus, magno coacto 

numero 1 ex finitimis civitatibus, in omnes partes dimittit. Omnea 

vici atquc omnia redificia, qua; quisque conspexerat", incendebantur : 

jira:da ex omnibus locis agebatur :' 2 frumenta non solum a tanta lnul- 

titudine jumentorum atque bominum consumebantur, sed etiam anni 

tempore atque imbribus procubuerant ; ut, si qui etiam in pnesentia 

iccultassent, 3 tamen Hi deducto exercitu, rerum omnium inopia 

pereundum videretur. 4 Ac saape in eum 5 locum ventum est, tanto in 

omnes partes diviso equitatu, ut modo visum" ab se Ambiorigem in 

fuga captivi, nee plane etiam abisse ex conspectu oontendercnt, 7 ut, 

spe oonsequendi illata, atque infinito labore suscepto, qui se summam 

ab Cresare gratiam inituros putarent, s paene naturam studio vince- 

iperque paulum ad summam felicitatem defuis'se videretur, 

■r ille latcbris, aut saltibua se eriperet, et noctu occultatus alias 

regioncs partesque peteret, non majore equitum pnesidio, quam quat- 

1 is vitam suam committere audebat. 

XI.I"yBkjWi modo vastatis regionibus, exercitum Cresar duarum 

rtiurh aamno Durocortorum Remorum reducit, concilioquc in 

eum locum Galliae indicto, de conjuratione Senonum et Carnutum 



(other) forces " drive off booty," and was originally 

2. Tantum, "Only." applied to cattle. 

8. Tncolumi exercitu is conditional. ' 3. Si qui occultassent, "If any should 

* succeed in hiding." 

XLTI. 1. Casu, £48, Rem. I. |4. lis (§146) pereumlum videretur, "It 

i depends on dicens im- secnied that they must perish." 
plied in questu*. 6. Eum, "Such." 

8. Multum, g 1 50, Rem. 3. 6. Modo visum, "Had just a moment 

4. Quod-avertissent, "In that they had 1 before been seen." 

repulsed." 7. Ut contender ent expresses the result 

of in eum locum ventum est ; while ut 
vincerent, $c, expresses the result of 
ut contenderent. 



XLIII. 1. Coacto numero. The con- 
junctive construction might have 
been used here. 

2. Agebatur. Freedom a fere means 'to 



Qui putarcnt, " Because tliey 
thought." 



144 



DE BELLO QALLICO- 



qurcstionem habere instituit ; et de Accone, qui princeps ejus con- 
silil fuerat, gravi<$8 seritentia pronunciata, more majorum 1 suppli- 
cium surnpsit. Nonnulli, judicium veriti, profugerunt : quibus 2 
quutu aqua atque igni 3 interdixisset, Illegiones ad fines Treviroruin, 
II in Lingonibus, VI reliquas in Senonum finibus Agendici in hi 
bernis collocavit; frumentoque exercitu proviso, ut instituerat, in 
Italiam ad conventus agendos profectus est. 



DE BELLO GALLICO 
LIBER VII. 



I. Quieta Gallia, Caesar, ut constituerat, in Italiam 1 ad con- 
ventus agendos proficiscitur. Ibi cognoscit de Clodii csede : 2 de 
senatusque consulto eertior factus, ut omnes juniores Italic conjura- 
rent, 3 delectum tota provincia habere instituit. Ess res in Galliani 
Trausalpinam celeriter perferuntur. Addunt ipsi et afiingunt ru- 
moribus Galli, quod res poscere videbatur, ' retineri urbano niotu 
Cresarem, neque in tantis dissensionibus ad exercitum venire posse.' 
Hac impulsi occasione, qui jam ante se populi Romani imperio sub- 
jectos dolerent/ Iiberius atque audacius de bello consilia inire in- 
cipiunt. Indictis inter se principes Gallue conciliis silvestribus ac j 
remotis locis queruntur de Acconis morte ; hunc casum ad ipsos re- i 
cidere posse demonstrant; miscrantur communem Gallise fortunam ; 
omnibus pollicitationibus ac praomiis deposcunt, qui belli initium 
faciant, 5 et . sui capitis periculo Gralliam in libertatem vindicent. 
'Ejus in primis rationem habendam,' 6 dicunt, ' priusqu&ni eorum 
clandestina consilia efferantur, 7 ut Cossar ab exercitu intercludatur. 
Id esse facile, quod neque legiones, absente inipenttore, audeant ex 
hibernis egredi, neque imperator sine prassidio ad legiones pervenire 

XLIV. 1. More majoru«D,2.e.by scourg- [p. Quibus, §147. 
ing to death; the barbarous punish-**;. Aqua et igni, g 163. 
ment of the early liomans. 

NOTES. 



1. 1. In Ttaliam, i. e. Cisalpine Gaul. 

2. De Clodii cade. The murder of Clo- 
dius by the elaves pf Milo occurred 
in the year B.C. 63. 

S, Conjurarent,, "Should take the oath 
in a body." — "As the dangers were 
urgent, there was no time for admin- 
istering the oath (sacramentum) indi- 
vidually. The juniores here are all 



the men between 17 and 47 " — 
Zumpt. 

4. Qui dolerent, §210, b. 

5. Qui faciant, "(Persons) to make ;" 
• §210, a. 

6. Ejus in primis rationem habendam, 
" That this should be their "first ob- 
ject." 

7. Efferantur, §206, h, (1). 



{ 



LIBER SEPTIMUS. 



145 



poesit : postremo in aoie praestare interfici, quajfcnon veterem belli 
gloriam libcrtatemque, quam a majoribus aeceperint, recupcrare.' 

II. His rebus agitatis, profitentur Carnutes, ' se nullum pericu- 
luui communis salutis causa recusare, principesque 1 ex omnibus bel- 
lum facturos pollicentur ; et, quoniam in pnesentia obsidibus inter 
se cavere non possint, ne res efferatur, 2 ut jurejurando ac fide sancia- 
tur, 3 pctunt, collatis militaribus signis, (quo more eorum gravissimao 
cserimoniaj continentur, 4 ) ne, facto initio belli, ab reliquis deseran- 
tur.' r> Turn, collaudatis Carnutibus, dato jurejurando ab omnibus, 
qui adcrant, tempore ejus rei constituto, ab concilio disceditur. 

III. Ubi ea dies venit, Carnutes,. Cotuato et Conetoduno duci- 
bu=, desperatis hominibus, 1 Genaburn dato signo concurrunt, cives- 

jue Romanos, qui negotiandi causa ibi constiterant, in his C. Fusium 
Oitam, houestum equitem Romanum, qui -rei frumentarias jussu Ca> 
sajris praserat, interficiunt, bonaque eorum diripiunt. Celeriter ad 
Tinnes Gallia? civitates fama perfertur; nam, ubi major atque illus- 
trior incidit res, clamore per agros regionesque significant ; bune 
ilii deinceps excipiunt, et proximis tradunt; ut turn accidit : nam, 
qua; Genabi oriente sole gesta essent, 2 ante prhnam confectam vigil- 
iam in finibus Arvernorum audita sunt ; quod spatium est millium 
circiter CLX. 

IV. Simili ratione ibi Vercingetorix, Celtilli filius, Arvernus, 
summse potcntias adolescens, (cujus pater principatum Gallia; totius 
jbtinuerat, ct ob earn causam, quod regnum appetebat, ab civitate 
•rat iuterfectus,) convoc'atis suis clientibus, facile incendit. 1 Cog- 
lito ejus consilio, ad arma concurritur: ab Gobanitione, patruo suo, 
reliquisque principibus, qui hanc tentandam fortunam non existima* 

t, expellitur ex oppido Gergovia : non destitit tamen, atque in 
agris habet delectum egentium ac perditorum. Hac coacta manu, 
quoscumque adit ex civitate, ad suam ^enteniiam perducit: horta- 

. ut communis libertatis causa arma capianij magnisque coactis 
copiis, adversaries suos, a quibus paulo ante ejpt ejectus, expellit ex 
civitate. Rex ab suis appellator; dimitt-it quoquoversus legationes ; 
)btestatur, ut in fide maneant. Celeriter sibi Senones, Parisios, 
Pictones, Cadurcos, Turonos, Aulercos, Lemovices, Andes reliquos- 



II. 1. Principes ex omnibus, "First of 
fill ;" both in time and zeal. 

2. Ne res efferatur limits veriti under- 
stood, which expresses the cause of 
avert non possint. ""ur fear the 
thing may get out." 

3. Ut lanciatur limits prlunt. 

4. Quo-continentur, "In which custom 
their moat solemn rites are compre- 

M 



hended." 

III. 1. Hominibus, §127, Rem. 8. 

2. Gesta essent, £210, c ;, or §214. in 
finibus Arvernorum audita tunt being 
equivalent to Arvsrni audiverunt. 

IV. 1. Incendit, te. eos. 



146 



DE BELLO (7ALLICO 



que omnes, qui Oceanum attingunt, adj.ungit : omnium consensu ad 
eum defertur imperium. Qua oblata potestate, omnibus his c'mta- 
tibus obsides imperat, ccrtum numerum militum ad se celeriter ad- 
ducijubet; armorum quantum qmeque civitas domi quodque ante 
tempus efficiat, 2 constituit ; in primis equitatui studet. Summa; 
diligentirc summam imperii severitateni addit : magnitudine sup- 
plicii dubitantes cogit ; nam, majore commisso delicto, igni atque 
omnibus tormentis necat ; leviore de causa, auribus desectis, aut 
singulis effossis oculis, domum remittit, ut sint reliquis documento, 
et magnitudine poena; perterreant alios. 

V. His suppliciis celeriter coacto exercitu, Lucterium Cadur- 
cum, sumraaj bominem audacire v cum parte copiarum in Rutenos 
mittit : ipse in Bituriges proiiciscitur. Ejus adventu Bituriges ad 
iGduos, quorum erant in fide, legatos mittunt subsidium rogatum, 
quo facilius bostium 1 copias sustinere possint, iEdui de consilio 2 
legatorum, quos Caesar ad exercitum 3 reliquerat, copjas equitatus 
peditatusque subsidio Biturigibus mittunt. Qui quum ad flumcn 
Ligerim venissent, quod Bituriges ab JEduis dividit, paucos dies ibi 
morati, neque flumen transire ausi, domum revertuntur, legatisque 
nostris renunciant, ' se Biturigum perfidiam veritos revertisse, qui- 
bus 4 id consilii 5 fuisse cognoverint, ut, si flumen transissent, 6 una ex 
parte ipsi, altera Arverni se circumsisterent.' Id eane de causa, 
quam legatis pronunciarunt, an perfidia adducfci fecerint, quod 
nihil" nobis constat, non.videtur pro certo esse ponendum. Bituri- 
ges eorum discessu statim se cum Arvernis copjungunt. 

VI. His rebus in Italiam Csesari nunciatis, quum jam ille urba- 
nas res virtute Cn. Pompeii commodiorem in statum pervenisse in- 
telligent, in Transalpinani Galliam profectus est. Eo quum ven- 
isset, magna difficultate afficiebatur, qua ratione ad exercitum per- 
venire posset. 1 Nam si legiones in provinciam arcesseret, se ab- 
sente in itinere proeljo dimicaturas intelligebat : si ipse ad exerci- 
tum contenderet, ne iis quidem, qui eo tempore pacati viderentur, 
suam salutem recte committi 2 videbat. 

VII. Interim Lucterius Cadurcus, in Rutenos missus, earn civi- 
tatem Arvernis conciliat. Progressus in Nitiobriges et Grabalos, 



2. Quantum, quodque efficiat, " How 
mtfch, and what, each state shall 
do." 

V. 1. Hostium, i.e Arvernorum. 

2. De consilio, "In accordance with the 
advice." 

3. Ad exercitum==apud exercitum. 

4. Quibus, §143. 

5. Consilii, §134. 



6. Si flumen transissent, "If they should 
cross; §198, a. 

7. Nihil, |l55. 

VI. 1. Qua— posset (^814) limits mag- 
na difficultate afficiebatur, =nesciit, or 
dubitavit. 

2. Commiiii, present for future ; or 
posse may be supplied. 



1,1 HER SEPTIMUS. 1 17 

ab utrisque obsides accipit, at magna coacta manu, in provinciam 
Xarboneni versus eruptioneru facere contendit. .Qua re nunciata, 
Caesar oninibus coirsiliis 1 antevertenduni existiniavit, ut Narbonem 
proficiscereiur. Eo quum venisset, timentes confirmat, praesidia in 
Rutenis provincialihuB, Volcis Areceniicis, Tolosatibus, circumque 
Narbonem, quae loca bostibus erant finitima, constituit : partem 
oopiarum ex provincial suppleuicntumquc, quod ex Italia adduxerat, 
in Helvios, qui fines Arvernorum contingunt, convent re jubet. - 

VIII. His rebus eomparatis, repressd jam Lucterib et remoto, 

quod intrare intra pnesidia periculosum putabat, 1 in Helvios proii- 

eiscitut :- etsi mons Oevebfia, qui Arvern<>* ab Belviis diacludit, 

o tempore anni, altissima nive iter impediebat; tamen dU- 

; nive VI in altitudinetn pedum, atque ita viis pat- um- 

militum lain"- ArvteraSninrpervenik Quibus oppre 

. inantibus, quod se Cevenna, ut muro, munitos exiatimabant, a 

singulairi quidem unquam bomini eo tempore anni senritea patu- 

[uitibus imperat, ut, quam latissime possent, 8 vagentur, et 

quam maximum hoatibus terrorem iuferaut. Celeriter baeo' fama 

Qunciisad Yereingetorigem.perferuntur: quern perterriti omnes 

Arverni elreuaisistunt atque obsecrant, ut suis fortunis 4 consulat, 

neu se ab bostibus diripi patiatur ; prsesertim quum videat omne au 

(Hum translatum. Quorum ille 'precibus permotus, castra ex 

Biturigibus movet \\\ Arvernos versus. 

At CaJSttr, biduum in iis locis moratus, quod liooc de 
eingetorige U8U Ventura 1 opinione prseceperut, per causam 3 supple- 
ment"! eqi ie cogendi ab exeroitu discedit; Brutum ado) 
centem iis oopiis prffificit; hunc monet, ut in omnes partes equites 
quam fal issime pen agentur : '' daturum se operam, no longius triduu 
sit.' His eonstitutis rebus,. suis inopinantibus, quam 
maximis potest itineribus, Viennam pervenit. Ibi nactus, recentem 
cquitatum, quem multis ante diebus eo piaemiserat, neque diurno 
octurno itinere Intermisso, per lines iEduorum in Lingones 
tendityubi li legiones hiemabant; ut, si quid etiam de sua 
Salul luis iniretur tfonailii, celeritate praecurreret. Eo <|uum 
ad reliquas legiones mitt it, priusque in uuuia locum 

VII 1 Omnibut consiliu i Jb- IX. 1. '■'• 

rtendum, tl happen tnce 

yrh'mb' la utproficisa • to Vi ■ rcin- 

getorix would I to 

VIII. 1. I'lK-li.t \rvc mi, ami thnt tins 

Hon would be i^verti-d from < 
;'JI7. Oh«prvc thnt tl>e ini movements, 
here interchanged with r cnNs.im,=cauv 

ur nnd mferant. expression inCfl 

l. !'•• 12, both iuppiementi «nd fj 



148 



DE BELLO (JALLICO 



omnes eogit, quam de ejus adventu Arvernl|6 nunciari posset. 3 Hac 
re cognit'a, Vercingetorix rursus in Bitjiri^ps exercitum reducit ; 
atque indc profectus Gergoviam, Boiorum oppidum, quos ibi Hel- 
vetico proelio victos Caesar collocaverat, ^Jdiisque attribuerat, op- 
pugnare.instituit. 

X. Magnnm hoec res Caesari difficultatel(Jfad consilium capien- 
dum afferebat : si reliquam partem hiemis uno in loco legiones con- 
tinent, ne, 1 stipendiariis iEduoruin expugnatis, cuncta Gallia defi-' 
ceret, quod nullum amicis 2 in eo prsesidium videret 3 positum esse ; 
sin maturius ex hibernis educeret, ne ab 4 re frumentaria duris sub- 
vectionibus laboraret. Praestare visum est tamen omnes difficultates 
perpeti, quam, tanta eontumelia accepta, omnium suorum voluntates 
alienare. Itaque cobortatus iEduos de supportando comrneatu, 
praemittit ad Boios, qui de suo adventu doceant, 5 bortenturque, ut 
in fide maneant, atque hostium impetum magno animo sustineant. 
Duabus Agendici legionibus atque impedimentis totius exercitus 
relictis, ad Boios proficiscitur. 

XI. Altero die quum ad oppidum Senonum Vellaunoduuum 
venisset, ne quern post se bostem relinqueret, quo expeditiore re 
frumentaria uteretur, oppugnare instituit, idque biduo circumval- . 
lavit : tertio die missis ex oppido legatis de deditione, arma pro- 
ferri, jumenta produci, DC o"bsides dari jubet. Ea qui conficerefc^- 
C. Trebonium legatum relinquit : ipse, ut quamprimum iter face- 
ret, 2 Genabum Carnutum proficiscitur, qui, turn primum allato nun- 
cio de oppugnatione Vellaunoduni, quum longius earn rem ductum 
iri existimarent, prsesidium Genabi tuendi causa, quod eo mitte- 
rent, 3 comparabant. Hue biduo pervenit : castris ante oppidum 
positis, diei tempore exclusus, in posterum oppugnationem differt, 
quaeque ad earn rem usui sint; militibus imperat ; et, quod oppidum 
Genabum pons fluminis Ligeris oontinebat, 4 veritus ne noctu ex op- 
pido profugerent, 5 diias legiones in ,armis excubare jubet. Gena- 
benses, paulo ante mediam noctem silentio ex oppido egressi, flumen 



3. Posset, $206, b. 

X. 1. Ne, sc. verebatur. Stipendiariis 
expugnatis is conditional, the conclu- 
sion being Gallia deficeret, quod videret. 

2. Amicis limits prcesidium ; §142. 

3. Quod videret, " Because (in that 
event) it would see ;" §197. Observe 
that the leading verb is past, hence 
these imperfects 

4. Ab re frumentaria, "From (wantof) 
provisions ;"— the souroe of the dis- 
tress. •% 

5. Doceant, §210, a. 



XI. 1. Conficeret, §210, a. 

2. Iter faceret, i.e. to Ger^ovia. 

3. Quod eo mitterent, (§210, a,) "To 
send thither,' : i.e. to Genabum. I 

4. Continebat, " Connected " 'with the 
opposite bank, thus affording a means 
of escape.- The city was not s^uated, 
as some suppose, on both sides of the 
river, for it is said in the next .sen-., 
tence that the townsmen "went out 
of the town and commenced crossing 
the river." 

5. Profugerent, sc. oppidani. 



LIBER* SEPTIMUS. 149 

transire coeperunt. Qua re per cxploratores nunciata, Caesar legio- 
nes, quas expeditas esse jusserat, portis incensis, introinittit, atque 
oppido potitur, nerpaucis ap hostium numero desideratis, quin cuncti 
caperentur/' quod pontjejjwque itinerum angu8tiae multitudini fugam 
.intercluserant. OppiclBi diripit atque incendit, praedam militibus 
donat, cxercitum LigaPm trausducit, atque in Biturigiira fines 
pervenit. 

XII. Vercingetorix ubi de Caesaris adventu cognovit, oppugna- 
tione 1 destitit, atque obviani Caesari proficiscitur. Ille oppidum 
Biturigum, posit uni in via, Noviodunum oppugnare instituerat. 
Quo ex oppido quum legati ad eum venisscnt, oratum, ut sibi ignos- 
'•eret, sureque vitas consuleret ; ut celeritate reliquas i#s conficeret, 

;ua ploraque erat consecutus, anna proferri, equos produci, obsides 
!ari jubet. Parte jam obsidum tradita, quum reliqua administra- 
rentur, centurionibus et paucis militibus intromissis, qui arma 
• juinentaque eon quire rent, 2 equitatus hostium procul visus est, qui 
agmen Verciugetorigis antecesserat. Quern simul atque oppidani 
conspexerunt, 3 atque in spetn auxilii venerunt, clamore sublato, 
uina capere, portas claudere, murum complere coeperunt. Centu- 
ries in oppido quum ex significatione Gallorum novi aliquid ab 
iniri consilii intellexissent, gladiis districtis portas occupaverunt, 
-uosque omnes incolumes receperunt. 4 

XIII. C;vsar ex castris equitatum educi jubet, prceliumque 
|uestre committit : laborantibus jam suis Germanos equites circi- 

ter CD submittit, quos ab initio secum habere instituerat. 1 Eorum 
^impetum Galli sustinere non potuerunt, atque in fugam conjecti, 
!ti.< afaissis, sese ad agmen receperunt : quibusprofligatis, rursus 
'ppidani perterriti comprehensos eos, quorum opera plebem concita- 
tam existimabant, ad Caesarem perduxerunt, seseque ei dediderunt. 
Quibus rebus confectis, Caesar ad oppidum Avaricum, quod erat 
maximum muuitissimumque in finibus Biturigum, atque agri fer- 
tilissima regionc, 2 profectus est; quod, eo oppido reeepto, civitatem 
Biturigum se in potestatem redacturum oonfidebat. 

XIV. Vercingetorix, tot continuis incommodis Vellaunoduni, 
Genabi, Novioduni acceptis, suos ad concilium convocat. • Docet 



I'orpaucis desideratis quin cuncti 2. Conquirerent, §210, a. 
cnperenter, "Very few of the enemy 3. Simul atquo conspexerunt, J204, 1 
having escaped capture ;" — literally, t. Receperunt, "Withdrew." 
'very few out of the aumber o. 1 the 

«uemy being wanting from the whole XI II! 1. Instituerat, "Hal been ac- 
ting captured." customed." 

i Regione, J 166. 
XII. 1. OppugnatioUe, >e. Gergovite. 1 

ii2 



150 



BE BELLO GALL1GO. 



' longe alia ratione esse belluin gerendum, atque antea sit 1 gestum t 
omnibus modis huie rei studendum, ut patjjulatione 'et comrneatu 
Romani prohibeantur.^Id esse facile, quod (fquitatu ipsi abundent, 
et quod anni tempore subleventur : pabulwn secari non posse; 2 
necessario dispersos hostes ex sedificiis peteje : bos omnes quotidie 
ab equitibus delevi posse. Praeterea safaafs causa rei familiaris 
commoda negligenda; vicos atque aedificia incendi oportere boc 
spatio, 3 a Boia 4 quoquoversus, quo pabulandi causa adire posse vide- 
antur. Harum ipsis rerum copiam suppetere, quod, quorum in 
finibus bellum geratur, eorum opibus« subleventur : Romanos aut 
iuopiam non laturos, aut magno cum periculo longius ab castris pro- 
gressuros : neque interesse, ipsosne interficiant, impedimentisne 5 
exuant, quibfts amissis, bellum geri non possit. Prseterca oppida 
incendi oportere, qua? non munitione et loci natura ab oinni sint 
periculo tuta ; neu suis sint ad detractandam militiam receptacula, 
neu Romanis proposita ad copiam commeatus praedamque tollen- 
dam. Haec si gravia aut acerba videantur, multo ilia 6 gravius sasti- 
mare debere, liberos, conjuges in servitutem abstrabi, ipsos inter- 
•fici ; quae sit necesse accidere victis.' 

XV. Omnium consensu hac sententia probata, uno die amplius 
XX urbes Biturigum inceuduntur. Hoc idem fit in reliquis civi- 
tatibus. In omnibus partibus incendia conspiciuntur ; quas etsi 
magno cum dolore omnes ferebant, tamen hoc sibi solatii propone- 
bant, [quod se, prope] explorata victoria, celeriter amissa recupe-ra- 
turos [confidebant]. Deliberate de Avarico in communi cqj^cilio, 
incendi placeret, 1 an defendi. Procumbunt omnibus Gallis 2 ad 
pedes Bituriges, ' ne pulcberrimam prope totiu3 Gallice urbem, qvpi 
et prsesidio et ornamento sit civitati, suis manibus succendere coge- 
rentur : 3 facile se loci natura defensuros' 4 dicunt, 'quod, prope ex 
omnibus partibus flumine et palude circumdata, 5 unum babeat et 6 
perangustum aditum.' Datur petentibus venia, dissuadente primo 
Vercingetorige, post corcedente, et precibus 7 ipsorum, et misericor- 
dia vulgi. Defensores oppido idonei deliguntur. 

XV. 1. Placeret, §214. The omission 
of the enclitic ne when followed by 
an, is quite common. 

2. Gallis, §147. 

3. Ne — cogerentur depends on the verb 
of praying implied in procumbunt ad 
pedes. 

4. Defensuros, sc. oppidum. 

5. Circumdata agrees with the nearest 
noun. 

6. Et introduces a more important cir- 
cumstance here. 

7. Precibus and misericordia are causal 



XIV. 1. Sit gestum, §217. 

2. PabHlum secari non posse, "Because 
there was none to cut, it being dead 
of winter." 

3. Hoc spatio, "To such a distance;" 
§153. 

4. Boia, sc. terra. All names of coun- 
tries are adjectives, derived from the 
name of the people. 

5. Impedimentisne. The use of ne for the 
disjunctive an is comparatively rare 

6. Ilia is opposed to hac, and is strong' 
er. It refers to what follows. 



ZR SEPTIMUS. 151 

! 

XVI.- Vereingetorix minoribus Cawareni itiijeribus subsequitur, 
ct locum castris deligitjjfpaludibus t-ilvisque munitum, ab Avarico 
longe millia passuum XVI. Ibi per cortos exploratores in singula 
diei torapora, 1 quae ad Avaricum agerentur, eognoscebar, et, quid 
fieri vellet, impwabat : omncs nostras pabulationes frumentatioi 
que observabat, dispersosque, quum longius necessario procederent, 
adoriebatur, magnoque incommoda aiileiebat: etsi, quantum ratione 
provideri poterat, ab nostria ocourrebatur, 2 ut 3 incertis tomporibus 
diversisque itineribus iretur. 

XVII. Castris ad earn partem oppidi positis, Caesar, 1 quae inter- 
fcuissa 2 a flumine et a palude aditum, ut supra dixiiuus, angustum 
babebat, aggerem apparare, vineas agere, turres duas eonstituere 
coepit : nam circumvallare loci natura prouibebat. Dc re frumen- 
taria Boios atque iEduos adbortari non destitit : quorum alteri, 8 
quod nullo studio agebant, non multuni 4 adjuvabant : alteri non 
magnis facultatibus, 5 quod civitas erat ex'gua et infirma, ecleriter, 
quod habuerunt, consumpserunt. Summa difiicultate rei frumen- 
tariac affecto exercitu, tenuitate Boiorum, indiligentia -ZEduoruni, 
incendiis rcdificiorum, usque eo, c ut complures dies milites frumento 
carueript, et, pecore e longinquioribus vicis adacto, extreniam fa- 
:;:em sustentarent, nulla tamen vox est ab iis audita populi Romani 
majestate et superioribus victariis indigua. Quiu ctiam Cwsar quuu 
in opere singulas legione's appellaret, et, si acerbius inopiam ferrent. 
se dimissurum bppugnationem diceret; universi ab eo, ' ne id face 
ret,' petebant : ' sic sc complures annos illo imperante meruisse," 
■ lullam ignominiam acciperent, nunquam infecta re discederent 
s fl^c se ignominia3 laturos loco, si inceptam oppugnationem reliquis 
sent : pracstare omnes perferre acerbitates, quam non civibus Ro 
manis, qui Genabi perfidia Gallorum kiterissent, parentarent.' 8 
Haec eadem centurionibus tribunisque militum mandabant, ut per 
eos ad Caesarem deferrentur. 



ablatives, and vulgi is objective. 

X.V1. 1. In singula diei tempora, "For 
every hour of the day," "at all times.' 

J. Ab nostris occurrebatur, "Although 
counteracting measures were taken 
by our men as far as provision could 



2. Intermissa, "Left open." 

I. Alteri, i.e. the yEdui. Alteri, i.e. the 

Boii. 
4. Multum, $150, Rem. 3. 
6. Non magnis facultatibus, %\88, Rem. 

1. 
Usque eo, "To such an extent.' 



be made by generalship." Quantum 7 . 8e mtruitse depends on the verb of 
represents the limit to which the] saying implied in petebant. 
meaning of provideri extends} a sort, 8. Quam — parentarent. Quam, though 
of accusative of measure. * a Telativo word, usually connects 

3. Ut, "So that." words in the same construction, likt 

a copulative conjunction ; so that th« 

XVII. 1. Cottar. The position of the' use of the subjunctive, though ar 
subject is here an unvsual one. cording to analogy, is rare. 






.152 DE BELLO GALLICO 

XVIII. Quum jam muro turres appropinquassent, ex captivis 
Caesar cognovit Vercingetorigem, consumpto pabulo, castra raovisse. 
propius Avaricum, atque ipsum cum equitatu expeditisque, qui inter 
equites proeliari consuessent, 1 iusidiarum causa eo profectum, quo 
nostros postero die pab'ulatuui venturos arbitraretur. v Quibus rebus 
cognitis, media nocte silentio profectus, ad hostium castra mane per- 
venit. Illi, celeriter per exploratores adventu Caesaris cognito, car- 
ros impedimentaque sua in artiores silvas abdiderunt, copias omnes 
in loco edito atque aperto instruxerunt. Qua. re nunciata, Caesar 
celeriter sarcinas conferri, arma expediri jussit. 

XIX. Collis erat leniter ab infimo acclivis : hunc ex omnibus 
fere partibus palus difficilis atque impedita cingebat, non latior ped- 
ibus L. Hoc se colle, interrupts pontibus, Galli fiducia loci contin- 
ebant, generatimque distributi in civita.tes, omnia vada ac saltus ejus 
paludis certis custodiis obtinebant, sic animo 1 parati, ut, si earn pa- 
ludem Romani perrumpere conarentur, haesitantes premerent ex loco 
superiore : ut, qui propinquitatem loci videret, 2 paratos 3 prope aequo 
Marte ad dimicandum existimarefc; qui iniquitatem conditionis per- 
spiceret, inani simulatione sese ostentare cognosceret. Indignantes 
milites Caesar, quod conspectum suum hostes ferre possent, tantulo 
spatio interjecto, et signum proclii exposcentes, edocet, 'quanto det- 
rimento, 4 et quot virorum fortium morte necesse sit constare victo- 
riam : quos quum sic animo paratos videat, ut nullum pro sua laude 
periculum recusent, summse se iniquitatis 6 condemnari debere, nisi 
eorum vitam sua salute habeat cariorem.' Sic milites consolatus, 
eodem die reducit in castra ; reliq.ua, qua; ad oppugjaationem oppidi 
pertinebant, administrare instituit. 

XX. Vercingetorix quum ad suos redisset, proditionis 1 insimu- 
latus, 'quod castra propius Romanos movisset, quod cum omni equi- 
tatu discessisset, quod sine, imperio tantas copias reliquisset, quod 
ejus discessu Romani tanta opportunitate et celeritate venissent ; non 
haec omnia fortuito aut sine consilio accidere potuisse ; 2 regnum il- 

' lum Gallias malle Caesaris concessu quam ipsorum habere beneficio :' 
tali modo accusatus, ad haec respondit : ' Quod castra movisset, 
factum inopia pabuli, etiam ipsis hortantibus : quod propius Ro-. 
manos accessisset, persuasum 4 loci opportunitate, qui se ipsum mu- 

XVIII. 1. Consuessent, ^210, c. 



XIX. 1. Animo, $161. 

2. Videret, g210, b : qui=3i quis. 

3. Paratos, sc. Gallos. 

4. Detrimento, morte, §162. 



XX. 1. Proditionis, §136. 

2. Non accidere potuisse, " Could not 
have happened,;" literally, "had not 
been able to happen." Observe the 
difference of idiom. 

3. Quod (§155) castra movisset, "As to 



Iniquitatis, |136. his moving the camp." 

1 4. Persuasum, sc. esse sibi. 



LIBER SEPTIMUS. 



153 



nitione defenderet : equitum vero oporam neque in loco palustri de- 

siderari debuisse, et illic fuisse utileui, quo sint profecti : 5 sunirnain 

imperii se consulto nulli discedentem tradidisse, ne is inultitudinis 

studio ad dimicandum impelleretur ; cui rei propter aninii mollitiem 

. tudere oinnes videret, quod diutius laborem fe'rre non possent. Ro- 

raani si casu intervenerint, fbrtunta ; c si alicujus indicio vocati, huic 

habendain gratiam, quod et paucitatcm corum ex loco superiore cog- 

noscere, et virtuteiu despicere potuerint; qui, dimicare non ausi, 

turpiter se in cas.tra rcceperint. Imperiuni se ab Caesare per prodi- 

tionem nullum desiderare, quod habere victoria posset, quae jam es- 

tet sibi atque omnibus Gallis cxplorata : quin <Jtiam ipsis remittere, 7 

si sibi magis bonorem tribuere, quam ab 88 salutem accipere videan- 

tur.' 8 " Hroc ut inteliigatis," inquit, '« sincere a me pronunciari, au- 

dite Romanos mill tea." Producit servos, quos in pabulatione paucis 

nte diebus exceperat, et fame vinculisque excruciaverat. Hi, jam 

ntc edocti, quae interrogati pronunciarent, 9 ' milites se esse legion- 

rio's ' dicunt : c fame et inopia adductos clam ex castris exisse, si 

aid frumenti aut pecoris in agris reperire possent : 10 simili omnem 

exercitum inopia prcnii, nee jam vires sufficere cuiquam, nee ferre 

peris laborem posse : itaque statuissc impcratorcm, si nihil in op- 

j ugnationc oppidi profecisset, triduo exercitum deducere ' "Haw," 

inquit, "a me," Vercingetorix, "beneficia habetis, quqm proditiouis 

insimulatis, cujus opera sine vestro sanguine tantum exercitum vic- 

torem fame paene consumptum videtis ; quern, turpiter se ex hac fuga 

Jtecipientem, ne qua civikis suis finibus recipiat, a me provisum est." 

PHt^^^/bnclainat onmis multitude, et suo more armis concrepat ; 
quodf-icere in eo 1 consueruut, cujus orationem approbant : • Su»»- 
raum esse Vercingetorigem ducem, neo de ejus fide dubitandum ; i 
:najore ratione bellum administrari posse.' Statuuut, ut decern mil- 

ia homiuum delecta ex omnibus copiis in oppidum submittantur, 
nee solis Biturigibus coaimuuem salutem committendam censent ; 

[uod penes eos, si id oppidum retinuissent, summam victoriae con- 
stare 2 intelligebant. 

XXII. Singulari militum nostrorum virtuti consilia cujusque 



profecti. Observe the change to 
: ry tenses. 

lunaj, sc. habendam (esse) gra- 
ti mi. 

. Ipsis remittere, "That he leaves it 
ves to decided 
ntur, "Whether they seem 
rather to give liim honor than, &c.:" 
rather an interrogative than a condi- 
tional i etitcncc. 



9. Quib {ironucciarent, "What to tell;" 
J2H 

10. Si — possent, " (To sec) whether 
they could.'' 

XXI. 1. In en, " In the cat-e of him." 

'_'. Summam victorias constare, " That 

: esult of the victory woui 

main with them,' i e. the would reap 

the chief benefit of it. 



154 DE BELLO GALLICO 

modi Galloruni occurrebant, ut est 1 sunima> genus solertiae atque ad» 
omnia imit'anda atque efficicnda, qua) ab quoque tradantur, aptissi- 
muni. Nam et laqueis falces avertebant, quas quum destinaverant, 
tormentis iutrorsus reducebant; etaggerem cuniculis, subfcuabebant, 
eo scientius, quod apud eos magna; sunt ferrariso, atque omne genus 
ouniculorum notutn atque usitatuni est. Totum autem murum ex* 
omui parte turribus contnbulaverant,* atque bas coriis intexe'ran^. 
Turn erebris diurnis nocturnisque eruptionibus aut aggeri ignem.in- 
ferebant, aut milites occupatos in opcre adoriebantur ; et nostrarum 
turrium altitudinem, quantum 2 bas quotidianus agger expresserat, 
commissis suarum titrrium malis, adax[uabant; et apertoscuniculov' 
prseueta ac pneacuta materia et pice fervefacta et maximi ponderis 
saxis morabantur, meenibu-scjue appropinquare protybebant. ^ 

XXIIT. Maris autem omnibus Gallicis baec fere forma est. Tra- 
bes directa), perpetua) in longitudinem, 1 paribus intervaliis distantes* 
inter se binos pedes, in solo collocautur : ba3 revinciuntur intvorsus, 
et multo aggere vestiuntur. Ea autem, qua) diximus, intervalla 
grandibus in fronte saxis effarciuntur. His collocatis et coagmen- 
tatis, alius insuper ordo adjicitur, ut idem illud intervallum serve- 
tur, neque inter se contingant trabes, sed paribus intermissce spatiis 
singula) singulis saxis interjectis arte contineantur. 2 Sic deincep;; 
omne opus contexitur, dum justa muri altitudo expleftur. 8 Hoc 
quum 4 in speciem varietatemque opus deforme non est, altefnis trab- 
ib.us ac saxis, quae reetis lineis suos ordines servant ; turn ad utili- 
tatem et defensionem urbiuul suimuara bafcet opportunitatem ; quod 
et ab incendio lapis, ct ab ariete materia defendit, qua?, perpc^uis 
trabibus 6 pedes quadragenos plcrumque introrsus revincta, neque 
perrumpi neque. distrain potest. 

XXIV. lis tot rebus impedita oppugnatione, milites, quum toto 
tempore frigore et assiduis imbribus tardarentur, tamen continenti 
iabore omnia brcc superaverunt, et diebus XXV aggerem, latum pe> 
des CCCXXX, altum pedes LXXX, exstruxerunt. Quum is murum 
bostium paene contingeret, et Caesar ad opus consuetudine 1 exeuba- 

XXII. 1. Ut est, " Since they are ;' 

§136, Rem. i. 
2. Quantum, §150, Rem 3. 
'■I. Cuuiculos, sc. Romanorum. 



XXIII. 1. PerpetuEe in longitudinem, 
" Extending lengthwise through the 
wall." The length of these timbers 
equalled the thickness of the wall. 

•_'. Sed contineantur is coordinate with 
ut servetur. "But, separated by equal 
spaces, are held tightly (to their pla- 
ces) by the stones placed between 



them (respectively).'* 

3. Expleatur, £207. 

4. Quum— turn, "Not only — but also." 

5. Altcrnis trabibus ac saxis,§186 fc i?e/n. . 

1- 

6. Perpetuus trabibus, §186, Rem. I. — .. 
"Which, being usually braced within 
(the wall), sjnce the beams extend X 
clear through it (to the distance of) v 
forty feet, can neither, &c." 

XXIV. 1. Consuetudine, " According 
to custom';" — causal ablative, ex be- 



LIBEli SEPTIMUS. 155 

ret, militesque cohortaretur, ne quod omnino tempusab opere inter- 
in itteretur ;-paulo ante tertiam yigiliarn est animadversuni fumare 
aggerem, quern cuniculo hostes succenderant : eodemque tempore 
toto m u i-o clamortysublato, duabus portis ab utroquc latere turriuin 
emiptio fiebat. A^ii faces atque aridam materiem de muro in agge- 
•" rem eminus jaciebafct, picem rcliquasque res, quibus ignis excitari 
\. potest, fumleba&it ; ut, quo primum occurreretur,- aut cu" rei ferre- 
iur auxiliurn,^x ratio irrfri posset. :; Tamfeo, quod institute) Crvsaris 
dase semper kgiones pro castris excubabant, plurcsque partitis tem- 
poribus erant in opere, ecleriter factum est, ut alii eruptionibus re- 
sisterent, alii turres reducerent, aggeremque interscindcrent, omnia 
vero ex. castris multitudo ad restmguendum concurreret. 

XXV.- Quum in omnibus locis, consumpta jam reliqua parte 
tisj pugnarctur, seinperque hostibus spes victoria) redintegrare- 
tiir, eo magis,*quod deustos pluteos turrium videbant, nee facile ad- 
ire 1 apertos ad auxiliaudum animadvertcbant ; semperque ipsi rccen- 
tes defessis.succederent, omnemque Gallire salutem in illo vestigio 
temporis- positam arbitrarentur ; accidit, inspectantibus nobis, quod, 
dignum memoria visum, prscterinittcndum non existimavimus Qui- 
dam ante portam oppidi Gallus, qui per manus sevi ac picis traditag 
glebes in ignem e regione turris projieiebat, scorpione ab latere 
(jtextro transjectus exanimat usque concidit. Hunc ex proximis unua 
joccutem transgressus, eodem illo jnunere fungebatur : eadem. ra- 
tione ictu scorpionis exanimato altero, successit tertius, et tertiu 
quartus ; nee prius i-lle est a propugnatoribus vacuus relictus locus, 
quain, restincto aggere, atque o'mni parte submotis bostibus, finis 
est' 2 pugnandi factus. 

XXVI. Omnia experti Gall I, quod res nulla successerat, poster.' 
die consilium ceperunt ex oppido profugere, 1 hortante et jubente 
Vercingetorige. Id, silcntio nootis conati, non magna jactura suo- 
rum s-esc effecturos sperabant, propterea quod neque longc ab op- 
pido eastra Vercingetorigis aberant, et palus perpetua, quae inter- 
cedebat, Romanos ad insequendum tardabat, Jamque boc facere 
nofltu apparabant, quum matres faniiliao repente in publicum pro- 
currerunt, flentesque, projectoe ad pedes suorum, omnibus precibus 
peticrunt, nc se et communes liberos hostibus ad supplicium dede- 
rent, quos ad capiendam fugam natura; et viriuni infirmitas impe- 

ing usually expressed. ]2. Est factoe, §200, a. 

-. Ocourreretur, §214. "In vthat direc- 
tion resistance should first be made. XXVI. 1. Profugere=pr ifugicnli. 

3. Vix ratio iniri posset, "It could The use of the infinitivr in any oth«i 
scarcely be determined.'' ca?e than the nominative or accusa- 

tive, is comparatively rare in classi- 

XXV. 1. Adire, $c. noetros. 1 cal proee. 



16G DE BELLO GALLICO 

diret. Ubi eos in sententia perstare viderunt, quod plerumque in 
summo periculo timor misericordiain non recipit, oonclamare et sig- 
nificare de fuga Romanis coeperunt. Quo timore perterriti Galli, 
ne ab equitatu Romanorum vise praeoccuparentur, consilio destit- 
erunt. 

XXVII. Postero die Caesar, promota turri, directisque 1 opcri- 
bus, quae facere instituerat, magno coorto imbri, non inutilem bane 
ad capiendum consilium ternpestatem arbitrates, quod paulo incau- 
tius custodias in muro dispositas videbafc, suos quoque languidius in 
opere vcrsari jus3it, et, quid fieri vellet, ostendit. Legiones intra 
vineas in oceulto 2 expeditas cobortatur, ut aliquando pro tantis la- 
boribus fruotum victoriae perciperent : bis, qui primi murum ascen- 
dissent, 3 prpsmia proposuit, militibusque signuni dedit. Illi *subito 
ex omnibus partibus evolaverunt, mururaque celeriter compleverunt. 

XXVIII. Hostes, re nova perterriti, muro turribusque dejecti, 
in foro ac loc^s patentioribus cuneatim constiterunt, boc animo, ut, 
si qua ex parte obviam contra 1 veniretur, aeie instructa.depugnarent. 
Ubi neminem in sequuni locum sese demittere sod toto undique muro 
circumfundi viderunt, veriti, ne omnino spes fugae tolleretur, ab- 
jcctis armis, ultimas oppidi partes continenti impetu petiverunt : 
parsque ibi, quum angusto portarum exitu se ipsi 2 premerent, a mil- 
itibus, pars, jam egressa portis, ab equitibus est interfecta : nee fuit 
quisquam, qui praedae studeret. 3 Sic'et Genabensi caede 4 et labore 
opens incitati, non aetate confectis, non mulieribus, non infantibus 
pepercerunt. Denique ex omni eo numero, qui fuit circiter XL 
millium, 5 vix DCCC, qui primo clamore audito se ex oppido ejece- 
rant, incolumes ad Vercingetorigem pervenerunt. Quos ille, multa 

, jam nocte, 6 silentio' ex fuga excepit, (veritus, ne qua in castris es 
eorum concursu et misericordia vulgi seditio oriretur,) ut, 7 procul 
in via dispositis familiaribus^suis 8 principibusqtie civitatum, dispar- 
andos deducendosque ad suos curaret, quae cuique civitati pars 9 cas- 
trovum ab initio obvenerat. 

XXIX. Postero die concilio convocato, consolatus cobortatusque 
est, ' ne se admodum animo demitterent, neve perturbarentur in- 



XXVII. 1. Directis, i.e. towards that 
part of the wall which was most vul- 
nerable. 

2. In oceulto, i.e. screened from the 
enemy's view. 

3. Qui primi ascendissent, "Who should 
first ascend. 1 ' 

XXVIII. 1. " Obviam and contra ap- 
parently form a pleenasm ; but ob- 
viam seems to indicate only the di- 



rection, whereas contra indicates the 
intention." — Zumpt. 

2. Se ipsi, §85, b, c. 

3. Studeret, §210, b. 

4. Geuabensi caede, See ch. 3. 

5. Quadraginta millium, se. numerus 

6. Nocte, sc. consumpta. 
7.,Ut, "So that." 

8. ' Suis and suos refer to the fugitives 
9. Quae pars = in earn partem quae. 



LIBER SEPTIMUS. 



V 



commodo : Ron virtute nequc in acie vicisse^ Romanos, sed artificio 
quodam et seientia oppugnationis, cujus rei fucrint ipsi imperiti : 
errare, si qui in bello omnes secundos rerutn proventus exspeetent : 2 
sibi nunquam placuisse Avaricuin defendi, cujus rei testes' ipsos 
haberet ; sed factum imprudentia Bituriguni et nhnia obsequentia 
reliquorum, uti hoc incommodum acciperetur • id tanien se celcriter 
majoribus commodis sanaturum. Nam qua -1 ab reliquis Gallis civi- 
tates <li • cTilircnt, has sua diligentia adjuncturum, atque unum con- 
silium totius Galliae efFecturum, cujus consensu 4 ne orbis quidem 
tcrrarum possit obsistere : idquc se prope jam effectum habere. 
Interca aequum esse ab iis communis sal u tig causa impetrari, ut cas- 
tra muni re iustituerent, quo facilius repentinos hostium impetus 
•sustiherc possent.' 

XXX. Fuit hsec o ratio non iugrata Gallis, maxime, quod ipse 
animo non defecerat, tanto accepto incommodo, neque se in occul- 
tum abdiderat, et conspectum multitudinis fugerat : plusque^ api- 
mo 2 providere et preesentire existimabatur, quod, re integra, 3 prin i 
incendendum Avaricum, post deserendum censuerat. Itaque ut re- 
liquorum imperatorum res adversce auctoritatem minuunt, sic bujus 
ex contrario dignitas, incounnodo accepto, in dies augebatur : simul 
pena venicbant ejus affirmationc, de reliquis adjungendiscivitati- 
bua : primumque eo tempore Galli castra munire instituerunt, et 
-uut animo 2 consternati homines insueti laboris, ut omnia, qure 
imperarentur, sibi patienda et perfcrenda existimarent. 

[XI. Xcc minus*, quam est pollicitus, Vercingetorix animo 

irabat, ut reliquaa civitates adjungerct, atque earum principes 

is pollicitationibusque alliciebat. 1 Huic rei idoneos homines 

jitli::t, quorum quisque aut oratione subdola, aut amicitia facil- 

linie capi posset. 2 Qui Avarico expugnato refugerant, armandos 

iendosque curat. Simul, ut deminutse copiae redintegrarentur, 

imperat certum numerum militum civitatibus, quern et quam ante 

diem in castra adduci velit ; 3 sagittariosque omnes, quorum erat per- 

magnus in (Jallia numerus, conquiri et ad se mitti jubet. His rebus 

celeriter id, quod Avarici deperierat, expletur. Interim Teutoma- 

tus, Olloviconis filiu^, rex Nitiobrigum, cujus pater ab Senatu nos- 

XXIX. I. Vieitie and trrarr depend on more provident and fareightcd." 
tin verb of ^riving implied in cohor-,2. Animo, £101. 
tatv*. 3. Re integra, §186, Ren. 1. "From 

2. Si qui exspcctent=quicumque ex- the beginning." 
spectent. 

3. Testep, J161, b. 

4. Consensu, $48, Item. S. 



XXX. I. Plus, J150, Rem. '2. "To be 

. N 



XXXI. J. Alliciebat, {95, Rem. 4, (c). 

2. Posset, »' e. in the opinion of Vercin- 
getorix. 

3. Qnem— Tclit. Quern is relative, and 



158 DE BELLO GALLICO 

tro amicus erat appellate, cum raagno equitum suorrnn numero, el 
<juos ex Aquitania eonduxerat, 4 ad eum pervenit. 

XXXIT. Cr<?sar, Avarici complures dies commoratus, sumrnam- 
^ue ibi copiani frumenti et reliqui comineatus nactus, exercitum ex 
labore atque inopia refecit. Jam prope hieme confocta, quuru ipso 
auni tempore ad gerendum bellum vocaretur, et ad hostem proficisci 
eonstituisset, sive eum ex paludibus silvisque elicere, sive obsidione 
premere posset; 1 legati ad eum principes iEduorum veniuut oratum, ' 
' ut maxime uecessario tempore civitati subveniat : summo esse in i 
periculb rem, 2 quod, quum singuli magistratus antiquitus creari, at • 
que regiam potestate'm nnnuam obtinere consuessent, duo majgistra- 
tum gerant, et se uterque eorum legibus ereatum esse dicat. Horur.i 
esse alterum Convictolitanem, florentem et illus^i-em adolescentem ; 
alterum Cotum, antiquissima familia natum, atque ipsum hominem 
»ummse potential et niagnae cognationis;- cujus frater Valetiacus 
proximo anno eundem magistratum gesserit : civitatem omnem esse 
in amis, divisum Senatum, divisum populum, suas cujusque eorum 
elientelas. 5 Quod si 4 diutius alatuv controversia. fore, uti pars cum 
parte civitatis confligat : id ne accidat, positum in ejus diligentia 
atque auctoritate.' 

XXXIII. Caesar etsi a bello atque boste discedere detrimento- 
8um esse existimabat, tamen, non ignorans, quanta ex dissensionibus 
incommoda oriri consuessent f jie tanta et tarn conjuncta populo Ro- 
mano civitas, quam ipse semper aluisset, omnibusque rebus orn'ass 
ad vim atque ad arma descenderet, atque ea pars, qure minus eibi * 
confideret, auxilia a Vercjngetorige arcesseret, buic rei prseyerten- 
dum 1 existimavit : et quod legibus iEduoruni iis, qui summum mag- 
istratum obtinerent, 2 excedere ex finibus non liceret, ne quid de jure 
aut de legibus eorum deminuisse videretur, ipse in ^Eduos proficisci 
Btatuit, senatumque omnem, et quos inter controversia esset, ad se 
Decetiam evocavit. Quum prope omnis civitas co convenisset, doce- 
returque, paucis clam vocatis, alio loco, alio tempore, atque opor- 
tuerit, fratrem a fratre renunciatum, quum 4 leges duo ex una fam- 
ilia, vivo utroque, non solum magistratus creari vetarent, sed etiam* 



quam interrogative, both sentences 
depending on imperat, and haying in 
castra adduci velit for predicate. 
4. Quos — conduxerat is a noun (§129, 
Rem. 2), connected by et to numero. 

XXXII. 1. Sive— posset, " (To see) 

■whether he could." 
2. Rem, sc. publicani. 



las, "That each of thein had, &c." 
4. Quod si, lV2\'Rem. 19. 

XXXIII. 1. Praevertendum, sc. ess* 
sibi. 

2. Obtinerent is referred to the langunge 
of the laws ; and liceret to that of 
Caesar ;'|2l0»c, §1.90. 

3. Atque, "Than." 



3. Suas fcujusque (§133) eorum cliente-!4. Quum, "Though." 



LIBER SEPTIMUS. I . 

iii senatu esse probibereut ; Cotum iniperium Heponere coegit ; Con- 
viotolitanem,q'ui per sacerdotes more civitaU$ intertnissis ipagisl 
tibus, 5 esset creatus, potestatcm obtinere jus>it. 

XXXIV. Hoc decreto interppsito, cobortatus JEduos, ut con- 
tro'^ersiarura ao dissensionum obliriscerentur, omnibus omis- 

ais I buio bollo servirent, eaque, quae meruissent, prsemn 

nb se, devicta Gallia, exspectarcnt, equitatumque omnem ct peditum 
millia X sibj celeriter mitterent, quae in praesidiis rei frumentatia 
eret, 1 exercitum in duas partes divisit ; IV legiones in 
Senones Pafisiosque Labieno ducendaa dedit ; VI ipse in Arvernos 
ad oppidam Gergoviam secundum flumen Elaver duxit ; equitatu* 
partem illi attribuit, partem sibi reliquit.' Qua re cognita, Vcr- 
dngetorix, omnibus interruptis ejus fluminis pontibus, ab altera 
Elaveria parte iter facere coepit. 

XX XV. Quum uterque utrique esset cxercitus in conspectu, l'ere- 

que e regione castris 1 castra poneret, dispositis exploratoribus, necubi 

effecto ponte llomani copias transducerent, erat in magnis Ca>ari 

difticultatibus res, ne majorcm wstatis partem flumine impediretur; 

daod non fere ante autumnum Elaver vado transiri solet. ltaquc, 

ne id aceideret, silTe^iri looo castris positis, e regione unius .eorum 

pontium, quos ^rcingeturix rescindendos curavcrat, postero die 

II legionibus in occulto restitit ; reliquas copias cum omnibus 

imp s, ut consueverat, misit, captis quibusdam cohortibus, 3 

iierus legion ura constare yideretur. His, quam longissimf 

possent, progredi juasie, <|.uum jam ex diei temper) conjecturam cap- 

eret, ra perventum, iisdem sublicis, quarum pars inferior in- 

%teg. 11 bat, pontem reficer'e eoepit. Celeriter effecto opere, 

leg: .i" transductis, et loco castris idoneo delecto, reliquas 

ivit Vercingetorix, re cognita, ne contra suam voluu- 

iiicare cogeretur, magnis itineribus a 

. V I. Caesar ex co loco quintis castris 1 Gergoviam pcrvenit, 

die levi facto, perspecto urbis situ, quae, pos- 

ita in altissimo monte, omnes aditus difficiles hitbebat, de expugna- 



• I ibua, •• V 
d vacancy "' — " 
tratt s being diseimi srr. 

from ing In the election." tain (additional) cohorts being takes 

along." . 

XX XI \ '. i . .0, a. tain. 

XXXV I. £ i "/•; rr- xx\ 

die. The U'>ui»ns a camp. 

BtriH-'l with the bui <• re- tverjr ni 



1G0 Se BELLO GALL1CO 

tione d-esperavit ; de^Ressione non priu:? agendum constituit, quam 
rem frumentariarn ^elpedisset. 2 At Vercingetorix, castris prope 
oppiduni in monto positis, mediocribus circum se intervallis separa- 
tim singularum civiil|ium copias collocaverat; atque omnibus ejus 
jugi colKbus oocupam^qua despici poterat, horri>>il; ;n speciem prae- 
bebat : 3 principesque earum civitatium,. quos sibi ad consilium cap- 
iendum delegerat, prima luce quotidie ad se jubebat convenire, sen 
quid communicandum, seu quid administrandum videretur : 4 nequo 
ullum fere diem intermittebat,quin equestri prcolio, interject ; 
tarns, quid in quoque esset animi ac virtutis suorum/' periclitaretuv. 
Erat e regione oppidi collis sub ipsis radicibus montis egregie mu- 
nitus, atque ex omni parte circumcisus ; quern si tenerent nostri, et 
aqua3 magna parte et pabulatione libera prohibituri hostes videban- 
tur ; sed° is locus prjesidio ab ii's non nimis firmo tenebatur : tauten 7 
silentio noctis Caesar, ex castris egressus, prius quam subsidio ex 
oppido veniri posset, dejecto prresidio potitus loco, duas ibi legiones 
collocavit, fossamque duplicem duodenum pedum a majoribus cas- 
tris ad minora perduxit, ut tuto ab repentino bostium incursuetiam 
singuli commeare possent. 

XXXVII. Dum haec ad Gergoviam geruntur, Convictolitani,-* 
iEduus, cui magistratum adjudicatum a Caesars demonstravimus, 
sollicitatus ab Arvernis pecunia, cum quibusdam adolescentibas col- 
loquitur, quorum erat princeps Litavicus atque ejus fratre,?, amplis- 
sima familia nati adolescentes. Cum iis prsemium 1 commuuicat, 
bortaturque, ' ut ye liberos et imperio 2 natps meminerint: unain 
esse JEduoruni civitatem, quae certissimam Galliae victpriam dW- 
tineat:; ejus auctoritate reliquas contineri; qua transducta, locum 
consistendi Romania in Gallia son fore : esse nonnullo se Caesaris* 
beneficio affectum, sic tamen, 3 ut justissiruam apud eum causani ob- 
tinuerit ; sed plus communi libertati tribuere : cur enim potius 
iEduide suo jure et de legibus ad Caesarem .disceptatorem, quam 
Romani ad iEduos, veniant?' Celeriter adolescentibus et uratione 
magistratus et praemio deductis, quum se vel 4 principes ejus corisilii 

2. Expedisset, §206, b. XXXVII. 1 Fmmium inivy menu ciih- 



3. Atque prcebebat is coordinate with- 
collocaverat. 

4. Seu quid — videretur, " (To see) 
whether any thing, &c.;" i.e. to report 



daily for orders. . 2. Imperio, §144 



cr the prospective advantage to 
derived from th&» expulsion of th 
Romans froni <M fi, or money f\f\ 
nished by Vercirfgetorix. 



5. Suorum limits quoque, 

6. Bed, i.e. notwithstanding its impor- 
tance. 

7. Tamen, t. e. notwithstanding the 
great strength of the place 



3. Sic tamen,' sc. affectum. Ileasserts 
that he was under no obligation to 
Ciesar, having* only obtained his 
manifest ri^^s in the contest mth 
Cotus. 

,4. Vel, §123, Rem. 8. ' 



■ -r 



LIBER SEPT1 . lu; 

fore profiteren^ur, ratio perficieudi qiiaj^ftatur, quod civitatem 
tcmere ad susoipietidum liellum adduci pdssfwm conSdebanb. Pfcft> 
uit, uti Litavicus decern illis millibus, qua; Ojeeari ad belluni mit- 
terentur, praeficaretur, atque ea dueenda curaret, fratresque ejus ad 
Csesarem pracurrereut. Reliqua qua rationc agi plaaeat, constifc- 
uunt. 

XXXVIII. Litavicus, accepto exercitu, q'uuin millia passuum 
circiter XXX ab Gergo<yia* abesset, oonvoeatis subito militibus, lac- 
rimal).-, ''quo proficischuur," inquit, "milites? Oninis noster 
equity uSjjBui is nobilitas interiit: prinoipes civitatis, Eporedorix 
et A m.s insimulati proditionis, ab Ptomanis indicta causa 1 

intcrfectfjsunt. IJfice ab iis cognoscite, qui ex ipsa cade fugerunt : 
nam mnibus propinquis meis interfectis, dolore 

probibecr, qua ge.sta sunt, pronunciare." Producuntur ii, quos 
ille edapuerat, qua dici vellct ; atque eaderu, quae Litavicus pro- 
aunciaVerat, multitudiui exponunt: ' Oinnes equites uEduorum in- 
tferfectoa, quod oolloototl 3 oum Arvetnis diccrentur ; ipsos se iuter 
vnultitudinem niilitum occultasse, atque ex media cede profugisse.' 
Oonclamant ^Edui, ct Litavicum, ut sibi consulat, obsecrant. 
" Quasi vero," 3 inquit ille, "consilii sit res, 4 ac non necesse sit nobis 
Grergoviam contendere et cum Arvernis nosmet conjungere. An 6 
dubuanius, quin, nefario facinorc admisso, Roraani jam ad nos inter- 
ficieudos concurrant ? Proinde, si quid est in nobis animi, perse- 
quamur eorum mortem, qui indiguissime interierunt, atque bos lat- 
mnes interficiamus." Ostendit cives Ronianoe, qui ejus prassidii 
lidiTci' una 6 erant. Continuo magnum numerum frumenti commea- 
t»que diripit, ipsos crudeliter excruciatos interficit : nuncios tota 
civitato ^Eduorum dimittit, codem mendacio do csede equitum et 
Tprincipum perniovet : hortatur, ut si mill ratione atque ipse feceriti, 
Mijurias persequantur, 

MX. Eporedorix JEduur, summo loco natus adolescens ei 
Kimmse domi potential, at una 1 Viridomarus pari ae'tate et gratia, 
.led genere dispari, quern Casar, sibi ab Divitiaco traditum, ex 
humili loco ad sumuiam dignitatem pcrduxerat, in equitum numero 
convcnerant, nomiuatim ab eo cvocati. His erat inter se de princi- 
~ tu contentio, et in ilia magistratuum controvereia alter pro Con- 



001 



fkxVUI. l. Indio^ oIuf.i, "Wil 

shearing." r. parte. "Who were with him 

locuti, «c. i l..y ,. i-ir confidence in tins 

S. Quasi vtro refers to tlio words of a' i 

% a matter for XXXIX. 1. Ul», «r. parte. " With 
il-eration;'' §203iB | him," literally, "in the eameplac*" 

s 



162 J|E BELLO GALLICO 

victolitane, alter pro Mpto summis opibus puguaverant. Ex iis 
Eporedorix, cognito LiJFrici consilio, media fere nocte rem ad Cse- 
sarem defert ; oratf c ne patiatur civitatem pravis adolescentium 
consiliis ab amicifcia populi Rornani deficere ; quod futurum provi- 
deat, si se tot hotninuni millia cum hostibus conjunxerint, quorum 
salutem neque propinqui 2 negligere, neque civitas levi iriomento 3 
gestimare posset.' 

XL. Magna affectus sollicitudina hoc nuncio Cassar, quod sem- 
per iEduorum civitati prcecipue indulserat, nulla interposita dubita- 
tione, legiones expeditas quatuor equitaturuque omnem ex castna 
educit : nee fuit spatium tali tempore ad contrahemla 1 castra, quod 
res posita in celeritate videbatur. C. Fabium legatum cum legioni- 
bus II castris prresidio relinquit. Fratres Litavici quum compre- 
hendi jussisset, paulo ante reperit ad bostes profugisse. Adbortatu^ 
milites, ' ne necessario tempore itineris labore permoveantur, cupi-' 
dissimis omnibus, progressus millia passuum XXV, agmen iEduo- 
rum conspicatus, immisso equitatu, iter.eorum moratur atque im- 
pedit, nterdicitque omnibus, ne quemquam interficiant. Eporedor- 
igeni et Viridomarum, quos illi interfectos existimabant, inter 
equites versari suosque appellare jubet. lis cognitis, et Litavici 
fraude perspecta, iEdui nianus tendere et deditionem significare et, 
projectis armis, mortem deprecari incipiunt. Litavious cum suis 
clientibus, 2 quibus nefas more Gallorum est etiam in extrema for- 
tuna deserere patronos, Gergoviam profugit. 

XLI. Caesar, nunciis ad civitatem iEduorum missis, qui suo ben- 
eficio conservatos 1 docerent, quos jure belli interficere potuisset, 
tribusque boris noctis exercitui ad quietem datis, castra ad Gergov- 
iam movit. Medio fete itinere equites, a Fabio missi, quanto res 
in periculo fuerit, exponunt ; summis copiis castra oppugnata de- 
monstrant ; quum crebro integri defessis succederent; nostrosque 
assiduo labore defatigarent, quibus 2 propter magnitudinem castro- 
rum perpetuo esset eisdem 3 in vallo permanendum ; multitudine 
sagittarum, atque omnis generis telorum multos vulneratos ; ad haec 
sustinenda magno usui fuisse tormenta ; Fabium discessu eorum, 4 
duabus relictis portis, obstruere ceterns, plutepsque vallo addere, et 

2. Propinqui, sc. possent from possetl subject is quosvotuisset. 
'below. 2 - Quibus,. $l4ft., 

3. Levi inomento, se. rem. 3. Eisdem limits quibus. " Withou 



XL. 1. Contrahenda, i.e. so as to suit 
the diminished number of defenders. 
2. Clientibus, t'.e. solduriis. 

XLI. 1. Conservatos, ac. esse. The 



being relieved^" Their number wac 
so small, and the camp so large, thai 
the same men had to be constantly 
on duty. . 
Eorum, i.^ythe* Gauls. 



Eft SEPTIMI^ 168 

se in posterum diem shnilem ad casum'pjy^ire.' His rebus cognifcie, 
Caesar Bummo studio militum ante ortunijfolis in castra pervenir. 

XLII. Dura hac ad Gergovium geruntur, ^Edui, primis nunciis 
ab Litavico acceptis, nullum sibi ad cognoscendttm spatium relinqu- 
unt. Impellit alios avaritia, alios iracundia et Ben&ritas, qua niax- 
irac illi hominum generi 1 est innata, ut levem auditionein habeant 
pro re coniperta. Bona eiviuni Honianorum diripiunt, erodes faoi- 
unt,in servitutein abstrahunt. Adjuvat rem proclinatam Convictod- 
itanis, plebeinque ad furorem impellit, ut, facinore aduiisso, ad 
s'anitatem pudcat'-' reverti. M. Aristinm tribunum militum, iter ad 
legibixun faeientei;i. data fide ex oppido Cabillono educurit : idem 
i'acere cogunt eos, qui negotiandi causa ibi constiteraut. Hos con- 
tinuo in itinere adorti, omnibus impedimentis exmnit ; repugnantes 
diem noctemque obsident ; mult is utrinque interfictis, majorem 
multitudiuem ad arma concitant. . 

XLIII. Interim nuncio allate*' omnes eorum milites in potentate 
Casaris teneri,' concurrunt ad Aristium : nihil publico factum con- 
silio demonstrant :, quastionem de* bonis direptis decevnunt : Lita- 
vici fratrumque bona publican t : legatos ad Ca-sareni siy purgandi 
gratia n.ittunt. ITac faciunt recuperandcrum suorum causa: sed 
contamiuati racinore, et capti compendio 1 ex direptis bonis, quod ea 
res ad multos pertiuebat, et timore poena exterriti, concilia clam de 
bello inire ineipiunt, civitatesque reliquas legationibus sollicitant. 
Qua tametsi Casar intelligebat, tamen, quam mitissime potest, 
legatos appellat : ' Nihil sti propter inscientiam levitatemque vulgi 
gravius de oivitate judicare, neque de sua in vEduos benevolentia. 
deminuere.' Ipse, majorem Gallia motum exspectans, ne ab omnibus 
oifttatibm circumsisteretur, consilia inibat, quemadmodum ab <i<r- 
govia disccderet, ac rursus omnem cxercitum eontraherrt ; ne pro- 
fectio, nafa ab timore defectionis, similis (u^a videretur. 

XLIV. Hac cogitanti acciderc visa, cstrfacultas bene gerenda 
rei. Nam quum minora in castra operis pefspiciendi ( set, 

animadvertit collem, qui ab hostibus tencbatur, nudatum hominibus. 
qui superioribus diebua vix pra multitudinc cerni poteral A - 
miratus qriarit ex perfugis causam, quorum magnus ad eum quot- 
idie numerus confluebat. Constabat inter omnes, quod 1 jam ipse 
Jar per exploratons cognoverat, dorsum esse ejus jugi pr<q>e 



XLII. ] . .Illi generi, Ae. Gallia. | the plundered good*." -winch, if 

2. Pudcat, tr peace were made, mum I 

XLIII. 1. Capti tfompendio, &o.,"Ca] XLIV. 1. QiM reftrs to tbefoun-a«n< 
tlvaled by the gain to l>c eaved from! tence following. 






164 1)E BELLO'GALLK'O 

ajquum, sed hac 2 silvestre et angustum, qua esset aditus ad alteram 
oppidi partem : huic loco vehenienter illo.s timere, nee jam aliter 
sentire, 3 uuo colle ab Rornanis occupato, si alterum amisissent, quin 
prone circumvallati atque omni exitu et pabulatione interclusi vide- 
rentur : ad hunc rauniendum locum omnes a Vercingetorige evocatos. 

XLV. Hac re cognita, Coosar mittit complures equitum turmais 
eo de media nocte : iis imperat, ut paulo tumultuosius omnibus in 
locis p.ervagarentur. Prima luce magnum numerum impedimento- 
rum 1 ex castris mulorumque produci, eque iis stramenta detraBfeL 
mulionesque cum eassidibus, equitum specie ac simulatione, oolli^Uw! 
circumvebi jubet. His paucos addit equites, qui latius ostentationis 
causa vagarentur. Longo circuitu easdem omnes jubet petere re- % 
giones. x HaBC procul ex* oppido yidebantur, ut erat a Grergovia de- 
spectus in castra; neque tanto spatio, 2 certi 3 q*uid esset, explorari 
poterat. Legionem unam eodem jugo 4 mittit, et paulo progressam 
inferiore constituit loco, silvisque occultat-. Augetur Gallis sus- 
picio, atque omnes illo ad munitionem copire transducuntur. Vacua 
castra bostium Cresar conspicatus, tectis insignibus suorum, oeculta- 
tisque siguis militaribus, raros milites^ ne ex oppido animadverte- 
rentur, ex majoribus castris in minora transdueit, legatisque, quos 
singulis legionibus proefecerat, quid fieri velit, ostendit: in primis 
' monet, ut contineant milites, ne studio pugnandi aut spe praedas 
longius progrediantur : quid iniquitas loci babeat incommodi, pro- 
ponit : ' hoc una celeritate posse vitari : occasionis 5 esse rem, non 
proelii.' His rebus expositis,-signum dat, et ab dextera parte alio ' 
ascensu eodem tempore iEduos mittit. 

XLVI. Oppidi murus ab planitie atque initio ascensus, recta 
regione, si nullus anfractus intercede'rct, MCC passus aberat: quid- 
quid buic circuitus 1 ad molliendum clivum accesserat, id spatium 
itineris augebat A medio fere colle in longitudinem, ut uatura 
montis ferebat, ex grandibus saxis sex pedum murum, qui nostrorum 
impetum tardaret, praaduxerant (xalli, atque, inferiore omni spatio 
vacuo relicto, superiorem partem collis usque ad murum oppidi den- 
sissimis oastris compleverant. Milites, dato signo, celeriter ad mu- 
nitionem perveniunt, eamque transgressi, trinis castris 2 potiuntur. 



2. Hac, sc. parte. I like nullo for nuUi. 

3. Aliter seutire=dubitare. 5. Occasionis, £13$. "That the thing 

. depended on luck, not on fighting." 
XLV. 1. Impedimentorum=jumento-| 
rum. IXLVI. 1. Circuitus, {134. 

2. Tanto spatio, $186, Rem. 1. 2. Trinis castris,^ " A triple camp." — 

3. Cer'ti, §134, Rem. 1. The Gauls had encamped separately, 

4. Eodem jugo. Eodem is an old dative,! by states. Seech. XXXVI. 






LIBER SEPTIIICS. 165 

. 

Ac tanta fait in capier.dis castris celeritas, ut Teutomatus, vox Ni- 
tiobrigum, subito in tabernaculo oppressus, ut merwie conquieverat, 
superiore corpori .data, vulnerato equo, vix se ex manibui 

praedantium militum eriperet. , 

XLVII. Conswutus id, quod animo proposucrat, Crcsar rcceptui 

ni ] ju.isit, legionisque deoimse, qua turn erat comitatus, aigna con- 

A; reliquarum milites legionuni, uon exaudito tubce sono, 

* Jflpod satis magna valles intercedebat, tanien ab tribunis n)ilitum 

^^Htisque, ut it; re pncccptum, retinebantur : sed elati spe 

; fuga super io rumque temporum seeundis 

pi Inum sibi existimabant, quod non vjrtute con- 

s'equi posaenl ; : a que prius finem sequendi fecerunt, quam muro op- 

li portisqu . iuquareut . 3 Tuin vero ex omnibus urbis par-' 

tibus orto clamoro, qui longius aberant, repentino tunaultu perterri- 

ti, quuui hostem intra porl existimarent, sese cxoppido ejece- 

runt. Matres familiae do muro vestein argentumque jactabant, et 

pectoris fiuc prom tribus obtestabantur Romano s, ut 

^ibi parcerent, neu, sicut Avaijhn fecissent, ne ruulioribus quidem 

atque infantibua abstiaerent. Nonnullre, de. muris per manus de- 

militibus tradebant. L. Fabius, centurio legionis VIII, 

quern inter suos eo die dixisse constabat. 'exeitari se Avaricensibus 

praemiis, 4 aeque coinmissuruni, ut prius quisquara inururu ascende- 

ret,' tro6 ictus manipulares, atque ab iis sublcvatus, tnurum 

Ipse rursus singulos exceptans, in murum extulit. 

XLVIII. [nterim ii, qui ad 'alteram partem oppidi, ut supra 

corivflnerant, primo exaudito c*ln- 
rhore, in :rebris nu ciia incitati, oppidumab !.' 

uitibus, n bcursu eo eontenderunt. Eo 

■lurtqac primus venerat, sub mu£p consistebat, suorumque pug- 

Dtiuin numeruijj augebat. ■ Quorum quum magna multitudo con- 

. matres familiae, quae paulo ante Komanis de muro manus 

tendebant, suos obtest ire Gallico paasum capillum ostentare 

libarosjue in conspectuui proferre cceperunt. Erat Romani 

• nee numcro aqua contcntio : simul et cursu et spatio 3 pugnpe 

- sustinebant. 
XLIX. ( ';: at A ■ i rjugnari, hostiumque augeri co. 

. ad T. Sextiuna legatuin, quern minor- 
mi, '• That tno i-ignal red at Araricum 
tui, £144. XXV1L 

The intention ■; - XLVIII. l. OppidwnUnet ion 

1) i'd to. nunciia. 

ralfcen»ibua prrcmii;", " Spatio, "Durat 



1G6 DE BELLO GALLICO 

ibus castris pra v sidio celiquerat, mittit, ut cobortes ex castris celcri- j 
ter cduceret, et sub ipfimo colle ab dextro latere bostium constituo- 
ret : ut, si nostros demxlsos loco vidisset, quo minus liberc bostc-r- 
in.sequerer.tur, 1 terreret. Ipse paulura ex eo loco cum legioue pro- 
gressus, ubi constiterat^evontum pugnae exspeetabat. 

L. ' Quum'-acerrirne e.:»miuus pugnaretur, bostes loco et uuvnero, 
nostri virtutc connderent ; subito sunt iEdui yisi, ab lat<_ r 
BtpertO, quos Ca?sar ab dextra parte alio ascensu niarius distinct: 

causa mlserat. Hi similitudine armoruui vebementer nostras j 

... 
terruer'uut : ac, tametsi dextris bumeris exsertis auiniadvertebantur, 

. ... • 

quod insigne pacatis esse consuerat, tamen id ipsum sui fallendi cau- 
sa milites ab bostibus factum existimabant. Eodem tempore L. 1 
bius centuric^uique una murum ascouderant, circuriiventi atque in- 
terfecti de muro praeipitantur. ' M. Petreius, ejusdeiulegionis cen» 
turio, quum portas excidere conatus esset, a multitudine oppressus, 
ac sibi desperans, multis jam vulneribus acceptis, manipularibms 
auis, qui ilium secuti erant, "quoniani," inquit, "me una vobiscuin ■ 
servare non possum, restraj quidem certe vita) prospiciam, quos i 
piditate gloria} adductus in periculum deduxi. Vos, data facilitate, 
vobis consulite." Simul in medioa bostes irrupit, duobusque iutei- 
fectis, reliquos a porta paulum submovit. Conantibus: auxiliari suis, 
"frustra," inquit, "meae vita) subvenireconamini, quem s jam sanguis 
viresque deficiunt. Proinde hinc abite, dum est facultas, vosquc ad 
legionem recipite." Ita pugnans, post paulum coucidit, lac suia sal- 
uti fait. 

LT. Nostri quum undique prewerentur, XLVI centurionibi 
amissis, dejecti sunt loco : sed intolcrantius Gallos insequentes I< 
X tardavit, qua3 pro subsidio paulo a; quip re loco constiterat, 
rursus XIII legionis cobortes exceperunt, qua?, ex castris n 1 1 ■ ■ 
educta?, cum T. Sextio legato ceperant 1 locum siijtariorem. Legio* 
nes, ubi primum planitiem attigerunt, infestis contra bostes signi* 
constiterunt. Vercingetorix ab radicibus collis suos intra raunitioues 
reduxit. Eo die milites sunt paulo minus DCC desiderati. 

LII. Postero die Caesar, concione advocata, temeritatem cupidi- 
tatemque" 1 militum reprebendit, 'quod sibi ipsi judicavissent, quo 
procedendum aut quid agendum videretur, nape siguo reeipiei. 
dato constitissent, neque ab tribunia militum legatisque retineri pot- 

-~~. b, — » — —9-.-.^*, 



XLIX. 1. Insequurfcntur, §{"93, Rem. 5; 
terteret=deterrerrt. 

L. 1. Nostrig, §142. Rem. 3. 

-. JSSanus distinenda), see cii. XLV. 



3. Quern. $ 129. Rem. 7. 

LI. 1. Ceperant, see ch. XLIX. 

LII. 1. Cupiditatem, sr. insdpend:, hd 



LIBER SEPTIMUS. 167 

Dissent :' exposito, 2 'quid 3 iniquitas loci posset, quid ipse ad Avari- 
ruv.i sensiaaetj quum, sine duce et sine cquitutu deprebensis bostibus, 
exploratam victoriam dimisisset, ne parvum jpodo detrimentum in 
contentione propter Iniquitatcm loci aecideret. Quauto operc eorum 
animi magnitude nem admiraretur, quos non castrttrum muniti 
non altitudo mentis, non murus oppidi tardare operc 

liccntiam arrogafttiauique reprehendefe, quod quam impcra- 

in, da victoria atque exitu rerum sentire rent; nee mi- 

ftus sc in milite modestiam et continentiam, quam virtuteni atque 
- i mi magnitudineru desiderare ' 

MIL Hac babita cMiicionc, et ad extremum oratione oonfirmatis, 
cailitibu%, 'ne ob banc ca,usam anim© p; ntur, neu, quod in- 

iquitas loci attuli.-.- •:, id virtuti bestium tribi ; * eadem do pro- 

tione 1 cogitan.-, quae ante ?euser$t, legione? is rduxit, 

aeiemque idone 1 "ituit. Qumu Vei ix l.ibilo ma- 

2 in rrquum locum descenderet, levi proelio atqui 

jecundo, in e;:stra exercitum reduxit. 3 Quuni idem postcro 

. satis ad Gallicam bstentationeni ndam ::ii', 

qtfe^inimos confirmandos faotumtexistimans, in S I 
^fe tuin quidem insecutis bostibus, tertu» die ad tiumei 
. :tque exercitum transduxit. 
JAY. Ibi a Viridomaro atque Eporedorige .Eduis appell 
discit cum omni cquitatu Litavicum ad sollicitandos /Eduos profee- 
tum esse: opus esse et ipsos prsecedere ad confirmandain o i v i t : ' 

ulti.s jam rebus perfidiam ./Eduorum perspectam babebat, at- 
iruni disccssu admaturari defectionem civitatis existitii 
tamen • ndoB non censuit, ne aut iuferre injuriam viderctur, 

j . &ut dare timoris aliquam suspicionem. JDiseedentibus bis breviter 
sua*inflpEduos merita exponit : 'Quo* et quam humilea accepisset, 1 
in oppida, multatos agris, omnibus ereptis copiis, iin- 
posito stipendio, obsidibus sumrua cum contumelia extortis ; et quam 
in fortuuam quamque in amplitudinem deduxisset, ut non solum in 
pritrtinuin statum redi- omnium temporum dignitatem et gra- 

tiam anl rentur, 1 His datis mandatis, eos ab se diinisit. 

LV. Noviodunum crat opptdum Jvluorum, ad ripas Ligeris op- 
portune loco positwn. Hue Cftsar omm (Jalliae, frumen- 

Ji 

-(',. The mi h I •".. Redaxi* ic. Caesar. 



in sentence follow 






T. Quid, §150, Rem. 2. iL.IV. 1. Quo* et quam humiles nccep- 

f Who, and liow humble they 

I. Dc profectione, i-ce ch.XI-III. were whin he em" to 

2 Nirnlo magis, i.e. thnn he hud for-' his prol and hvmilu 

mcnly done. ] agreo with tot understood, and limit 

! acctpiuet. 



168 ■DE.'BELLO GALL1CO I 

■ ■« 
turn, pecuniam publica^o, euorutn atque exercitus imped imcntoruin 

lnaguam partem contulerat : hue magnum numerum equorum, bujus 

belli causa in Italia atfcne Hispania coemptum, miserat. Eo quum 

Eporedorix Yiridomaafeque veniascn't, et de statu civitatis eogno- 

vissent, Litavicum Bibfacte 1 ab JEduis receptum, quod est oppidum 

apud cos rnaximrc auctoritatis, Convictolitaneni magistratum ruag- 

namque partem ^en'atus ad eum convenisse, legates ad Vercingetor- 

igem de pace et amicitia concilianda publiee rnissos ; non praeter- 

mittenduns tantum coninaodumexistimaverunt. Itaque, interfecti^ 

NoYioduni custodibus, quique eo negotiandi aut itineris 2 causa con- 

venerant, pecuniam at^ue equos inter se partiti sunt ; obsides civi- 

tatum Bibracte ad magistratum deducendos curaverunt ; oppidum, 

quod ab se teneri non posse judicabnnt, ne cui esset usui Ronianis, 

incenderunt ; frumenti quod 3 subito potuerunt, navibus avexerunt, 

reliquum flumine atque incendio corruperunt ; ipsi ex finitimis re- 

gionibus copias eogcre, prassidia custodiasque ad ripas Ligeris dis- 

ponere, equitatumque omnibus locis,'injiciendi timoris causa, osten- 

tarc cceperunt, si ab re frumentaria Romanes excludere, [aut adduc- 

tos iciopia ex pr.ovincia excludere* ] possent. Quam ad spem niul- 

tum eos adjuvabat, quod Liger ex nivibus creverat, ut omnino vado 

non pdsse transiri videretur. 

LVI. Quibus rebus cognitis, Caesar maturandum sibi censuit, si 

csset in perficiendis pontibus periclitandum, ut prius, quam essent 

majores eo coactrc copioo, dimicaret. Nam -ut commutato con 

iter in provinciam converterct, 1 (ut 2 nemo non tunc quidem 

sario faciendum existimabat,) quum 3 - infamia atque indignit: 

et oppositus mons Cevenna viarumque difficultas impediebat, tun; 

maxime, quod abjuncto Labieno 4 atque iis legionibus, t^gas una 

miserat, vehementqj tfrnebat. Itaque, admodum magnis diufni; 

atque nocturnis itineribjis confeotis, contra omnira opinionem ad 

Ligerim pervenit; vadoque per equites invento, pro 5 rei necessitate 

opportune, ut brachia modo atque humeri ad sustinenda arma liberi 

ab aqua esse possent, disposito cquitatu, qui vim fluminis refrin- 

geret, atque hostibus primo aspectu perturbatis, incolumem exerci- 




LV. 1. Bibracte, §166. 

2. Itineris, i.e. had stopped there on a 
journey. 

3. Frumenti (§134) quod potuerunt is 
direct, object of avexerunt. 

4. Aut adductos inopia ex provincia 
excludere, "Or cut theia off from the 
province when induced by want of 
provisions (to march thither)." This 



is most probjMy an interpolation. 



prob^y 



LVI. 1. Ut convtrt.eret is the object of 
impediebat. Observe the use of ut for 
quominus, — a rare construction. 

2? Ut, "Which." 

3. Quum, "Not only.'' 

4. Labieno, $142. 

5. Pro, "Considering." 



* 



LIBER SEPTIMUS^ 169 

turn transduxit : frumenturaque in agris cli .copiana pecoris nactus, 
repleto lis rebus exercitu, iter in Senonas facere instituit. 

LVII. Dura haec apud Caesareai geruntur, Labienus eo supplo- 
niento, quod nup«r v cx Italia venerat, relicto Agendici, ut esset im- 
pedimentis praesidio, cum quatuor legionib^a Lutetiam proficiscitur. 
Id est oppidum Parisiorum, positum in insula tluuiinis Sequanae. 
Cuju,s adventu ab hostibu* cognito, magnae ex finitimi8 civitatibus 
copiae convenerunt. Suniraa imperii traditur Camulogeno Aulerco, 
qui, prope confectus aetate, tamen propter singularem scientiam rei 
militaris ad eum est lionorem cvocatus. Is quum animadvertisset% 
perpetuam e?*e paludera, qua? influeret in Sequanani, atque ilium 
omnem locum maguopere impediret, hie cortsedit, nostrosque trans- 
itu prohibere instituit. 

LVIII. Labienus primo vineas agere, cratibus atque aggere palu- 
dera explere atque iter raunire conabatuv. Postquam id difficiliug 
confieri animadvertit, silentio e castris tertia vigilia egressus, eodem, 
quo renerat, itinere Melodunum pervenit. Id est oppidum Seno- 
num, in insula Sequanae positum, ut paulo ante Lutetiam 1 diximus. 
Deprehensis navibus circiter L, celeriterque conjunctis, atque eo 
inilitibus irapositis, et rei novitate perterritis o;>pidanis, quorum 
magna pars erat ad belluna evocata, sine contentione oppido potitur. 
Refecto ponte, quem superioribus diebus hoates resciderant, exerci- 
tum transducit, et secundo flumine ad Lxitetiam iter facere cocpit. 
Hostes, re cognita ab iis, qui a Meloduno profugerant, Lutetiam in- 
dunt, pontesque ejus oppidi rescindi jubent: ipsi profecti a 
de, in ripis Sequanae, e regione Lutetiae, contra Labieni castra 
uut. 

Jam Caesar a Gergovia discessisse audiebatur: jam de 
3Ed\^um defectione et secundo 1 Galliae motu rumores affcreban- 
tur, 2 Gallique in colloquiis, ' interclusum itinere et Ligeri Cassarem, 
mnjiia frumentrcoactum, in provinciam oontendisse ' confirmabant. 
Hel lovaci autem, defectione iEduoruni cognita, qui ante crant per 
se infideles, manus cogere atque aperte bellum parare coeperunt. 
Turn Labienus, tanta rcrum commutatione, longe aliud sibi capien- 
dum consilium, atque antea senserat, intelligebat : neque jam, ut 
aliquid acquireret, prcjclioque hostcs lacesseret, sed ut incoLuniem 
exercitum Agentifleuni reduceret, cogitabat. Namque altera ex parte 
Bellovaci, quae crvitas in Gallia maximam habct opinionem virtutis, 
instabant; alteram Camulogenus parato atque instructo exercitu 
tenebat : turn legiones, a praesidio atque impedimentia interclusas 

i.VITI. 1. Lateti&m, tc. esse positam. !LIX 1. Secundo, "Successful." 

' \fferebantur, §95, Rem. 4, c. 

O 




170 ;Mfc BELLO GALLIC!) 

maximum flumes, (li.-tineoat. Tantia subito difficultatibus objectis, 
ab animi virtute auxiltum petendum videbat. 

LX. Itaque sub vesperum cousilio convocato, coliortatus, ut ea, 
quas imperasset, diligenter industrieque adniinistrarent, naves, quas 
a Meloduno deduxerat, singulas equitibus Romania attribuit, et 
prima confecta vigilia, quatuor millia passuum secundo flumine pro- 
gredi silentio, ibique se exspectari jubet. Quinque cohortes, quas 
rainime firmas ad dimicandum esse existimabat, castris praesidio re- 
linquit: quinque ejusdem legionis reliquas dcmedia nocte cum om- 
jiibus impediments adverso flumine magno tumultu proficisci im- 
perat. Conquirit etiam lintres. Has, magno sonitu remorum in- 
citatas, in eandem partem mittit. Ipse postpmulo, silentio egressus, 
cum tribus legionibus eum locum petit, quo naves appelli jusserat. 

LXI. Eo quum esset ventum, exploratores hostium, ut omni flu- 
minis parte erant dispositi, inopinantes, quod magna subito erat 
coorta tempestas, ab nostris opprimuntur : exercitus equitatusque, 
equitibus Romania administrantibus, quos ei negotio praafecerat, 
eeleriter transmittitur. Uno fere tempore sub lucem bostibus nun- 
ciatur, in castris Romanorum praeter consuetudingm tumultuari, 1 
et magnum ire agmen adverso flumine, sonitumque reniorqm in ea- 
dem parte exaudiri, et paulo infra milites navibus transportari. 
Quibus rebus auditis, quod existimabant tribus locis transire legio- 
nes, atque omnes, perturbatos defectione ^Eduorum, fugam parare, 
suas quoque copias in tres partes distribuerunt. Nam, et prsesidio 
e regione castrorum relicto, efc^arva manu Metiosedum versus niissa, 
quae tantum 2 progrederetur, 3 quantum naves processissent, reliquas 
copias contra Labienum duxerunt. 

LXIL Prima luce et nostri omnes erant transportati, et hostium 
acies cernebatur. Labienus, milites cohortatus, * ut suae pristinae 
virtutis et tot secundissimorum proeliorum memoriam retinerent, 
atque ipsum Caesarem, cujus ductu saepenumero hostes superassent, 
praesentem adesse existimarent,' dat signum proelii. Primo con- 
cursu ab dextro cornu, ubi eeptima legio constiterat, hostes pellun- 
tur, atque in fugam conjiciuntur : ab sinistro, quern locum duodec- 
ima -legio tenebat, quum primi ordines hostium transfixi pilis oonci- 
dissent, tamen acerrime reliqui resistebant, nec^abat suspicionem 
fugoe quisquam. Ipse dux hostium CamulogeninrBuis aderat, atque 
eos cohortabatur. At, incerto etiam nunc exitu^ victorias, quum 
septimse legionis tribunis eiset nunciatum, quas in sinistro cornu 
gererentur, post tergum hostium legionem ostenderunt, signaque in- 

. ■ — — — <j^ 

LXI. 1. Tumultuari is impersonal andj2. Tantum, §150, Rem. 3. 

passiTe. |8. Progrederetur, {210, a. 






LIBER SEPTIMUS^, ' 17! 

feulepunt. Ne eo quidem tempore quisquam loco ces.^it, sed circum- 
venti o nines interfectique sunt. Eaudem tortunam tulit Canaulo- 
ius. At ii, qui prseaidip contra castra Labieni erant relicti,quutn 
proBlium comm.tsisum.audissent, subsidio aula ierunt^ colletnque cepe- 
runt, neque noat.ro rum milltum victorum inipetum sustinere potue- 
runt. Sic, cum suis fugicntibus permixti, quos 1 non silvac montes- 
que texerunt, ab equitatu sunt iuterfepti. Hoc negotio confccto, 
Labienus revertitur Agehdicuni, ubi- impedimenta totius excrcitu- 
Yeliota crant. Indo cum omnibus copiia ad CsDsarcm pcrvcnit. 

EiX.HI. Defectione JSduo'ruui cqgnita, bellum' augetur. Lnga- 
itiones in omnes parte-* circummittuntur : l quantum 2 gratia, auctor- 
itate, pecunia valcut, ad sollicitandas civitates nituntur. Nacti ob- 
sides, (juos Caesar apud eos depoMierat,' borum supplicio dubitantes 
territant. Petunt a Veroingetorige iEdui, ad se veniat, 4 rationcs- 
i|ue belli gerendi conimunicet. lie impetrata contendunt, ut ipsis 
summa imperii tradatur : et, re in controversiam deducta, totius 
concilium Bibracte iudicitur. Eodem conveniunt undique 

luentes. Multitudini's suffragiis res permittitur : ad unum 
0C8 Vercingetorigem probant imperatorem. Ab boc concilio Remi, 
Li... Previri abfueruut: illi, quod amicitiam Romariorum 

sequebantur; Treviri,.quod aberant longius, et ab Germanis preme- 
bantur : quae fuit causa, quare toto abessent bello, et neutris auxilia 
mitterent. ' Magnp dolore /Edui ferunt se dejectos principatu ; que- 
njntur fortun® obmmu'tationem, «t Cflesaris indulgentiam in se re- 
quirunt; neque tamen, suscepto bello, suum consilium ab reli<].ii 

;:inre audent. Inviti sumniio spei adolesccntes, Eporedorix et 
Viridomarus, Vercinget<frigi parent. 

[V. Ille imperatjeliquis civitatibus obsides: denique ei rei 
oonstituit diem : hue omnes dquites, XV millia numero, celeriter 

. enire jub ;tatn, <(ueui ante babuerit, sefore co*n ten turn ' 

dicit, f neque fortunam tentaturum, aut ia acie dimicaturum ; aed, 
quoniam abundet equitatu, perfacile esse factu frumentationibua 
pabulationibusque Romanoa probibere ; aequo modo aninio sua ip.-; 
frumenta corrumpant, 1 aedificiaque incendanfc, qua rei familiaris jac- 
lura perpetuum imperium libertatemque se cousequi videant.' His 

it ut Is rcbus'^Ppduis Scgusiaiiisque, qui sunt fiuitimi provin 
X niiili-i pedituni imperat ; hue addit equitea DCCG. Hia prsaf}cit 
fratrem Ep.redorigis, bellumque inferre Allobrogibua jubet. 

tl ject <>f 2. Quantum, 

i. I>pposuerat : Bee ch. LV. 
\. W-niat, J198, Rem 
1. Circumraittuntur, .vr. al 
dui«. L XIV. 1. Corruiupant, gl'J7, b. 



172 DE BELLO GALLICO 

tera ex parte Gabalos proximosque pagos Arvernorum in Helvios, 
item Rutenos Cadurcosque ad fines Yolcarum Arecomicorum de- 
populandos mittit. Nihilo minus clandestinis nunciis lcgatio:iibus- 
que Allobrogas s\>llicitat, -quorum mentes nondum ab superiore bello 
resedisse sperabat. H'orum principibus pecunin?, civitati autem 
imperium totius provincue pollieetur. 

LXV. Ad bos omnes casus provisa erant prrcsidia cohortiutn 
duarum etviginti, quae ex ipsa coacta provincia ab L. Caesare 1 legato 
ad omnes partes opponebantur. Helvii, sua sponte cum nnitirajl 
proclio congressi, pelluntur, et C. Valerio Donotauro. Caburi filio, 
principe civitatis, compbaribusque aliis interfectis, intra oppida mu- 
rosque compelluntur. Allobroges, crebris ad Rhodanum dispositi* 
proesidiis, magna cum cura et diligentia suos fines tuentur. Caesar, 
quod hostes equitatu superiores esse iutelligebat, ct, interclusis om- 
nibus itineribus, nulla re ex provincia atque Italia sublevari poterat^ 
trans Rhenum in Germaniam mittit ad eas civitates, quas superiori- 
bus annis pacaverat, equitesque ab his* arcessit et leyis armaturse 
pedites, qui inter eos proeliari consueverant. Eorum adventu, quod 
minus idoneis equis utebantur, a tribunis militum reliquisque, sed 
efc equitibus Romanis atque erocatip, equos sumit, Germanisque 
distribuit. 

LXVI. Interea, dum hsec geruntur, hostium copi» ex Arvernis 
equitesque, qui toti Galliae erant imperati, conveuiunt. Magno 
horum coacto nuniercr, quum Caesar in Sequanos per extremos Lin- 
gonum fines iter faceret, quo facilins subsidium provinciae ferri pos- 
set, circiter millia passuum X ab Romania trinis castris Vercinget- 
orix consedit; convocatis^ue ad concilium praefectis'equitum, 'ven- 
isse tempus victorise' deuionstrat: 'fugere^in provinciam Romano* 
Galliaque excedere : id sibi ad praesentem obtinendam libertatem 
satis esse ; ad reliqui temporis pacem atque otiuca parum profici ; T 
majofibus enim coactis copiis reversuros, neque finem belli facturos. 
Proinde agmine impeditoa adoriantur. 2 Si pedites suis auxilium 
ferant, atque in eo morentur, iter confici, non posse; si, id quod 
magis futurum confidat, relictia impedimcntis, sUae saluti consulant, 
ct usu rerum necessariarum et dignitate spoliatum iri. Nam do 
equitibus hostium, 3 quin nemo eorum progredi 4fdo extra agmen 
audeat, ne ipsos quidem debere dubitare. Id 4 quo^ majore faciant 



LXV 1. "L. Casar was a relation of 
our author. He was consul B.C.. 64. 
and belonged to the aristocratic par- 
ty ; and although we here find him 
serving as legate under his great 
kinsman, he afterwards forsook hira, 
and joined his enemy Pompey." 



LXVI. 1. Parum^profici, '• Thnt but 
little was effected for their futurw 
peace and quiet "■ 

2. Adoriantur, §217, Rtv\. 1. 

3 De nquitibut hostium limits dubiU:re. 

4. Id, i.e. ftdoriri. 

o. Quo, §193, Rem. 3. 

m 



LIBEK SEPTIMUS. 173 

amino, copias se o nines pro castris babituruni, et terrori hostibus 

futurum.' Co'nclama'nt equites ' sauctissimo jurejurando confirmari 

portere, ne tecto recipiatur, ue ad liberos, ne ad parentes, ne ad 

sorem ad i turn habeat, qui non bis per agmen bostium perequitarit.' 

LX VII. Probata re, atqUe omnibus ad jusjurandum adactis, pos- 

iro 'lie in tres partes distributo equitatu, duae se acies ab duobus 

lateribus ostendunt : una a primo agmine iter iinpedire coepit. Qua 

re nuneiata, Cfflsar buum quoque equitatum, tripartito divisum, ire 

uitra bosteua jubet. Pugaatur una 1 tunc omnibus in partibus : 

oii.'-istit agmen : impedimenta inter legiones recipiuntur. Si qua 

a parte* nottri laborare aut gravius premi videbantur, eo signa in- 

erri Caesar aciemquc converti jubebat : quas res et boste,s ad inse« 

ulum tardabat,et no^tros spe auxilii confirmabat. Tandem Ger- 

dextro latere, summuui jugum uacti, bostes loco depellunt; 

(entes usque ad flunien,- ubi Vercingetorixcuui pedestribus copiis 

ederat, persequuntur, compluresque iuterficiunt. Qua re ani- 

aadversaj reliqui, ue circumvenirentur, veriti, se fugac mandant. 

Omnibus locis fit cedes : tres nobilissiini jEdui capti ad Caesarera 

rerducuntur : Cotus, prtefectus equitum, qui controversiam cum 

victulitane proximis comitiis 3 babuerat- et Cavarillus, qui post 

dcfeetiuueni Litavioi pedestribus copiis praefuerat ; et Eporedorix, 

jun duce ante adventum Caisaris JEdui cum Sequanis bello conten- , 

derant. 

LXVIII. Fugato omni equitatu, Vercingetorix copias suas, ut 
pro eastris collocaverat, reduxit; protinusque Alesiam,quod estop- 
pifluin Mandubiorum, iter facere ccepit; celeriterque impedimenta 
ex castris educi et se subsequi jussit. Caesar, impedimentis in proxi- 
inum collem deductis, duabusque legionibUs pra\sidio relictis, secu- 
tus, quantum 1 dici tempus est paasum, circiter tribus millibus bos- 
tium ex novissimo agmine interfecti?, altero die ad Alesiam castra 
fecit. Perspecto urbis situ, perterritisque bostibus, quod equitatu, 
Odl maxime parte exercitus confidebant, erant pulsi, adhortatus ad 
rem milites, Alesiim circumyallare instituit. 
LXIX. Ipsum erat oppidum in colle summo, admodum edito 
toco, ut, nisi obsidione, expugnari nun posse videretur. Cujus collia 
radices duo duab^pex partibus flumina 1 eubluebant. Ante id op- 
pidum planitics circiter millia passuuui III in longitudinem pate- 
bal . reliquis ex omnibus partibus colles, mediocri interjecto spatio. 



I. XVII. 1. Una, *c. parte temporis/'Al 
the f-Htne time." 
Fhinicn, i.e. the Saone 



LXVIII. 1. Quantum, {160, Bern. Z 

LXIX. 1. F/uffliM, the Lutosa and 
3. Cdtaitiis, £107. | Osera, now called the Loze and Is- 

I zerain. 

I o2 



174 DS BELLO GALLICO 

pari altitudinis fastigio, oppiduin cingebant. Sub muro,' quse par^ 
collis ad orientem solem epectabat, hunc omnem locum copisc Gallo- 
ruui compleverant, fossamque et maceriani sex in altitudinem pedum 
prseduxerant. Ejus munitionis, qure ab Romanis instituebatur, cir- 
cuitus XI millium passuum 2 tenebat. Castra opportunis locis erant 
posita, ibique castella XXIII facta ; quibus in castellis interdiu 
stationea disponebantur, ne qua subito irruptio fieret : hsec eadem 
noctu excubitoribus ac firmis praesidiis tenebantur. 

LXX. Opere instituto, fit equestre proelium in ea planitie, quam, 
intermissam collibus, 1 III millia passuum in longitudinem patere 
supra demonstravimus.' Summa vi ab utrisque cotitenditur. La- 
borantibus nostris Caesar Gcrmanos submittit, legionesque pro cas- 
tris. constituit, ne qua subito irruptio ab hostium peditatu fiat. 
Pra3sidio legionum addito, nostris animus augetur : hostes, in fugam 
conjecti, se ipsi multitudine impediunt, atque angustioribus 2 portis 
relictis 3 coarctantur. Turn Germani acrius usque ad munitiones 
sequuntur. Fit magna erodes. Nonnulli, relictis equis, fossam 
transire et maceriam transcendere conantur. Paulum legiones Cae- 
sar, quas pro vallo constituerat, promoveri jubet. Non minus, qui 
intra munitiones erant, Galli perturbantur ; veniri ad se confestim 
existimantes, ad arma conclamant ; nonnulli perterriti in oppidum 
irrumpunt. Vercingetorix jubet portas claudi, ne castra nudentur. 
Multis interfectis, compluribus equis captis, Germani sese recipiunt. 

LXXI. Vercingetorix, priusquam munitiones ab Romanis per- 
ficianfcur, 1 consilium capit, omnem ab se equitatum noctu rlimittere. 2 
Discedentibus mandat, ut ' suam quisque eorum civitatem adeat, 
oranbsque, qui per aetatem arma ferre possint, ad bellum cogant: 
sua in illos rnerita ' proponit, obtestaturque, ' ut suce salutis ratio- 
nem habeant, neu se, de communi libertate optime meritum, in cru- 
ciatum hostibus dedant : quod si indiligentiores fuerint, millia hom- 
inum delecta LXXX una secum interitura' demonstrat : 'ratione 
inita, frumentum se exigue dierum XXX habere, sed paulo etiam 
longius tolerare posse parcendo.' His datis mandatis, qua erat nos- 
trum opus intermissum, secunda vigilia silentio equitatum diinittit: 
frumentum omne ad se ferri jubet ; capitis poentfto iis, qui non par- 
uerint, constituit : pecus, cujus magna erat ab Jmndubiis compulsa 
copia, viritim distribuit ; frumentum parce et palatini metiri in- 
stituit; copias omnes, quas pro oppido collocavegat, in oppidum re- 



2. Millium passuum, tc. spatium. 

LXX„ 1. Intermi89am collibus, "Situ- 
ated between the hills." 



the passage of so great a numb* 
3. Kelictis, i.e. in muceria. 

m 

LXXI 1. Perficiantur, §206, ^ 



2. Angustioribus, "Rather narrow" for'2. Dimittere, see ch. XXVI. 



LIBER SEPTIVfOS. 175 

gfpit. His ralionibus auxilia Gallia) exspectare et bcllum adminis- 
rrare parat. 

LXXII. Quibus rebus ex pcrfugia et captivis cognitis, Csesar 
Lac genera munitionis instituit. Fossa m pedum XX directis lateri- 
bus duxit, ut ejus solum tantundem pateret, 1 quantum summa labra 
distabant. Reliquas omnes munitiones ab ca fossa pedes CD re- 
duxit: 2 id hoc consilio, (quoniam tantum e'ssct neccssario apatium 
oomplexus, nee facile totum opus milituiu corona cingeretur,) ne de 
iuiproviso aut noctu ad munitiones hostium multitudo advolaret, 
aut interdiu tela in nostros, operi destinatos. conjicere poasi nt. 
Hoc intermisso spatio, 3 duas fossas, XV pedes lata*, eadetu altitu- 
dine perduxit : quarum interiorem, campestribus ac demissis locia, 
aqua ex fluminc derivata complevit. Post eas aggcrem ac vallum 
XII pedum exstruxit : huic 4 loricam piunasque adjecit, grandibus 
ccrvis feminentibus ad commissuras pluteoruni atque aggeria, qui as- 
oensum hostium tardarent ; et turros toto opere 5 circumdedit, qua? 
pedes LXXX inter se distarent. 

LXXIII. Erat eodem tempore ct materiari et frumentari et 
.tantas munitiones fieri necesse, deminutis nostris eopiis, qua? longius 
:\b castris progrediebantur : ac nonnunquam opera nostra Galli ten- 
tare atque eruptionem ex oppido pluribus portis summa vi facefe 
oouabantur. Quare ad hsee rursus opera addendum Cassur putavit, 
^uo minore numero militum munitiones defendi possent. Itaque 
truncis arborum aut admodum firmis ramis abacisis, atque horum 
delibraii.- atque prueacutis cacuminibus, perpetual fossae, quiaofl 
pedes altae, ducebantur. Hue illi Btipites demiasi, 2 et ab iufimo re- 
viocti, ne revelli possent, ab ramis eminebant.' 5 Quini erant or- 
dincs, conjuncti inter se atque implicati ; quo qui ititravcraut, se 
ipsi acutissiciis vall.is induebant. Hos cippos appellabant. Ante 
hos, obliquis ordinibus in quincuncem disrjositis, scrobes trium in 
altitudinc;;; pedum fodiebantur, paulatini angustiore ad infimum 
fastigio. 4 Hue teretes stipites, femiuis' orasaitudine, ab s-unimo 
praacuti et praeusti, deinittebantur ita, ut non amplius digitis IV 



i.XXIl 1. Utjjat tr ^^xyitcBzts the re- ' tircly round tho town." 
suit of directis It^mbus. " So that 2. Hue demissi, "Sunk in these ditch- 



■ 



tin- bj ttom wa- jim us 9ide as the 

top." Tantundeni, quantum ; §160,1 3 Ah rami'* cminet>nnt. " Trajfctcd 

Rem. .1. from tbe limbs upward :" tde trunk 

I Reduxit, '"Witbd^w." wa* buried in tbe bottom of tbt 

■i Hoc *-puti'> ^160), » t. the two hun- ditch. 

dfcdfect 1 Angustiore «d infimum fo'iijrio, 

4. rWic, i.e. Tallo. " Sloping inward tnwnrds lb< 

o. Tito opcrc, J166. torn ;" literally, "of .i narrowi r 

\ &c. 

liiLXIi*. 1. Perpeiuae, "Running en- o. Feminis, ^ 164, Rem. 2. 



1 















76 





GALLICO 



ndi et sUbiliendi causa, singuli 
antur : reliqua pars scrobis ad 

3 yirgultis integebatur. Hujus 
inter se pedes distabant. Id ex 
ant. Ante hcec tales, -pedem 
terram infodiebantur, ifiediocri- 

s locis disserebantur, quos stimu- 



ex terra eminereut : siinMjeoi 
ab infimo aolo pedes terra esc 
occultandas insidias viminibuj 
generis octoni ordineSTducti, 
.similitudine floris lilium a| 
longae, ferreis bamis infixis, 
busque intermissis spatiis, 01 
los nommabant. 

LXXIV. * His rebus perfectis, regiones secutus quam potuit 
a3quissimas pro loci natura, XIV millia passuum complexus, pares 
ejusdem generis munitiones, diversas 1 ab bis, contra exteriorem hos- 
tem 2 perfecit, ut ne magna quidem multitudine, si ita accidat ejus 3 
aiseessu, munitionum prassidia circumfundi possent: neu cum per- 
icUlo ex eastris egredi cogantur, dierum XXX pabulum frumentum- 
que habere omnes convectum jubet. 

■ LXXV. Dum hsec ad Alesiam geruntur, Galli, concilio prin'ci- 
pum indicto, nou omnes, qui arma ferre possent, ut censuit Vercin- 
getorix, eonvoeandos statuunt, sed certum numeruna cuique civitati 
imperandum ; ne, 1 tanta multitudine confusa, nee moderari, nee 
discernere suos, nee frumenti rationem habere possent. Imperant 
' ^Eduis atque eorum clientibus, Segusianis, Ambivaretis, Aulercis 
Br.mnovicibus, [Brannoviis,] millia XXXV ; parem numerum Ar- 
vernif?, adjunctis Eleutheris Cadurcis, G-abalis, Velaunis, qui sub 
ini})erio Arvernoruni esse consuerunt; Senonibus, Sequanis, Bitur- 
igibus, Santonis, Butenis, Carnutibus duodena millia ; Bellovacis 
X ; totidem Lemovicibus ; octona Pictonibus et Turonis et Parisiis 
et Helviis; S'uessionibus, Ambianis, Mediomatricis, Petrocoriigj 
Nerviis, Morinis, Nitiobrigibus quina millia ; Aulercis Cenomanis 
totidem; Atr'ebatibus IV; Bellocassis, Lexoviis, Aulercis Eburoni- 
bus terna; Bauracis et Boiis XXX ; universis civitatibus, qufe 
Oceanitm attingunt, qureque eorum eonsuetudine Arnioricae appel- 
lantur, (quo sunt in numero Curiosolites, Bhedones, Ambibari. 
Caletes, Osismii, Lemovices, Veneti, Unelli,) sex. Ex bis Bellova- 
ci'suum numerum non contulerunt, quod se suo, nomine atque ar- 
bitrio cunl Bomanis bellum gesturos dicerent,? neque cujusquam 
imperio obtemperaturbs : rogati tamen ab £oraBo, pvo ejus bos- 
pitio bina millia miserunt. 

Hujus opera Commii, ita ut antea lemonstravimus, 



piti 

LXXVI 



^_ 



LXXIV. 1. Diversas, " Facing in the 3 
opposite direction." 

2. Exteriorem hostem, i.e. the cavalry 
that had been sent out, and the suc- 
cors it was expected to raise. 



Ejus 



.e. the cavafry; see ch.LXXI. 



LXXV. 1. Ne, sc. veriti. 
2. Dicerent, §190', Rem. 1. 






LIBER SEPT1? 177 

fideli aAque utili superioribus annis tra' lisns in Dritar.nia Casar : 
quibus llle pro meritis eiyitat' inmuneni esse jussen.f . jura 

legesque reddiderat, atque ipsi 1 MflBs attribuerat. Tatta tamen 
auiversse Gallia consensio- fuit 19HVti s vindicauda et pri:«tinrp 
belli laudis recuperanda, ut neijiu^^Hflciis, neque amicitia*. mem- 

• tpia moverentur ; omucsque et an '.flip et opibus in id be 1 hi in i neurit- 
berent, coactis eqnituni VIII mi!lil lituni circiter CCXL. 
Ihie in JEdm-rum fiuibua reeonsebantiir, numerusque injbatur : 
prsefeeti constituebantur : Comrtiin Atrebati, Viridomaro ct Epore- 
lorigi, jEduis, Vergasillaurio ArYe/jfa), consobrino Vereingetorigis, 
iininia imperii iraditur. His delecti ex civitatibus attribuuntur, 
inorutu oonsili i bellum adoiinistraretur. Oth nes alacres et iiducintt . 
■ 1. r.i ad Ak"!un profieiscuntur : neque erat omnium quisquam, 

• jui aspectutn modo tanta multitudinia sustineri posse arbitraretur; 

sertim ane<| iti 3 proelio, quuui ex oppido eruptione pugnaretur, 

• tanta ctq ia equitatus peditatUsijue e'ernerentur. 

L XXVII. A' ii, qui Alesiae pbsidebantur, praterita die, qua 

moruru auxilia < xspectaverant, consumpto omni frumento, inscii, 

[uid in /Edui- gercretur, concilio coaeto, de exitu fortunarum sua- 

runt consultabaiit. Apud quos 1 variis dictis sententiis, quarum pars 

leditioneoii pars, dum vires suppetirent, eruptionem censebant, non 

'wrereunda videtur oratio Critognati, propter ejus singularem ae 

nefariata crudelitateot. Hie, sunnno in Arrernis ortus loco, et mag- 

.,)•- oabttus uuctoritatis, " nihil," inquit, "de eorum sentcntia dic- 

uruj sum, qui turpfcsunani servitutem deditionis nomine appellant; 

leque bus babendos civiuui loco, neque ad concilium adbibc^doa 

teoseo. Cum iis mibi res sit, qui eruptionem probant: quorum. 

silio, omnium vestrum coosc isuj pristine} residere virtuiis i... - 

moria videtur. Anhni [lilies, non virtus, inopiam pau- 

isper ferre nun posse. Qui se ultro morti offerant,* facilius reperi- 

untur, quam qui dolorem patienter ferant. Atque ego banc senWn- 

iiiin prvbarem, (nam apud me tantum dignitas potest,) si nullam 

eterquam vit® nostra jaoiurani G videreth.; sed in cinailio ca- 

rjdo omm m Galliam rtipiciaraus, quam ad nostrum auxilium 

ttavimus. Qu^, honiurum millibua LXXX uno loco interfco- 

ropinquis coWuigun • - animi foi 

' in ipsi.- cadaveribus prctlio decertare cogenturJ? Nolite hoi 

tro auxilio exippliare, qui vestrae Juti« causa suuDa periculum 

• 
I.XXVf. I. Ipsi.l.i C \f»gnse a«ct<>rit»tU. "Vcrj 

;, An. 2 ti»l ;" $182, RtM I. 

I Vicij. ti, i.e. both lb '• - il 

*■ 4. Offorant, femnt, JtlO, b 

LXXVrl 1. Quo*. $129, Hem. 7. 



178 H|flfcp L0 OALLICO 

neglexerint; 5 nee 6 s^OMf^Hpinieritate vestra, aut imbecillitate 
animi, omaem.G-alliatutjpBsnRSre et perpetua? servituti addicere. 
An, juod ad diem nonjp'enerunfllde eorum fide constantiaque dubi- 
ttttis ? Quid ergo? f'Romauosltn illis ulteriorrbus munitionibus 
animine causa quotidie exerceri.'putatis ? Si illorum nunciis con- 
firmari non potestis, ouini aditu'pnesepto, iis utiruini testibus. ap- 
propinquate eor.uru adventuru, cujus rei tirnore exterriti, diem noc- 
tenujue in opere versantur. Quid ergo mei. consilii 7 est ? Facere, 
quod nostri niajores nequaquanai pari bello Ciuibrorum Teutonum- 
que fecerunt ; qui in Dppida compulsi, ac simili inopia subacti, eoruni 
corporibus, qui retate inutiles ad bell am videbantur, vitam tolerave- 
runt, neque ee hostibuf tradiderunt. Cujujs rei si exemplum non 
haberemus, tamen libertatis\)ausa institui et t posteris prodi pulcher- 
rimum judicarem. Nam quid illi .simile bello f uit ?' Depopulata 
Gallia, Cimbri magnaque illata c.alamitate, finibus quidem nostris 
aliquando exeesserulit, atque alias terras petierunt ; jura, leges, 
agros, libertatem nobis reliquerunt : Romani vero quid petunt aliud, 
aut quid volunt, nisi invidia adducti,quos fama nobiles potentesque ' 
bello cognoverunt, horurn in agtis civitatibusque considere atque his 
aeternam injungejre seryitutem ? neque euim unquam alia&nditione 
bella gesserunt, Quod si ea, quae in longinquis nationibukgerun- 
tur, ignoratis ; respicite finitimam Gr'alliam, quaa in provinei&ln re- 
dacta, jure et legibus commutatis, securibus 8 subjects, perpet'.n 
premitur servitute." 

LXXVIII. Sententiis dictis constituurit, ut, qui valetudi 
retate inutiles's-unt bello, oppido excedaht, atque omnia prlus ex- 
periantur, quam ad Critognati scntentiam descendant: illo tamen • 
potius'utendum-eoiihilio., ! si res cogat atque auxilia morentur, q*uam 
aut deditionis aut pads subeundam couditionem. Mandnbii, qui 
eos oppido reeeperant, o-um liberie atque uxoribus'exirc coguntur. 
Hi, quuui ad munition.es Romanorum accessissent, flentes omnibus 
precibus orabant, ut se, in servitutem rceeptos, cibo juYawfat. At 
Caesar, dispositis in vallo custodiis, recipi prohibebat. 

LXXIX. Interea Commius, et reliqui duces, quibus gumma im- 
perii permissa erat, cum omnibus eopiis ad Alesiam perveniuut, et 

;j. Qui neglexerint. The speaker putsiT. Mei consilii.wfc Book 1, XXI, 10. 
the matter as a supposed ease, tbv 8. Seeuribus, se^ vocabulary, 
dependent sentence taking the com-k £ 

plexion of the leading verb nolit-e ex- LXXVIII. 1. ConWio, $178, Rem. 1 

" That that fb^L. however, ought 
rather to bo used* Observe the in- 
finitive sentence, mbeundamAondi- 
tionem, connected by quam to tf^xdum 
(ease). ' f* 



xpoliare, which expresses a purely 
subjective idea, the action existing 
only in the mind of.'jhe speaker. 
6. 1 Nee is used with reference to the 
affirmative part of nolite, which part 
never occurs alone. 



is 



LIBER SEPTIMUS. . 179 

colic exterioro occtipato, non longiuflHr^H|Vus ah nostris muni- 
tionibus considunt. Postero die equitfcun|r 'castris educto, omneni 
earn planitiem, quani in longitudit< m TIT (pillia passuum paterc 
dcmonstravinius, complent, pedestrfsque copias paulurn ab |p 
abditas in locis superioribus constituunt. Erat ex oppido Alesia 
despectus in campum. Ooncurritur, his auxiliis visffc: fit gratulatio 
inter eos, atquc omnium animi a<| laetitiam ex'citantur. Itaque. 
productis copiis, ante oppidum considunt, ct proxinmm fofisam cra- 
tibus integunt, atquc aggcre explent, seque ad eruptionem atque 
omnes casus comparant. 

LXXX. Caesar, omni exercitu ad utfamque partem munitionum 
disposito, ut, si usu- veniat, suum quisquc locum teneat et noverit, 
equitatuui ex castris educi ct proelium committi jubet. Erat ex 
omnibus 1 castris, quse sumiuum undique jugum tenebant, despectus; 
atque omnium militum intcnti animi puguae proventutn exspecta- 
bant. Galli inter equites raros Sagittarius expeditosque levisarma- 
burse iuterjeceraut, qui'suis cedeutibin auxilio suceunererit, et nos- 
trorum equitum impctum sustinerent. Ab his eomplure.s de im- 
proviso vulnorati proclio excedebailt. Quum suos pugna supcriorcs 
esse Galli conifiderent, et nostros prenn multitudiie Tiderent; ex 
omnibus nartibus et ii, qui munitionihus- continebantur, et i\ qui 
ad auxiHum convenerant, clamore et ululatu suorum animos con- 
firmabant. Quod in oonspectu omnium res gerebatur, ueque recte, 
ac turpitcr factum celari poterat, utrosque et laud is cupiditas et 
timor ignominiae ad virtutem excitabant. Quum a meridie prope 
olis occasum dwbia victoria pugnaretur, Gcrmani 3 una in parr. 
confertis turmis in hostes impetum fecerunt, eosque propulerunt : 
quibus in fugam conjectis, sagittarii cireumvctiti interfectique sunt. 
Item ex reliquis partibus nostri, cedentes 4 usque ad castra insecuti, 
sui colligendi facultatem non dederunt. At-ii, qui ab Alesia pro- 
cesserant, moesti, prope vietoria despcrata, se in oppidum receperunt." 

LXXXT. Uno die intermisso, Galli, atque hoc spatio magno 
cratium, scalarum, harpagonum numero effecto, media nocte silent in 
ex castris egressi, ad campestres munitiones accedunt. Subito cla- 
more sublato, qua 1 significatione, qui in oppido obsidebantur, de suo 
' adventu cognoscer^fcossent, crates projicere, fundis, sagittis, lapidi- 
bus ntfstros de vall^dcturbare, reliquaque, quae ad oppugnationem 
pertinent, adminfetrare. Eodem tempore, clamore exaudito, dat 

LXXX. 1. OmnnWfe==totii. 3. Germain, i.t. Caesar s German cbt- 

2. AfuMtionibus, twt works of the Ro-i airy. 

maAnot of the town, as the Gauls 4. Cedentes, $c. eos. 

liri'iAftken position outside of these. 

See«XIX, latter part. ILXXXI. 1. <Jua=*=ut fa. 



V, 



180 



DE BELLO GALLICO 



tuba Hitrnum suis Yercineetor 
ut superiorihus diebuS sfBslfu! 
tioses accedunt : iuudis,'lihrilil 
posuerant, ac glandibus «allfs ; 
empto, multa utrimque 'vulnci 



atque ex oppido educit. Nostri, 
le erat l$cus definitus, ad muni- 
is sudibutquc, quas in opere dis- 
-terrent.*'?'. Prospectu - tenebris ad- 
accipiuntur ; complura torincnti* 



tela conjiciuntur. At M. Antollius et C. Trebonius, legati, quibus 
eae partes ad defendendum obvenerant, qua ex parte nostros premi 
intellexerant, iis auxilic ex ulterioribus castellis deductos subuiitte- 
bant. 

LXXXII. Dum longius ab niunitione aberaut Galli, plus multi- 
tudine telorum proficiebaiit : posteaquam propius succes6erunt, aut 
se ipsi stimuli s inopinantes induebant, aut in scrobe's delapsi trans- 
fodiebantur, aut ex vallo et turYibus trah^jecti pilis muralibus in- 
teribant. ' Multis undique vulneribus acceptit?, nulla munitione per- 
rupta, quum lux appeteret, veriti, ne ub latere apcrio ex superiori- 
bus castris eruptione circumveuirentur, se ad suos receperunt. A' 
interiores, dum ea, quae a Vercingetorige ad eruptionem praeparata 
erant, proferunt, priores fossa.s explent ; diutius in iis rebus ad- 
ministrandis morati, prius suos discessisse eognoverunt, quam muni- 
tionibus appropinquarent. 1 Ita, re infecta, in oppidum reverterunt. 

LXXXIII. Bis magno cum detrimento repulsi Galli, quid agant, 
consulunt : locorum peritos adbibent : ab his cuperiorum castrorur* 
situs munitioncsque cognoscunt. Erat a septemtrionibus collis. 
quern propter magnitudinem circuit us opere circumplecti nfin potu 
erant nostri, uecessarioque pame iniquo*loco et leniter declifi cast4$ 
fecerant. Usee C. Antistius Reginus et C. Caninius Rebilus, legati, 
cum duabus legionibus obtinebant.* Cognitis per exploratores regi 
onibus, duces liostium LX millia ex omni numero deligunt earui 
eivitatum, quae maximani virtutis opinionem habebant; quid que 
que 1 pacto agi placeat, o«culte inter se constituunt; adeundi tempu* 
definiunt, quum meridie 2 esse videatur. lis copiis VergasillaunujH 
Arvernum, unum ex quatuor ducibus, propinquum Yerciugetorigi: . 
praeficiunt. v Ille ex castris prima vigiliu egressus, prop* confect. 
sub lucem itinere, post montem se occultavit, militesque ex noctur- 
no labore sese reficere jussit. Quum jam maiidies appropinquai 
videretur, ad ea castra, quce supra demonstra1*£ius ; eontendit : 
deinque tempore equitatus ad campestres mBptiones accedere, < 
reliquse copiae sese pro castris ostendere coeperunt 

LXXXIV. Vercingetorix, ex arce Alesiae suos conspicatus, e 
oppido egreditur ; a castris longurios, muaculos, ^|lces reliquaqut 



LXXXII. 1. Appropinquarent, $206,|LXXXIII. 1. Quoque=et qi 
b, (2). |2. Meridie, sc.ftwpuB ; §49" 



LIBER SEJ 

quae eruptionis causa paittverat, 
omnibus locis acriterJ&tquc o 
pars.firma est, hue coneurritur. 
tionibus distinetur, nee facile pi 
terrendos nostros valuit clamor, 



181 

jjrugnatur uno tempore 

. ntur. Qua miuime visa 

RlJnianorum manus tantis rnuni- 

ribus locis occurrit. Multum ad 

hi post; tergum pugnantibus 1 cx- 




stitit, quod su.uni periculum in aliena 2 vident virtute consistere : 
mni;i enim plerumque, qua; absunt, vebementius liominum meute's 
perturbant. ' 

IjXXXV. Crcsar idoneum locum nactus, quid quaque in parte 
geratur, cognoscit, laborantibus auxilium submittit. Utrisque 1 ad 
animum occurrit unum illud esse tempus, quo maxime contendi con- 
veniat. Galli, nisi perfregerint munitiones", de omni salute despe- 
rant : Romani, si rem obtinucrint, 2 finem omnium laborum exspec- 
tant. Maxime ad superiores munitiones laboratur, quo Vergasil- 
launum missum demonstravimus. Exiguum loci ad declivitatenr 
fastigium magnum habet momentum. Alii tela ^conjiciunt ; alii, 
testudine facta, pubeunt; defatigatia in vicem integri succedunt. 
Agger, ab miiversis in munitionem conjectus, et ascensum dat Gal- 
Hsj et ea, quae in terram occultaverant Romani, contegit : nee jam 
•irma nostris, nee vires suppetunt. 

LXXXVI. His rebus cognitis,* Caesar Labienum cum cohortibus 

VI subsidio laborantibus mittit : imperat, si sustinere non possit, 

' deduptis cobortibui eruptione pugnct ; id, nisi necessario, ne faciat. 

IpsdEitreliquos; «ohortatur, ne la.bori s,uccumbant ; omnium su- 

■I perijpum dimicationum fructum in eo die,atque hora docet consis- 

> tere. Interiores, desperatis campestribus locis propter magnitudi- 

nem munitionum, loca proarupta ex ascensu 1 tentant : hue ea, quse 

paravcrant, conferunt : inultitmiine telorum ex turribus propugnan- 

tes 2 deturbant :» aggere et cratibus fdssas explent, aditus ©xpediunt : 

falcibus vallum ac loricam rescindunt 

LXXXVII. Caesar mittit primo Brutum adolescentria cum co- 
hortibus sex, post cum aliis septem C. Fabium legatum : postreimo 
ipse, quum vchementius pugnarent, integros subsidio adducit. ■ Re- 
^tituto proelio, ac repulsis hostibus, eo, quo Labienum miserat, coh- 
tendit; cohortes oj^tuor ex proximo caBtello deducit; equitum se 



cMSkt 



.XXXIV. 1. Pugn^Kbus, §147. |2. Rem obtintre, to carry one's point. 

. Aliena virtuto ciBfctere, " To de-13. Ad dechVitatem, "Down-hill." 
p»nd »ipon the valor of others," (i.e. 

of the Komans^fho defended other LXXXVI. 1. Praerupta ex. ascensu, 
part- of the works.) which might "Steep from the point where the as- 
fail : at least n£m%n could trust for cent begins," or perhaps, "steep in 

y to another's valor ae confident- 1 consequence of the ascent." 
* T jfc to n ' 8 own. 2. Ex turribus propugnantcs, i.e. the 

Romans. 
1. I'tri^iB, § 147. 



182 DE BELLO OALLIC0 

partem sequi, partem circumire exteriores munitiones et ab tergr 
hostes adoriri jubet. Labienus, pbsiquani neque aggeres neque fossjr 
rim hostium sustinere poterant,coactis undequndragiuta cobortibus. 
quas ex proximis prsesidiis deductas fors obtulifc, Caesarem per nun 
ados facit certiorern, quid, faciendum existimet. Accelerat Caesar, 
ut proelio intersit. 

LXXXVIII. Ejus adventu ex colore 1 vestitus cognito, (quo in- 
signi in prceliis uti consueverat,) turmisque equitum et eobortibu* 
visis, quas se sequi jusserat, ut de locis superioribus base declivia i 
devexa cernebantur, bostes proelium committunt. Utrimque clamow 
sublato. excipit rursus 2 ex vallo atque omnibus munitionibus clamor. 
Nostri, omissis pilis, gladiis rem gerunt. Repents '.post tergum 
equitatus cernitur ; cohortes alite appropinquant : bostes ter^a vev- 
tunt : fugientibus equites occurrunt : fit magna csedes. Seduliu 
dux et princeps Lemovicum, occiditur : Vergasillaunus Arvei ■ 
vivus in fuga comprebenditur : signa militaria LXXIV ad Caesarem 
referuntur ; pauci ex tanto numero se incolumes in castra recipiunt 
Gonspicati ex oppido caedem et fugam suorum, desperata salute, 
©opias a munitionibus reducunt. . Fit protinus, bac re audita, 
eastris Gallorum fuga. Quod 4 nisi crebris subsidiis ac totius dioi 
labore milites fuissent defessi, omnes bostiuni copiro deleri poi .;■ 
sent. De media nocte missus 'equitatus novissimum aguieu cons- • 
quitur : magnus numcrus capitur atque interficitur: reliqui ex fuga 
in ciritates discedunt. 

LXXXIX. Postero die Vercingetorix, c»ncilio convocato, ' id sg 
bellum suscepisse non suarum'necessitatum, sed communis libertat 
aausa ' demonstrat : ' et, quoniam sit fortunae cedendum, ad utraut- 
que rem se illis offeree, seu morte sua Ronianis satisfacere, seu vivu 
tradere yelint.' Mittuntur de bis rebus ad Caesarem legati. Jubi 
arma tradi, prmcipes procluci. Ipse in munitione pro eastris conse- 
dit : eo ducea producuntur : Vercingetorix deditur, arma projici- 
untur. Reservatis iEduis atque Arvernis, si per eos civitates recu- 
per are posset, 1 ex reliquis captivis toto exercitu capita singula prje- 
dse nomine distribuit.' 

XC. His rebus confectis, in iEduos profiei|citur ; civitatem 
eipit. Eo legati ab Arvernis missi, quae imperfrret, se facturos pi 
licentur. Imperat magnum numerum obsidi^. . Legiones in 1 
bernamittit: captivfrrum circiter XX millia J^duis Arvernisq' h 

reddit : T. Labienum cum duabus legionibds et erfuitatu in Sequ 

___ . . : 



LXXXVIII. 1. Ex colore. A Roman 
general usually wore a scarlet cloak. 

2. Excipit rursus, "Meets it again."" 

3. Post tergum, ac. hostium. 



4. Quod,, "And;" 

•LXXXIX. 1. Si posset, "(To s$) if 1 
could." 




LIFE OF GJESA.R, . 183 

no* proficisci jubet : liuio M. Setnprouiiiiu; Itutilum attribuit : U. 
Fabiurn ct L. Minuciuui Basiluftcum dualSfcs legionibus in Rentis 
oollocat, ne quam ab ti ti i tit^l^V^el 1 qTvac i s calamitatem accipiani. 
C Antistiutn Reginuni in Ambiwet'os, {T. Scxtium in Bituriges,, 
0, Oaniniuin Rebilum in Rutcnos cutn s&igulis legionibus niiti.it. 
Q. Tullium Ciceronem et P. Sulpiciufci Uabilloni et Matiscone in 
JEcluis ad Ararirh rci frumentaria; causa collocat. Ipse Bibracte 
hieniaro constituit. His rebus Uteris Coesaris cognitis, Roraa3 dife~ 
rum XX supplicatio indieitur. 



LIFE 



O F 



CAIUS JULJUS CESAR. 

[FROM SCLIMITZ'S 02B6AR.] 



Caius Julius Cesar, uiie of the most distinguished characters in Roinai 
ry, was the son of C. Julius Ctesar and Aureiia — a woman not unworthy 
&JVii;;g rahaed with Cornelia, the mother of the Gracchi— ami was born on 
f Quintilis (July), in the year B. C. rOO. lie lost his father at the 
but his mother was still living it the Jime of hi> victorious ca- 
rter in Gaul. l>y her his education was superintended with the utmost care ; 
and the facility with which he comprehended the. most difficult subjects sub- 
mitted tj him. and the zenl he displayed in the acquisition of knowledge, pro- 

ie would utie day nereis* great influence on the 
iflVir^ of his country. '■• little is knowfc\reBpeclin,_- his early youth 

we iiave of him by Plutarch and Suet )niu 
, jMnn.naleiy dcfcctivV ;1:.- i (ginning being wanting in both. 

i at whi^fcl':'--ar appeared was tuwur.il of tiie Roman re- 

nablic. when an cml^ft> i opportunity wtp offered for the display of 

teat and vark I was t rn anun<V'r by contending 



' ic had departed 1 ; and anil 

•*■ I ement, and aiming at botch i 

L^j'tlif**r.:i- and w< r ■ an aribtocracy exclusiro in spirit, and enriched by the 
pyi'ncnW':: the protincc* ; r.n the other a popdhtee, ignorant, 

* v "«kAs ''' r '^ In,r f <!r . * n( l g' T c support to, those who were 



:ai|fl 

4 hfJL . . . i p' < Bulla, the champion 

f> * 
.* 



184 LIFE OF CESAR. 

of the nobles, supported by the sfiiate, bad just achieved a signal triumph over 
Marius, the leader of the populafiiarty, and had been raised to the dictator- 
ship — an office which gave him th$ first authority in t}je state, and enabled him 
to exercise the most tyrannic sw(K (';es»r. both frem inclination and from 
family connexion, joined the popjnar party, and ;has incurred tho hatred of 
Sulla, whohad already regarded.^im with jealousy, on account of his connexio: 
with Marius, who was married Is his aunt Julia. This dislike at length found 
vent, when Ccesar, in B.C. 83. married Cornelia, daughter of L. Ciuna, another 
of the political opponents of the newly-appointed dictator. Sulla now com- 
manded C:e?ar to divorce Cornelia ; but the young hero resolutely defied the 
order, and refused to part with his beloved wife — an act of daring resist- 
ance, for at this time all Rome trembled before the tyrant. In consequence of t 
this conduct, Ctesar was deprived of the priestly dignity of tlamen Dialis, to 
Avhich he had been shortly beforo appointed ; also of the dowry of his wife, 
and of his own property ; and if he had remained at Rome, bis life would un- 
doubtedly have Veen sacrificed. He therefore withdrew into the country, until 
he was pardoned through the mediation of the vestal "virgins and some of hie 
friends ; though Sulla forgave him with reluctance, remarking that this young 
man would be the ruin of the aristocracy, for that many Mariuses were slum- 
bering in him. 

Instead of remaining at home, Caesar preferred serving in the army, which 
vras then engaged in Asia Minor ; and he there so much distinguished himself, 
that he was rewarded with a civic crown. In B.C. 78 he was serving under P. 
Servilius against the Isaurians and pirates, when the news of Sulla's death in 
duced him to return to Rome. He was too prudent, and had too little confi- 
dence in Lepidus, to join him in liis attempt to abolish the institutions of the 
late dictator ; and like most young Romans of his time, he began his public 
career as an orator In the courts of justice. He accused several of the parti- -. 
sans of Sulla who had been guilty of extjortion and oppression in the provipi 
but his first efforts were unsuccessful, not from his want of power as an orator, ' 
but because it was a matter of vkal importance to the aristocracy^to obtain 
acquittal of the culprits. Hereupon, either with a view of escaping from 
assaults of his enemies, or for the purpose of devoting his time to the fculti 
tion of his mind,' he withdrew to the island of Rhodes, where he studied under 
the celebrated rhetorician Apollouius Molo On his way thither he was taken 
prisoner, in the neighborhood of Miletus, by the pirates, who at that tire 
scoured the Mediterranean in all directions. Thoir object, however, jyas only 
to extort money; and the s'ervants «f Ceesar, who were, sent out, succeeded 
thirty-eight days ' in obtaining the sum of fifty talents, with which he r 
somed himself. While in the hands of the. pirates, Cajsar gave proofs ofiRb fc 
extraordinary mind, and of the power which lie exercisecLover all with iratem 
he came in contact. So far from conducting himself asflpir captive, he neat- ' 
od them as if he had been their master, without their venturing to punish 
him ; and no sooner had.he regained his liberty, than he ijjfcncd some ships 
in the port of Miletus, attacked the pirates, took sevoral of them prisoners, and 
crucified thtm, although he was not invested with any officii power or au- 
thority. 

His stay in Rhodes did net extend beyond one year; aad in R. C. 74, J »hen 
Mithridates, king of Pontus, resumed hostilities agains^the Romans, ^esar, 



■In •»•' 



LIFE OF C^felE; 188 

though still ;i private "pi **Jon, Q>llcoted a sniaMorJJe, by which he kept the wa- 
vering towns fn Asia Minor iu submission to Mpno. Before the end of the 
he returned home, havifli»becn eleeied ponj^ia.the glace of his uncle, C. 
Aurelius Cotta. Upon hifeirrival, HWuscd eft; means to increase his popu- 
larity ; and as his propcrtywras uqtliufee, he fVrowed money from the usurers, 
who willingly gave hup what he deuuwded, tbmgh they had no security except 
his honesty, and the >w;6 public Mictftnight afford him the mi 

of paying his dolus Nol . he was elected by the'people one of the 

tribunes of tli li we do not know whethcr*Le fought in any of 

wntfs which were then carried on against Mithridatcs, Sertorius, and Spar- 
tacn- 1: is certain, however, that I prominent part iu the upsetting 

lie Sullauian institutions, which was brought about by Pompey andL. Au- 
is sufficient to establish him in the popular favor. In 
B. C. 08 he obt a orship, au office which was the first stepping- 

at magistracies of the republic. In this capacity he was sent 
where he distinguished himself chiefly in conducting the lav, 
li were I: re him in the various towns of the province. On his 

ia, a daughter of Q. Pompeius Kufus — Cornelia 
ing.died before Lev a. This marriage was undoubtedly intended to 

secure the friendship of Pompey, who allowed himself more and moro to be 
drawn over to the popular party by Coesar, the latter attaching and ridiculing 
the arist '■ ir apparently acted as the champion of 

Pompey ; 1 nt he knew that hi* friend could not stand without him, and that, 
in the end, he himself would be the first man in the republic: ho, in fact, used 
Pompey only a- an instrument to break the power of the aristocracy. With 
the- view, he supported him in all, his undertakings, and took no 

small share in obtaining for him the command in the war against the pirates, 
• and afterwards in that against Mithridates. ' 

In B.C. G5 he was elected curule aedile. It had been < ustomary, for a long 
:ering on this office, to endeavor ularity by en- 

iin.iug Unpeople with splendid games and' public jv ! ments, and so se 
r and support in the elections for higher offices. Although Cffi- 
rtfr had no great means of his own, his aedilcship Burpa | endor and 

:nificence all that had ever beeu seen at Rome. His liberality was bound- 
less : and in the games which were celebrated in the circus, there appeared 
three hundred and twenty pairs of gladiators, all equipped in the most i 
mat this was done with borrowed money: his popularity became im- 

rflfei.-' . and was increased by the manner in which he contrived on every occa 
ion to liumhlc the pride of the aristocracy One morning, the trophies and 
u .- pf Marine, which had been removed from the Capitol 
ill restored to th^j place*. Every one knew that this was Cesar's doing, 
ih- people, werd^Bighted at th< .uce o/ the monuments of their 

inpion,. wh. 1 . party, though alarmed in the bight 

grei ■dieting nothing short of a revolution, did not dare to challenge 

hi» ■ - * icdilcship he continued t# annoy the partisans of thr 

^pjenate iii <.0 hut chiefly by bringing accusations against thoso 

who sjtre guilty of crimes committed under the protection of the laws of Sulla. 
In B^,08 ho waB elfjte 1 chief pontitF. although men far above him in rank 



* ii 



18S LIFE OF CiESAR. 

and station were his competitors; and shortly after, he obtained the eflice of 
praetor for the year following. 

His enemies now made every effort to check him In his rapid progress, and if 
possible to crush him. '"The discovery of the Catilinarian conspiracy seemed to 
offer a favorable opportunity : he was privately charged With being an accom- 
plice ; but not a shadow of evidence was brought forward, aud there docs not 
seem to bo the slightest ground for believing that he could have embarked in 
that mad and senseless scheme. During his' praetorship vehement disputes 
were agitated, on account of Cicero having put to death sorr.e of the associates 
of Cataline without a formal trial. Csesar supported the enemies -of Cicero, 
while M. Oato opposed him. Owing to the violence with which the question 
was debated, Caesar and one of the tribunes were suspended by the senate from 
their offices ; but Ccesar's conduct on that occasion was so well calculated, and 
so prudent, that the senate in tho end was obliged to apologize for its hastj 
measure, and publicly to thank him for his moderation. This was a great hu- 
miliation for the aristocratic party, but they had brought it upon themselves. 
In the same year.Caesar divorced his wife Pompeia, having discovered that she 
was carrying on an intrigue with the notorious P. Clodius; but he did not 
prosecute the offender, because he was very popular, and a man of great im- 
portance of Caesar's own party. » 

After the termination of his praetorship, Caesar undertook the admit is ra- 
tion of the province of Western Spain. His debts had at this time beet«a«.sc 
enormous, and his creditors so clamorous, that ho was obliged to take somt 
steps towards relieving himself before quitting Rome. The wealthy Crassus 
and other friends became security for him.; and matters being thus arranged, 
he set out for his province. He was now, forthe first time, at the head of an 
army, and in a short time, like a true military genius, he at once displayed all 
the qualities of a great general. After having subdued some of the un • ' Kin 
tribes of Lusitania, and taken Brigantium, a town of the Gallfeci, ho re »d 
tO'Rome. The money he had collected in Spain enabled him to pay his ..... 
and in B.C. 60 he offered himself as a candidate for the consulship. His own 
influence and popularity, and the support of Pompey, secured his election ; 
but' the aristocrats, by immense exertion aud bribery, contrived to obtain the 
appointment of M. Bibulus, a stout champion of their party, as his colleague. 
Pompey had before this time definitely joined^he popular party ; for, on hifc 
return from the Mithridatio-war, the senate refused to ratify the regulations 
which he had made in Asia, and Csesar promised him by and by to compel its 
sanction. After his election, Csesar, Pompey, and Crassus formed an alliance, 
in which they agreed to support one another ; their union rendered them in- 
vincible, and they accordingly had the fate of the republic in their hands. The 
year of Ccesar's consulship is remarkable for several legislative euactmeuts. By 
one of these he compelled the senate to publish the repq^of its proceedings, 
whereby it became amenable to public opinion. The second was an agrarian 
law, by which twenty thousand citizens, aud among them j|fcny of Poiupey'e 
veterans, received assignments of the public land iu Campania. This law was 
carried by force of arms, and in spite of the most violent opposition of the aris- 
tocracy and his colleague Bibulus, who'was so mortified by the 
he withdrew altogether from public life until the expiration of 
By this law C»sar gained the firmest hold on the attachment of the ^Wplc 

i 




L1FJ£ OF CuESAR. 

•;ud liis next measure wa» calculated to secure rh.: favi r of the •. 
men, iu their eagernens to obtain contracts for raising the public rtrenuo in 
the provinces, had olftred larger sums than they could afford, .v.id Otesar now 
prevailed upon the peoplo to relieve theru of one-third 6f their pay men:. After 
tJiis he induced the senate to sanction the regulations of Pompoyin Asia. Toe 
donate had assigned to Cajsar a province from which neither* fame nor gain 
could be derived; but as he had now secured the sdpport .of the people, the 
equites. and Porapey, he prevailed upon the tribune Vatiuius to propose to the 
people that, after the expiration of his consulship, he should receive the ad- 
ministration of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyrieuin for 6ve years. Ti - i pas?, 

cil ; and the locate, of its own accord, added the proviuco of Transalpine 
Gaul, it being" appreheuded that the people would demand it for Csaar. Iu 
order to attach Bompey *s firmly as possible to his cauuo, Ctesir gave hii 
daughter Julia in marriage, nnu h< himself married the daughter of I, 
pnrnius Piso, who was elected consul for tho year B.C. 57. 

The province of Transalpine Haul afforded Cuesar a brilliant opportunity < ; 
displaying his military genius, and of attaching the army to his person ; while 
at the same lime he was not too far from Rome to continue his connection with 
the city, watch the proceedings of bis enemies, and keep his friends actively 
eagAged iu promoting his inter* he must have forseen that, if the aris- 

■-.cy should ever succeed in gaining Pompey over to their side, they would 
not Bcrupl lini] him. After the close of his consulship, he ro- 

mained for some time in (lie oitjr; for although his successors in office were 
attacln (1 to his cause, the praetors Wante i to rescind his regulations ; 1 ut their 
attempts were useless. After quitting ilom;, he lingered for a fen mi 

his Legions iu the neighborhood of the ciry, with the view of suppoiting 
Cl.diua, who was then tribune of the people, and had resolved to br 
the downfall of Cicero. When the latter had withdrawn to rxile, Caesar, about 
.id of April. B.C. 58, set out for Gaul. We need not here give an ii'C'.UQt 
of his campaigns in that country, for they are described by the groal general 
himself. Suffice it to say, that during his administration of tiaul, from B.C. 

o(f|he completely s:i 
the Pyrenees and the Alps, notwithstanding the rep ■ at- 

tempts of the inhabit ike off the Rom ind that this was iho 

irat great ..Js Romanising a region in %hieh, doting the empire, :he 

t»tin language was as commonly spoken as in lt*jla. The ...$e, 

even at this day, is a livi ■ what exl one 

tune prevailed in Gaul. eover, twici <,ci- 

many, and twice invaded Britain, but mad [uests in e r 

It is rem i be received his provinces f r live yea 

riod which would ha n B»C. 64 ; but in B.t his army 

was in winter i'' :i 'BB ' ' had a meeting with Pna . | us in the 

north of Italy, at unvcli it was arranged thai Pompej should have :!)<• c n uU 
ship for the year JLC 6< . rus they ahoid | 

"f Spain .. 

euro for i , 'olotigatiou of b [ration of Gaul foi :. 

■ mas brougli y a bili of 

. ul was now to be continued till 1 i he 

year Wter these io!W arrangements, Julia. the.wife of. ..ere 



t 



t* 



t h 



188 fy LIFE OF CESAR. 

being no longer auy bend between Caesar and Pompey, their friendship began • 
l lo cool, especially on the part of the latter. The death of Crassus in his un- 
cinate campaign against the Parthians, in B. C. 53, left Caesar and Pornpoy , 
•alone at the head of the republic. Ccesar's victories in Gaul daily increased 
bis reputation,- and roused the people's admiration of his exploits ; .while Pom- 
pey, who had once been the greatest man of the state, began to-perceive, with 
feelings of mortification, that Caesar was rising above him in public estimation. 
Hence Pompey took no steps to check the terrible anarchy which prevailed at 
Rome about the end of B. C. 53, and the beginning of B. C. 52, in consequence 
of the murder of Clodius. During these disturbances he hoped to be called 
to the dictatorship; but though he was disappointed in this, his vanity wan 
gratified by being elected sole consul. As this was the doing of the aristoc- 
racy, he was inclined to become reconciled to them. He now also procured 
for himself the prolongation! of his proconsulship of Spain for five years ; but 
as he did. riot yet think it advisable to break with Ccesar, he had at the same 
time a law passed, conferring on C:rsar the privilege of standing for tb/c. con- 
sulship without appearing at Rome in persou. In the mean time, however, . 
Pompey continued to attach himself moro closely to the aristocracy, who, in 
consequence, became bolder and bolder in the display of their hatred towards 
Caesar. In B. C. 51, the consul M. Claudius Marcellus, one of the most vio- 
lent.aristocrats, proposed to send a successor of CYesar to Gaul, beeause the 
pacification of that provin.ee was completed ; and at the same time he made 
anal deprive; Caasar of the privilege which Pompey's influence bad 

recently procured for him. The consuls of the year following, and the ener- 
getic tribune C. Curio, were expected to strike a decisive blow at our hero, 
as they were believed! to be warm supporters of Pompey and the senate; but i 
Caesar's agents, and the liberal bribes which he caused to be distributed among 
the leading men, thwarted the plans o£-the aristocracy, and Curio was com-' 
pletely bought over. As the senate dreaded nothing so much as the election 
' of Caesar to the consulship in his absence, and while he was at the head of his 
army, it was decreed, on the proposal of C. Marcellus, that he should lay do\m 
his command before the 13th of November, B.C. 50 — an unreasonable demand, 
as his proconsulship had legally vto last for another year. Curio, however, in- 
terposed his veto, and the decree was annulled. 

Cces&r, fully convinoed that he could not appear in Rome as a private person 
without exposing his life to imminent danger, in the mean time had inarched 
to Cisalpine Gaul, and was received by all the towns with the greatest enthu- 
siasm. The senate before this had demanded that he should give up two of his 
.legions, alleging that they were wanted for the Parthian war'; and he, uuwil- «jg 
ling to cause irritation by a refusal,' despatched the legions, though he knew 
that, iu all probability, they were intended to serve against himsolf. Some 
time after this, he took up his winter quarters at RavenBk the southernmost 
town of Cisalpine Gaul, and close upon the confines of Italy. Having there 
learned from Curio the real state of affairs, he sent him witfrfc conciliatory let- 
ter to the senate. When Curio arrived at Rome, tho senate could hardly be 
prevailed upon to allow the letter to bo-read ; tind after som% violent discus- 
sion, it was agreed that, unless Caesar should disband his army before a certain 
day, he should be treated as a public enemy. Two tribunes interposed U 
veto, b'vt to no purpose ; and as even their lives were threatened, they^red in 



LIFE OF CjESAR. M .M a 189 



disguise to Casar at Ravenna, calling upon him to pMVct the sacred character 
of the tribuneship. The scuate, entirely relying 'upon Ponipcy, who never 
dreamed of the- possibility " Csesar taking up arms against him, and who fau- 
cisd that it required only his 'word to rouee all Italy to arm;!, commanded the 
consul- to provide for the safety of the republic. War was now declared, and 
the whole management of it entrusted to 1'ompey. But the aristocracy had mis- 
calculated : Pompey, iu Lis self-suriieicucy, had neglected every precaution, and 
lus party was so unpopular, that i! wai scarcely possible to induce any man to 
enrol bis name as w oldier. 

Ctvsar was informed byt^e tribunes of the last decree of the senate, 
he assembled the few troops he had with him, (for b'13 main army was still be- 
| and set cut towards the small river l.ubiccm, which formed the 
ftdary between his province < f Cisalpine Gaul and Italy. Oa its banks he 
hpBH for a while, doubtful as to whether hs should venture upon the uncon- 
stitutional act of advancing : but at length he called out, " The die is cast I" 
and crossed the river. The consideration of his own safety compelled him to 
::ct ashedh.1: tiicrc was no nltcrnative. As he marched southward, all the 
towns threw their gates open to him, and his prog.re.s3 was like an uninterrupt- 
ed triumph. The fear and alarm at Rome became so great, that the senate, 
with Pompey at their head, fled from the city to Capua, and thence to Brun- 
dusium, forgetting in their hurry even to take with them the contents of the 
public treasury. fjsesarmei with no resistance, till he came to Corfmium ; but 
as Pompey did Dpi come to the relief of the town, it surrendered; and 
clemency and. generosity with which the conqueror here, as elsewhere, treated 
his humbled opponents, at once won the attachment and admiration of all. 
Pompey, who was resolved to quit Italy, reached Brundusium' before Caesar, 
0:1 the 17th .if March he embarked for Greece. As Casar had no fleet, he 
unable lo pursue hini ; and he accordingly returned, and determined first 
: ect his arms :. gainst Afranins and retrains, the two legates of Pompey in 
a, who mi naged the administration of the province for him, and had a large 
>.rmy at 1 n !. Leaving H. Antony and tepidus behind to e- 11 

, thejpiffairs <. f Italy. era of his friends to take possession of S 

'ardinia, and Africa, he hastened to Spain. Some of these generals 
unsuccessful ; but their losses were more than counterbalanced by tho advan- 
- which Casar himself had gained. On his way, he found that the towu of 
ubmit to him ; but, without allowing himself to be detained, 
. ho left tw- • siege to the placo, and proceeded to Spain. He 

: met with grca • , aud uusti i «• severe reverses; but in the 

flpd he cti ireius to surreAler : they 

■ rt, anl the t joined those of the conqueror. The subjugati 

' .ys. <):\ his return to Gaul, Ma I • 

ants acy annf' 

g M- sillia, the proposal of M. 

ator This ba 

«^ 1 one of the consul* for B.< 

L'uring 
! is ' * he acted as if he ha 



..' . 



I 



190 I LIFE OF CAESAR. 

knowledged sovereign of the itate, and bad seTeral beneficial laws passed, 
which greatly increased his popularity. In December, B. C. 49, he let oat 
for Brundusium, where his troops were already assembler]. Pompey in the 
mean time had not been idle in Greece; he had collected a large army, and 
great sums of money, and his fleet swayed the Mediterranean. Cassar's fleet, 
on the other hand, was 'so ^rnall, that he could not at once transport his troops, 
across the Adriatic. However, he arrived with a part of th«m safely in Epirus; 
but when he sent back the ships to bring the remainder, thgy were intercepted 
by M. Bibulus, Pouipey's admiral, and thus a number of tne forces were ob- 
liged to remain behind' at Brundusium. Notwithstanding this unfortunate 
circumstance, he forthwith began his operations. He took several towns on 
his road, and hastened to Dyrrhachium, in which city Pompey kept his stores. 
But Pompey reached the p'uee before Ctrsar, and the hostile armies -now ea- 
camped opposite one another. In the mean time Antony succeeded in carry- 
ing Caesar's troops across the Adriatic, though not without the greatest peril 
Pompey avoided a decisive engagement, and Crasar began to blockade him ; 
but the fortifications had scarcely been completed, when the former made an 
attack, and broke througn them. Caesar sustained a considerable loss. His 
army began to suffer from scarcity and sickness ; and having lost all hop/ • of 
succeeding at Dyrrhachium, he ventured upon a step, which in boldness sap- 
paased everything, he had hitherto attempted. He set out for ifheesa.ly, hav- 
ing to pass through countries where he'hrui to fight for every inch of ground, 
while he was pursued by Pomey's army. The conduct of the latter had huh-' 
<?rto been cautious and circumspect ; but he and his friends being flushed with 
their recent victory, resolved to decide the matter by a great blow. Cse^ar 
encamped in the plain of Pharsalus, and when Pompey came up and offered 
oattle, he readily accepted it. Pompey's army was more than double that of 
his enemy, but his soldiers were effeminate nobles and inexperienced 
and the great battle, which was fought on rhe 9th of August, It. C. 48, eud^j 
in the total defeat of Pompey, who fled to Egypt; where he was 
murdered. The news of this victory called forth such enthusiast ie joy 
Rome that Caesar was appointed dictator for a whole year, ^and invested with 
the power of tribune for life ; he was also elected consul for the next five years, 
but this extraordinary distinction he declined, After the battle, he pursued 
Pompey to Egypt, and when he found that he was no mora, his generous sou! 
is said to have been moved to teftrs. Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, completely 
won the conquerors heart, and his attempts "to settle the affairs of "her dis- 
ci kingdom involved him in a war, (commonly called the Alexandrine. | in 
which, fer a time, he was exposed to- the greatest danger; but when his rciaA; 
forcemeats arrived, he succeeded in placing Cleopatra upon the throne, in 
B. C. 47, ho. marched through Syria to Pontes, to ehastis^ > haroace? ■ 
defeated one of his Ugates. The Parthian king was uSrly defeated at tjm 
ijrst encounter, and without, much difficulty. After ^hia victory, he sent to 
Rome trie laconic but' expressive report: "I came, .saw^hnd' conquered !" 
{• l V<ni, vidi, vici >'') Hereupon he returned to Jlorne' where, by the sale of 
the property of Pompey and several oth«r aristocrats, he obtained the meatus 
of rewarding Lis soldiers and friends. For the same purpose Re increase 
number of quaestors, while he also cause'! himself to bo appointed djj|: 
for the next year. * 



n 



If jf 
LIFE pf CESAR. , 191 

After remaining at Rome for a few months, hs i r Africa towards 

Uie end of B. 0. 47 ; for Cato an,d Scipio hnd there eaneete.l a numerous army 
of the Pompeian party, nud threatened to beoome formidable; bnt the battle 
of Thapsus, in April, B. C. -16. decided their fat,e in Africa ; and Cato, who 
ceuld not endure to survive the fall of the republic, put an end to his ewn life 
at Utica. The Pompeian party was now utterly destroyed, and Cmsar was tb« 
undisputed master of the whole of the Roman world. Before his return to 
Some, ever}' one dreaded a repetition of I he horrors committed in the days of 
Marius and Sulla ; but these fears were groundless, for cruelty and revenge 
formed no part of Caesar's character ; he showed a clemency and readiness to 
forgive which filled his enemies with amazement; and did everything in hit- 
power to allay all animosity and party spirit Tho dictatorship was now be- 
stowed ijpon'him for ten years, and the censorship, under the new title of 
praefeeluri morum, for three. In his triumphs which he celebrated over his 
quished enemies, ho took cure not to hurt ■ jg of the Rottaas by 

mentioning Roman citizens as their objeots. When these sol . am' 

their accompanying festivities, were over, he proceed d to innke Beve al vwi J 
salutary legal enactments. Tho.aUost important amo-jghis measures was the 
reform of the calendar, which, through the arbitrar - tnent of the pon 

. had been thrown into such confusion, that at that time it was about three 
Uobths in advance if the natural time. This reform was accomplished in 
B. C. 46, with the assistance of the Alexandrian mathematician Sosifcenei 

' In the mean time the two sons of Poinpey, Cneius and Scxtus, had collected 
the last remnants of their father's. party in Spain,, and being joined by man;. 
of the Spaniards, they resolved to make a last and desperate attempt to re- 
cover what was lost. As soon as Cmsar heard of their movements, he hastened 
to Spain towards the end of B. C. 40. The enemies offered a most desperate 
/. resistance; but the battle of Muuda, which Ca-sar was on the point of losing; 
J and which he gained only by his personal v*lor and iutrepidity, decided the 
jtfetc of his antagonists Cneius was killed, but Sextus made bis escape On 
^Tfckreturn to Rome iu October B. C. 46, Cmsnr celebrated another triumph. 
xCi was received by the senate with the most abject flattery and servility : be 
was honored with the title, of 'Father of his Couutry ." statues I him were 
otected in all the temples; the month of Quintilis, in which he was born, wa- 
henceforth called Julius (July) ; he received the title of Imperator, and the 
dictatorship for life, and the consulship for the next ten years. These and 
other extraordinary distinctions were laterally showered upon him : he, in fact, 
was tho sovereign of the empire. He now began to devise vast scheme 
the benefit of his couutry and his fellow citizens. He increased the number 
M£ the senators, quaestors, aediles, and praetors, which afforded him the means 
of rewarding those friends who had served him in his late struggles. He also 
.•■rfnok or designjeta great number of works of public utility; but few ol 
ia were comjdeteBpis his career was cot short in the midsf ol I 
It is a singular*fact, that. among his numerous tohen D« to show 

that he intended ttlfc-reform the constitution of the reptfblic; but it si i ms he 
was convinced that no reform could restore that of whio!> and srpiril 

departed long since; and eten if ho aimed at reform. ave knerwn 

thatlhc first thing to be done was to establish his ewn power in a nur 
k-gal Inundation. It was perhaps for this reason that he %as not content wit). 



A 






i 



s\ J» 



K 



192 LIFE OF ESAR. 

the sub'tauce of regal power, but was anxious also to have the outward signs 
of royalty, and thereby, as it were, to legalise that which ho possessed. Ai 
attempt was accordingly made by M. Antony to offer him the diadem in Feb- 
ruary B. C. 44 ; but as the people rjfceived the proposal with coolness, Ca?sar 
for the present declined the honor. rifiw much he was' bent upon obtaj 
it, however, became manifest soon after, when two of the .tribunes were sent 
into exile for haying ventured to manifest their disapproval of conferring upo i 
•^v. him the kingly title. 

"""-* One of his great plans was to secure the eastern frontier of the empire by 
war against the Parthians, for which some preparations had already beo 
made. When the Sibylline books were consulted respecting the undertaking 
they were reported to state that the Parthians could be conquered- only by 
king ; and one of Caesar's friends accordingly was to bring forward a proposi. 
in the senate, that Cajsarjout of Italy should be permitted to assume the titk 
of king. But this scheme was frustrated ; for a conspiracy had been forme 
against the life of the dictator at the Tery beginning of the year. It wa-' 
headed by Cassius and Brutus, and upwards of sixty persons were privy to it. 
Their pretext was the restoration of the refg'iblic ; but with the exception o! 
Brutus, there was perhaps not one who was actuated by pure motives ; mar 
of them had been mercifully treated, and promoted to high honors, by hiin 
whom they conspired to murder; and others, such as.Csssius, had no othi 
motive except wounded pride and thwarted ambition. The 15th of Marc ; 
the day on which Caesar was to receive the title of king, was fixed upon by tie 
conspirators as a fit opportunity for carrying their design into effect. When 
Caesar, having been cautioned in vain, entered the senate-house, one of the 
conspirators approached him, as if he were about to ask some favor, and (then 
gave him the first blow. Caesar defended himself manfully until he perceived 
Brutus, whom he loved as a son, among the conspirators ; he then wrapt him- 
self up iu his toga, and sank after receiving twenty three wounds. He die 
in the fifty-sixth year of nis age, B. C. 44. 

Thus did Rome lose th*»only map who could hare restored peace and haj 
piness^to the state, and under wuose mild sway she might have forgotten tl 
woes she had been suffering'for the last fifty years. Those who pretended to 
restore freedom, only plunged the commonwealth into still greater miserii 
than those from which she had emerged through the victories of Cajsar ; uKftil, 
ultimately, it was found preferable to' enjoy peace, and the security of life and 
property, under one ruler, than to plape all that is dear to man in perpetual 
jeopardy. As a general, Caesar had from the first displayed all the qualities 
of a great military genius ;' and though, in the province of Gaul, he sacrificed 
the lives of thousands of barbarians without remorse,' yet throughout his eivil 
wars he showed a generosity and mildness towards his vanquished opponents 
which filled those who had seen the fearful days of Msjjns and Sulla with ad- 
miration and affection. For the display of his statesmanship he had litt' 
time ; but what he did, is enough to show what he would have accomplishei 
if he had been permitted to carry out his plans. ' * f 

Perhaps the most surprising circumstance in Caesar's career, is the fact tha 
notwithstanding his extraordinary activity ever after his entering upon publi 
life, he found leisure to cultivate the arts and literature, and to compose works 
which, like those of Cicero, gave the.literary tone and character to thafcperiod, 



W " 



* 




LIFE fP CJBS.MN 193 

ami which to this Jay are ranked among the fine«t specimens of ancient litera-. 
t urt-. Unfortunately, the greater number of them are lost, ami only a few is- 
olated passages remain, whicfa are occasionally quoted by later writers. He 
was" abo one of the first orators of hirfAge, and we possets a long catalogue ol 
Bubjette on which ho spoke iu public. But it was not only the history ami 
politics of his own time which engaged hie atteution : there was nothing capa- 
ble of furnishing materials for the human mind to reflect upon, which did not 
at one time or another occupy him : ami among his many works, there was one 
even on grammar, which is often quoted as an authority by the later gramma- 
rians of Home. In short, Ccesar must be pronounced to have been a. universal 
genius : he was great not only as a general, bat as a statesman, a lawgiver, a 
jurist, an orator, a poet, an historian, a scholar, a mathematician, and an ar- 
chitect. 

The existing productions of Crcsar are his memoirs of the Gallic and Civil 
wars, under the title of Commtntarii — that is, diaries or journals. Theirstyle 
is distinguished for its noble simplicity, transparent clearness and precision, 
:is wvll as perfect freedom from all rhetorical pomp. They are, in fact, speci- 
mens of what the language of conversation among men of education and talent 
was iu those times ; and the few peculiarities and irregularities which their 
style presents are, on the whole, nothing but what may be termed conversa- 
tional licences, showing a total absence of everything studied and formal. The 
substance of these works -was probably written down during the campaigns 
themselves, and they were afterwards revised in the time which their autbor 
spent in winter quarters. The Commentarii of the Gallic war contain the his- 
tory of the first seven years of his campaigns, in seven books: an eighth is 
commonly added, which is believed to be the composition of his friend, A. Hir- 
tius. The history of the Civil war between C;rsar and Pompey, in three books, 
contains the history from Caesar's crossing the Rubicon down to his arrival in 
■gypt, after the battlo of Pharsalus. In the common editions of Crrsar's works, 
besides the eighth book on the Gallic war, r there U»appended a book on the 
Alexandrine, and another on the African war, both probably productions of A- 
Ilirtius; and lastly, a curious account of Cesar's War in Spain against the sons 
of Pompey, the author of which is utterly, unknown, and seems to have been a 
peiaon of no education. The only reason why these productions are usually 
j rinud^together seems to be, that they contain accounts of the successive wars 
in which the great general was engaged. The genuine productions of Ca;sar, 
however, consist, as already stated, of no more than the seven books on the 
Gallic, and the three on the Civil war. 
Q 



<• 



i 



♦v i , 



I 









'" l2^2 



1 






VOCABULARY. 



EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



» 



i m I 

abt ablative. 

i 
ate v ..acensatiYp. 

adj :. adjective, * 

adverb. 

•oty ..conjunct ioJj. , • 

comp comparative. 

dai dative. 

dtf. defective. 

dt.m iIomonstnvtiTf. 

dtp deponent. 

dim diminutive. 

/ feminine. 

H'j figurative. 

Or. Bingham's Latin Oram mar. 



j'ri-q frequentative. 

fan genitive* 

■>'mp impersonal. 

ine inceptive. 

ind indeclinable. 

. nf, infinitive. 

. interjection 

intransitive 

irr irregular. 

i masculine. 

n neuter. 

film numeral. 

ot>s obsolete.. 

pafrt participle. 



;><t.\- pasave. 

pi plur.il. 

prep preposition. 

prt I proteritiv* 

pro pron"in. 

prop propcrlv. 

rcl relative 

W supply. 

ting lingular. 

mbj .subjunctive. 

n»Oj.. i ..._...snb?t.'tnt:yv. 

stip .superlative. 

tr transitiru. 



Roman lott >ra n-lt'n Arabic numeral* refer to the book* atul chapters .it t!ie Commentai-ion 
tke Oallic V, - 



V. a:i nliliii.-Tiatinn t -.; Anlus. A. d. stand 
' for ante ditm ; Or. ?-"4. 5. 

V. £h. Aba, prep, with itbl. I iq used 
• els an J 
c<wi.so:i. mts; ahs, before c, «, an.l t. (Of place,) 
from; (secondarily) at, on. A'i Scquanit, on 
uhn side of the Serjuan', from the direction of 
nans. .1 dc.rlro cvrnu, on the right 
wing. Ab latere, on the flunk. (Of time,) after. 
[Of distance,) off ; aduobun mSilbus passuu7,i, 
two miles off. (With the abl. of the Bg< 
;Of ths'source,) in conscanen •■ I 
• AUDI ITS, u, urn, pnrwtfrmn 
ABDO, . '. .liili' ditiJV, tr.. 
away; to removay iu ru ilniout, 

bide. I 

.'.".I)' i 0, ore, j i. , I . to car- 

■Wor lead off or awa 



0. nb 



a, tun. fut. act part., r.f alr- 



utAan;, 
B^UIUJ 



Ar.li:>;, etis, f., a fir-tree. 

AIM KCrfS, a, nm, part., from 

ABJICM, ore, jcci, jectnm, tr., ab-jacte, to 
throw away; to throw or oast io a distance. 
Tragulum intra munitiovrs. Tela at vat 
throw down; bo abjicere arma. 

ABJUNCTUS, a, nm, part., from 

ABJUNGO, ere, jnnxi, junrtum, tr., -<u 
Jungo, to unyoke, reniovo, separate. 

.\i:i;iriO,">ere, ripui. ropuim, tr.. ab-rnpio. 
. natch or drag Violontly ai ay: Mrongur 
than abduco. 

Ai:s. Bee A. 

ABSC7D0, ere, cidi, e/sui.i, tr., rihs-cssdo. 
(Jr. JJ24, R; to cut off or away with a rharp in- 
strument. 

;• ofi*. 

of turn ; 

AI'.SIMIIAa, e, adj., al>-- mliko 

ca«** 

to ttand, r. lu| 



m 



196 



flfc^KO— ' ADAUGEO. 



part from a' pines : to-loave off or dexNf funm 
anything. 'y' 

ABSTIXEO, <re, ui. teniuni. tr...ajfe-teneo, 
i > hold'off or back. Abstincre se, or t,xbstinere 
alone, to restrain one's self from, f'offa$n from. 

ABSTRACTUS, a. urn, paul 

ABSTRAHO, ere, traxi, tractum, (jr., nbs- 
traho, to draw or pull away: drag away, tako 
sway by force. 

ABSUM, abesse, abfni, or afni, irr. intr., ab- 
Bum, to 1 be absent, distant, remote ; to keep or 
stand aloof, take no part in. Abtssf, alien i ,or 
aliquo, to be Qf no service to Que; to fail, be 
wanting. Multum ahe.it quin faciei, §193, Ex. 
he is far from doing ; longius alert guin facial., 
be is farther from doing. t 

ABUXDO, are, avi, intr., nb-nriilo, unda, to 
rise in waves, to overflow, abound, be plenti- 
fully supplied with. Gr. ?AC0. 

AC, conj., same as atque. 

ACC.EDO, ere, cessi, cessum, (in' r., always) in 
Caesar,) ad-cedo, to draw near to, approach; 
to arrive at; to bo added to, joined, annoxed.. 
Acccdebat, imp., there was added, there was thitt 
also. Accesstim est, J114, 5, an approach wan 
made. 

ACCELEEO, are, avi, atum, tr. and int., ad, 
aadedero, to be swift, to hasten, make hast,e 
to or towards a place, accelerate. 

ACCEPTJJS, a, urn, part, ami adj., accipio, • 
received, accepted ; acceptable, pleasing, agree- 
able. 

ACCIDO; ore, cidi, intr., ad-cado, to fall 
down upon; (of weapons.) to fall upon, strike, 
hit. To conic (suddenly), hence, to happen, be- 
fall 1 , — especially of calamities. Accidit, imp., it 
happens — generally of unfortukate events, 
while contingit is used of fortun&troccurrences. 

ACC/DO, ere, ci'di, ct'sum, tr*, ad-ca:do, £224, 
K! to cut into, cut at, begin tojfljut; to cut 
down, to fell. 

ACCIPIO, ere, e?pi, coptum, tr., an-capio, 
to take to one's self, accep* receivo, [admit; to 
take into one's possession, get, acquire, obtain — 
anything gond or bad; to tako (an insult); 
hf.net, to bear, enduro, suffer. To tako in — with 
the mind; to hear, lparn, understand; to accept 
of, approve. 

ACCf,7VIS, e, adj., ad-ch'vus. for olhiivus, 
clinOj sloping upward, rising, ascending, up- 
hill, steep. 

ACCLIVITAS, tntis, t, acclivis, ascent, steep- 
ness, slope or inclination upward. 

ACCO, onis, in. Acco, a chief of the Gauls; 
VI, 4 and 44. 

ACCOMMODJTUS, a, urn, part, -and adj.; 
iitted, suitable, adapted to; from 

ACCOMMODO, are, avi, atum, tr., ad and 
commodo, con-modus, to adapt, adjust, accom- 
te, fit. 
ACCURATE, adv.. accurals, exact: ai'- 



eura, wjth caro, exactly; carefully, attentively. 

ACCURRO, ere, curri seldom cueurri. curaUui. 
iutr., ad-curro, Or. J230, 3, to run 1 -. hasten 
to, run. 

ACCUSATUS, a. um. part., from 

ACCt'SO, are, avi. atum, tr., ad-rau--;t. to 
call to account — either privately or 'publicly : 
to blamo, reproach, complain of, accus ;, arraign? 
impeach, find fault with, censure. 
; ACERBE, adv., acerbus, sharply, bitterly. 
severely. Acerbe ftrrt. to feel keenly, to tak« 
ill. 

ACERBITAS, tatis. f., aearbu*. the fliarth" 
taste of fruits; skarpnoss, bitterness, souYijesft. 
Obj. sorrow, affliction; Subj. harshness, urrtdre.J 
ness, austerity. • * ' • ' - j 

ACERBUS, a, .um, adj.,— root'ef,' whence 
aci'cs, acus, (ft., — sharp or harsh, to tho taste. 
unripe, bitter, sour. Fig. savno, disagreeable, 
hard. I ... 

ACERRIME, Seo Acritw. 
■ ACERVUS, i. m., — root ar, whc:i<c ai>ies, atus. 
acufu dv., — a pointed heap, the.ii,, a heap of any 
sort) a pile. 

ACIES, ei, f.. root ac, whence acus, ttcu/i, 
accrvus, acerbus, dc, — a slfarp point or edjre; 
Choline of sight, the eyo; a lino of s;.: 
drawn up in battle array, then, a fight, action 
In acie, in lino of battle, also, in fight. Aei< 
instructa, tho line having been formed. Acie.' 
oculofurh, the keenness, Hash of the eyes. 

ACQUIRE, ere, quisivi, quisitum, tr., ad- 
qurero, to add to, acquire, get, obtain, procure 
gain. 

ACRITER, acer, sharp, stem ar'. which, hofl 
ever, is short, while the penult of acer is lonl 
whence some derivo it from ardeo, — viob ntly 
vehemently, strongly > keenly, sharp!*, vigoi 
ously, eagerly, courageously, fiercely. 

ACTUARIUS, a, um, adj., (ago.) easily im 
polled or driven. JS'avis actuarin, a swift sailei 

ACTUS, a, um, part, of ago. 

ACt'TUS, a, um, part, and adj. Aouo, t 
sharpen, root ac,— pointed, sharpened artificial 
ly; whilo accr tnoaus sharp naturally. 

AD, prep, with ace., to, unto, at; by, on, no.u 
among, towards, up £o, as far as, for, on ai 
of. in respect of, as to, according to, against, a. 
tor, with. JEsse ad exercitum, to be with th 
army. (With numerals,) about, up to; in which 
qase it is s.ometimesijfclverbial. 
ADACTUS, a, mriPpart., adigo. 
ADJEQU^USi, a-, um, part., from 
AKEQV^V are, avi", atum, tr. and intr., ad 
;eqi;o, in make equal, to equal. Jdvsquar'r 
agpffem mtsntbi*, fo make the ni^und at 
as the walls. ' % 

.MiAMO. ei * a-rt, atum,' tr., ail-amo, t< 
quire a liking for, fallln love with, love; 

ADAUGEO, ere, xi^ctum, tr., addBg 1 
augment, introale, more than make up. 









ADCANTUANNUSWDORIOR 






ADCANTUANN'US, i. ox. I Adcantnoruras, a 
ohiefofth^ Sotiates: III, 22. 

ADDICO, ere, xi, ctum, tr., ad-dic •, 
adjudge, mal. - .1. mii render; 

•, ..:-■. c rodemn, iIooid ; ft) I Q 

AJDD1TUS, a, urn, port.,, 

ADDO, ere, didi, ditum, tr., ad-do, ( i put to. 
to a 1.1, join. /'/((/ ■ ■■. to a<!<i to, 

to J . 1 1 1 Or pla 

tust be hi. d< . 

AKDUCTl S, a. um, p .i t., from 
•*' '4MkoCl\'c;reVx.i. ctum, t; ., 

'>; to 

I - nipt, induce, 

adimo. 

: a de- 
Mi ' ,;iK !i, BO vi i ; 
i-iO**- l» 
BO, in. ii. numi 

. arrive 
at — in ■ 

. i. um, pai !.. 
X.DEQ1 i r» i, at ;\ i, ;':.: i. 
. fflfea), equus. to ride up to or near to. 
AV\ ! ! ui, it um, tr., 

: . take. adu. ii ia, Call for, 

invito. 

.\!>H0i:Ti>;;. ari, atus Bum, dep. tr.. 

hing.) 
Aiiill'C. ail\ .. ad-buc, hie, until now, hith- 
. yet. 
. gi, Actum, tr., a I 

< drive, 
compjH to ■: ■ 'i I'limu •. :i:iu 

■ 

•ill : 

naji v form. 

AD! . I 

•tain. 

■.. 






' 



I-iJti 






IV" from 







!'.»: 



VDBaTNCTUS. a. ur.i. part., from 

ADjB&GO, ere. xi. ctum, tr., ad-jungo, to add 
join totf annex, unite. 

iii!;, oris, in., adjuvo, an aider, abet- 
tor, supporter, helper, assistant. 

AD.ttUYO. are, juvi. jnilum, tr., ad-jir 

r. Multum, (gl->0. 
ii ailjumrr, to be of great assb 
contribute greatly. Rem protlinaiqm oefyuvan . 
to increa e the tendency of the thing. 

ADMATtfRO, are, avi, atuni. t; . 
tii mature, ripen, bring to complete maturity. 

ADMINISTER, (ri. in., ad-mini 
ant, mat t, ant, abettor, 

helper. 

ADMINISPBATUS, a, um, p rt., from 

ADM! I intr., 

ad-mini 

to administer, man:' vern. 

regulati irform. 

All HI illi 

ter tiie government. 

ADMIRAN1 .. ad- 

miror, to • lerful. 

AIiMIKATl'S. a. um, part., 

I v., ad-miror. 
to wvndor, wonder at tho greatness or sublimi- 

. 
ADMISSUS, a, um, part., sent forward; of 
. committed : !>•: loose, pusbi 
red on. lirfmi'sso • 

ADM!'. I m, tr., ad-uiitto, V 

or onward; t • admit— to an aval: 
tl ; j 
t 
■ 

• : . i 

very, \o%Tnucli, ' \< •■Ho i. . II 
about. fully> quite. a> ma: > 

', ere, ui, itum. tr.. 
. . , ml : I ' 

. 
', ;>• i| ml subs. in. and f. 

an : ■ J . man or w*- 

WUh a proper 

i . • _ ■ . ■■ 

B :.' . 

S ! ! '. . 

• 'il'd at tho 

1. whii h 1 | u) ' irtictb or f.T- 

!. vi, ultiiLi. mil.. aiMtoi- 

■ \ 



:93 



■ 



ADORTUS— AFFINGO. 



vade. To/strive, try, undortake. To do some- 
thing difficult ; to begin. 
ADORTUS, a, um, part., adorior. 
ADSCISCO. See Aseisco. 
ADSPECTF-. Si e Aspectusf. 
ADSt'M. adesso, adfui, irr. iutr., ad-9um, to 
■be present, at hand or near ; to aid, Btand by, 
assist. 

ADUATUCA, £e, f. Aduatucn, a fortress in 
the country of the Eburones : VI, 02. 

ADUATUCI, orum, m., the Aduatuei, a Bel- 
gian tribe: II. 4. 

ADVEXTITS, us, m., advenio, to come to ; ar- 
rival, coming to. approach. 

ADVERSARIES, a, um, adj., striding oppo- 
site. In a hostile sense, an eneraj", from 

ADvETtSUS, a um, part, and adj., adverto, 
opposite, over against, fronting, in front; ad- 
verse, hostile, unfavorable, opposing. Adversum 
o.j, turned towards the enemy. Adversoflumine, 
up Or against the stream. lies adversse, adver- 
sity, calamities^ misfortunes. 

ADVERSUS, adv. and prop, with ace, adver- 
to, against, in front of, opposito to, facing, to- 
wards. 

ADVERTO, ere, ti, sum, tr., ad-wrto, to turn 
to, or towards. Advcrtere animurn, or awfonitm 
advertere — by ecthlipsis amiinadvertere — to ap- 
ply onc"s thoughts to, observe, perceive, under- 
stand. 

ADVOCATDS, a, um, part., from 
ADVOCO, are, avi, atum, tr., ad-voco, to tall, 
call to, eumni'ii. 

ADVOLO, are, avi, atum, intr., — ad-volo, 
l fly-r-io fly to or towards ; to run to, rush, 
lias ten to. 
• ^DIFICIUM, i, n., a building, from 

iEDIFICO, are, avi, atum, tr., — sedes, a house, 
and facxo, — to build ; erect or rear a building ; 
to construct. 

JEDtTUS, a, um, adj. iEduan, of or belonging 
to tho iEdui. PI. iEdui, orum. The iEduans, 
a people of Celtic Gaul, whose country lay be- 
tween the Loire and the Saone: 1,10. 

JEGER, gra, grum, adj., faint, weak, sick. 
iEGKE, segrius, segerrimbj adv. a?ger, hardly, 
scarcely, with difficulty. 

2EMILIUS, i, m. iEmilius, a Roman gentile 
name. L. JEmilius, a decurion in the Gallic 
cavalry of Cesar's army in Gaul : I, 2, 3. 

2EQTJALITER, adv.,— sequalis, sequus, equal 
—equally, Uniformly. 
.35QU.1TUS, a, um, part., aequo. 
JEQUIXOCTIUM, i, n.,— mquus and nox— the 
equinox, the time at which the days and nights 
are equal. 

.HQUITAS, atis, f., fsquus'- equality. Fig. 
equity, impartiality; justice, moderation. An- 
imi equilas, equanimity, tranquillity of mind, 
contentment. 

iEQUO, are, avi, atum, tr.. to level, to make 



smooth; to equal; to make equal: from 

iEQL'US, a, um, adj., level, smooth, plain 
equal, like. Locus mquus, a lovel place; also, 
an advantageous or favorablo position or place. 
Fig. just, equitabla, fair, reasonable, right. 
imo, pationtly, with equanimity, will- 
ingly. 

iERARIUS, a, um, adj., ajs, relating to cop- 
per, copper. 

2ES, aris, n., copper, bronze; anything made 
of copper or bronzo; money, coin. AZsalitnum, 
money owed to another, a debt. 

2ESTAS, atis f., summer." 

JESTIJIATIO, oms,.f. avtimo. an estimating, 
a valuing; an-.' estimate or valuation; price, 
value. 

/E8TIMQ, are, avi, atum, tr., res, to estimate, 
value," appraise, esteem, rate, regard. To think, 
ho] 1, judge, determine, believe. Litem ustimarc, 
mate the damages, estimate the amount 
of an injury. Levi momenio xslimare, to esti- 
mate lightly. 

JEST/VUS, a. um, ailj., ajstas, summer, re- 
lating tn summer. 

^STUARIUM, i, n., restus, a creek or arm 
oftheseain which the tides obb and il'.w, a 
frith, an estuary. 

■ESTU3, us, m., an undulating, heaving mo- 
tion, the ebbing and flowing of the tide, the 
tide; undulating motion of air from boat; heat. 

iETAS, atis, f, —for a:vitas from eevum, att 
age,— age, time of life. 

iETEENUS, a, um, adj.,— for scvi,tei;:'. 
ffivum, an age,— eternal, everlasting; durable, 
lasting, permanent. 

iET'OLI, orum, m., the inhabitants o 
iEtolians. 

iETOLIA, m, f., a country of Greece lying 
upon the north side of the Corinthian gulf. 

AFFECTUS, a. um, part., afficio. 

AFFEEO, aflerre, attuli, alia turn, irr. tr.. 
ad-fero, Gr. §111 } to bring to; to take, bring, 
carry — of portable tilings, while adduce refers 
to men, animals, R>. To impart, gore, bring 
'forward; to produce, canae, occasion; to assert, 
allege. Afferre furhi, to announce, feport. 

AFFICIO, ere, eci, eetum, tr., ad-facio, to 
ni'ive, afTect, influence. With an ablative it it 
often translates by a verb resembling the uoua 
in sense; za,afficcrejpplici", to punish, D, 
lore affici, to be affected with grief, to bo griev- 
ed, afflicted. Ajjicerc Iktitia, to delight, please. 
— maxima lictitia, to .might very greatlj 
cere beneficio, to bestow kindness on. Ajjici 
benjtfici", to receive a favor. 

jSK^GO, erojfci, xum, tr.J ad«figo, to fix, t . 
fix'or fasten to, affix, attach to, annex, join. 

AFJTNGO, ere, iuxi,'Sctum, tr.,'ad-i}i]go, t 
form, fashion, make a thing as an appendage to 
another; to add something false, devise iuad- 
ditujp ; to attach, jmpute. 



AFflNITAS— ALIftUlS. 




199 



AFFINITAS, atis. f.. afftnis, ad-Aais) 
the boundaries joining, nearness, :i.Ti;- ; . 
oeetion, alliance by marriage Q>njui 
&nitate, allied by uiai 

A1T1KMATI0, ouis, f.. affirms, a<i 
(firmation, declaration | 
portion. 

AFFIXUS. a, urn, part, afl 

(, aro, avi, atum, tr fti i . 
hatter, dun 
jur.'. 

AJFFLTCTUS, a, pm, part., from 

AFFLIGQ, 
throw or dash violently against anythin 
ter; to throw to the grbu ; 
throw : to hai injure 

hurt. 

\ , I .■'•■':.'. : 

HC1 8, a, um 

the piwim f Afric > was louthv 

AFl l • iswn. 

AQ-ENDIC1 M, i, n. Ag< ndicu 
Celtic I ipital "f ii.r .• 

think, Pens : VI, -14. 
i, m.. a fi.-M. tdj a tcr- 

mntry ; S ■ .'.• 
atry, Uio bare soil. Regie 
ur n.ii of bonntry. 

A.UG ad-gero, a heap or pile of 

■nythij wood, < tr.; a 

ui'. an!. 

■! i'ii ; ; isod in making a 

.m. dep. tr., . 
: r the ptirpi 

• sense, 

attempt, • 

IlEOO, .ir.', avi, atum, 

leel : to 

Unite, :: •. tllllip:. 

I 

AOITAT1 8, .i. am, pari 

um, tr. freq, 

. 

.4 '< in'. 

■ 

V 

. ■ '■' i urn 

inert, tl. i. 

ft» 'i,i 



discouAe with; to hold intero 

, Affitur, imp., they act, conduct them- 
selves. Agtrc cuniculum, t > run, extend. To 

B, conduct, direct, carry on; to pi 
contrive, take tneasui 

i i live, 

vineas or tur rr.s, to push' forward 

■ war. 

[CULT! \w. . ■• . dtivation 

round, tilla ; .Mure. 

Al.\. 

pirits, ready, /..live. 
; cheerful, joyful ; fl< ea The 

loubl in! ; pern 
or from ardeo, arcer, nicer, 

1 1 \cuiTAS, atis, f., alacer, prom] 
eagerness, ardor, spirit, liveliness) briskness 
alacrity. 

Al ARIUS, a, Dm, adj., ala, a wing, thi 
o£au army; of or portaining to the win 
army, (which were . 

ry troops.) Al .. auxiliariei, 

■ lj., white. 
'. . i 

vynian forest, priil>ably tli 
AI.KSIA, 83, i'.. iniw Alise, a city 
dubii in CelticOiuil: VII, OS. f 

ALIAS, ilv., al ns, in another way, alter an- 
othcr fashion, at another tinn 
Alias— e '. i u« 

tluwfr-at another. 

A U F.N A i : ... estranged, i 

. :r., .•ili'iiii-i. ■ . 

a phi- .ii another, !■■ m ike > I 
alienat 
Al.l 

■ i tlier 

: ■ ■ : 

til. 11 i 

. • ■ ■ 

,i. ..ii utrei 
ALU . ius, to 

lullilc. 

ILIQIJANDO, adv., Lliu 

BtU il i v ; at 

- 



>m alijlki, ; 



rj 



gftf 



ALIQUOT— ANCEPi 






know v. ing,onc. .' liquid novi, some- 

thing new. Aliquid novi consulii, some new 

ALIQUOT, pi. inil., Gr. (191, alius- quut, somey 
several, Bomc certain, a few, not many. 

AL1TBU, adv., alius, in a different way or 
manner, otherwise; in any. other way, else. 
Miter ac. otherwise than, differently from what. 

ALIUS, ;;. lid, adj., Gr. £58, Rem. 1; another, 
ther. Alius — alius, one — another. 
Alii — alii, soma — ithers. Alius, alia — axusa- 
illata, one offering, one reason an 1 anotl 
other. Alius at in ?z nave, one from one, an- 
other from another. Alius atqueov at, 
than, different from. Alia ratiom ih any other 
manner. Quid ilindf What other? what 
else-? It is used in enumerations, (1,1.) and 
a i; as, unus, alius, t'Ttius: in this 

! 

ALL-JTUo, a, nin, part., affero. 

ALLEGO, ere, egi, ectum, tr, ad-lego, to 
for one's sell, elect to any thing. 

ALLICIO, ere, exi, ectum, tiv, ad-lacio, obt., 
; i allure, to attract, invite, allure, entice, decoy. 

ALL/SUS, a, urn, part., allido. 

ALLOUUOX, ogis, m„ (ace. sing., a or em., 

I] — .; pi. Allobroges, am, 

the AUobroges. The AUobroges inhabited the 

country near the junction oftheSaone and the 

J£hone; J, 6. 

ALO, ere, alui, aiituiu and altum, tr.; to 
h, cherish, facd, support, keep, maintain; 
strengthen; to cherish, promote 
the prosperity of. 

ALPES, ium, f., the Alps, lofty mountains 
ihg Italy from France and Germany: 
Til. 1. 

ALTER, era, erum, adj., Gr. §5f>; one of tho 
two, the other; the pecoudj Gr. £05; another; 
different. Alter — alU r, the one — the other, the 
former — the latter. Altcri — ulteri, the one par- 
ty — the ol ii - - . 

ALTERNUS, a, um, adj., altsr, ouo after an- 
other, by turns, interchangeable, mutual, recip- 
rocal, alternate. 

ALTlTf'DO, inis, f., altns, highness, loftiness, 
height; depth. In aUitudincm, in height or 
depth. 

ALTUS, a, um, adj., alo, grown great by 
nourishing; hence high, tall, lofty. (Of perpen- 
dicular extent downwards) deep 

ALTUM, i, n., tho high sea, tho deep, I 
the main Bea. 

ALf'TA, ae, i'., originally an adj.,' s'c pollis, 
alwrneu, alum, a kind of soft leather prepared 
with alum. 

AMBACTI, orum, m., (a Celtic word.) the 
vassals or dependents of the Gallic knights: 
VI, 15. 

AMBARRI, orum, m., the JEdui Ambarri, a 
people of Celtic Gaul whose territory was near 



the junction of tho Saone and Rhone: I, 11. 

AMP.KKl, orum, m., the Ambiani, a people 
of Belgic Gaul whose principal city was Sam- 
arobriva, now Amiens : II, 4. 

AMUT1L1RI, orum, m., a peoplo of Celtic , 
(lau! belonging to the Armoric tribes : YII. 75. 

AMBILL4TE, orum, m., a people of . 
Gaul. 

AMBIORIX, igis, m. Ambiorix, a king of 
one 1 half of the Etrarones: V, 24. 

AMBIVABETI, orum, m., the Ambivareti, 
a people of Gaul : VII, 75. 

AMBIVAR/TRorum, ni., a per- ' oi 
Gaul, whose counjry was beyond t!/ Meuse, in 
the region of the pue"sent ISreda : I ►', '.). 

AMBO, ac, o, adj.rGr. |o4, Hem. 1; both. 

AMENTIA, ae, f., amens, a-mens, madness, 
insanity, folly, absurdity. 

JTUM, i, n, a strap cr thong attached 
to javelins and ether m i.eam 

of which they wore thrown with greater force. 

AMICITIA, ae, '-., amicus, frifendship, an al- 
liance, league of friendship. 

AMICUS, a, um, adj., amo,, friendiy; as a 
noun, friend, ally. 

AMISSUS, a, um, part., from 

AMITTO, ere, j'si, issum, tr., a-ia 
away, dismiss, let go; to lose — through mistake 
or accident, while p&rdere is to lose by one's 
own fault, throw away needlessly. 

AMOR, oris, in., atno, love, desire, affection. 

AMPLE, adv., ampins, amplins, ampftssime ; 
amply, largely, highly. 

AMPLIl'ICATUS, a, lim, part.^ from 

AMPLIFlCO, are, avi, aiuin, tr., 
facio, to make great, to enlarge, amplify, aug- 
ment, inc:case, improve, enhance. 

AMP LIOR, us, adj., comp. of Ampins. 

AMPLITUDO, inis, L, amplus, greatness, 
largeness, magnitude, extent, bulk, size-. Fij. 
greatness, dignity, distinction. 

AMPLIUsS, adv., comp. of ample, Gr. l\&5. 
Rem, 4; mote, further, 1 ; iiger; besides. 

AMPLUS, a, um, adj., (root ami),) large, spa- "* 
cious, ample,' great, extensive. Fig. splendid^ 
illustrious, maguiticent, die Am- . 

pli tr, largte greater, more abundant, nioro 
Amplhsimits, greatest, very great, spl< 
distinguished or illustrious. 

AN", conj.,in tho*Bcond part of a double ques- 
tion, or- in iattirect^uestions, Whetlur; in di- 
r,ect questions, like other interrogative parti- 
cles, it is not translated^ Gr. §214, Rem. 2. 
An— an, wjiethor-^ori Ne—an—an, whether— 
or— or. '- 

ANER^sClUTn, %$j th " Anertes, a nation ' 
borderingalpon the ljacians : VI, 25. 

ANCAL/'i'liS. ium, m.. the Aucalitcs, a peo- 
ple of Britain, whosSsituati >n is uncertain: 
V, 21. 

ANCEPS, ipitis, alj., am, around— caput, 

-$ 



. 



ANCORA 



—at* 



LtCO. 



201 



having two heads: doable: uncertain? doubt- 
t'nl; dangerous. 

ANd >i; A. ae. f.. an anchor. Incncoris, at 
anchor. Jarrre ancoras, to cast er drop anchor. 
SCuttdllere ancoras, to weigh anchor., 

ANDKS. ium. in., the Aml--i.ii people of Cel- 

nntry bordere 1 upon the 

Loire: II, 85. 

A \ FRACTCS ..'■ Amfrnctus, ns, m., am-fran- 

- turning or winding of a wax, a winding 

or bending; a circuit, cro 'v. bonav 

ANGWLUS, i, m., a ' draw t.-^ctli- 

n: an angle, corner, iich k. 

!v.. an gust us, 
itraitly, closely, oft) i 
liKctly, in a ( "«' space. / i 

i 1 1 u I y . fi ■ ■ ■ ■ 

.- |ly. 
AWUSTiA.ac. f.. narrowness, stiaitj 

place, defile; a difficulty, perplexity, 
i, Straits; it i.n inosl frequently i 
ural. 
A M.i , to draw to- 

gother; strait, narrow, closo, c mfined, limited; 
short, liric!. lies in angusto tH, thins,-' 
a state of difficulty i r danger, ttlo condition is 
perilous. Fig., scanty, sparing Montcs an- 

. ie sea: 

I M A, ae, f.. air in wotii n, a bi - 
wind. Air inhaled, 1 ••■:•.;.: life; Ehe loul, 
iind. 
AMMADYl'.RSI'S. a. um, fart., from 
v \ I M Ali YKRTn. cro. ti. -urn, tr., aninium- 
Kd— ve'rto, to turn the niiirl toj to take heed, 
• fcUond t ., oIh 
elder, know. To take e, hence 

up., ani- 
utadverii 
AM'-: 
Miimal. 

AMP' • rindpk'i 

_;n, in- 

(t-ntion, ;ard, feeling; 

'i friendly 

ment. 

./. "fa year, a 

I 

- 

.. 

.. . .-iniifLu. 
\ n - #W. 

V N T i 

i, , n 



i- omitted, it becomes an tslverb. 

ANTKA. advAinte-ca, ace. pi. of is, before, 
aforetime, formerly, heretofore, 'previously. 

ANTKHKi i. ; i US, i. m. Antebrogius, un am- 
bassador sent from the Rem! to Caesar-; 11, 8 

ANtECEDO, cro. cssi. essum, tr. andfntr., 
ante cedo, to go before, precede, take the lead: 
to surpass, outdo, exceed, excel. 

ANTECURSOBi) erut, m., anto-cursfrr, enrro, 
a forerunner, pioneer; an advanced guard. 

ANTEFERO, ferre, tuli. latum, in. tr. ante- 
feroj bo carry or hear before j l " S( ' 1 before, 
• 

ANTENNA, Ie, f., thesall-yardv. 

ANTBl'ONO, ere. sui, si tutu. tr.. aute-pono, 
to place befo7e, prefer. 

AXTj-'.YKKTo, er<» ti, sum, tr., ante-veit... 

inticlpata : to plapc bi tors, 
prefer. 

ANTIQUJTUS, adv, anti'quus, of old, an- 
ciently, lormerly. 

AXT/yiTS, a, urn, adj.— ante, old, ofpnsed 
ont, i -I L eg Btan lin :. antique ; 

A\ I ISTI1 S, i. m., se,o Reginus. 

ANTONIUS, i, m., (Marcus,) Mark Antony, 
a distinguished Roman general, t lie friend of 

. and a monilier both <4 the first an 
bud triumvirate!, : VII. bl. 

Al'KUIO, ire, erui, ertum, tr.. ad-pario, to 
open or Bet open ; to i 

Al'KRTK, adv.. apcrtns, openly, clearly, man- 
ifestly. 

Al'KRTUS, a. um. part, and adj., aperio, open, 

free from w Is; uncovered, unprotected, cx- 

poscd, naked. Latere aperio or ab latere aperio, 
on the uaprotected Hank. Aperlumr litus, an 
opi ii Bhore, i.e. ha> ii ;ions. 

APOLLO, inis, in. Apollo, the god of music, 

poetry, '■ >1 .Inpiter and ! 

twinbn ia: VI, 1". 

I 
AI'i'A RO, are, a\ i, atuni, tr„ ad-paro, topn 

pare withlipeciaj cs.ro or expense, put in order; 

furnish, ciuip, provide. 

AITELLATUS, a, um, part.,/rom 
AI'l'KLLO, are, avi, ninm, tr., ad pello, to 

drive i .in '-. self to for I he purpi of addr< 

ll|io|], r-:ill bj 

.: : apply to; ; 
AITiil.Lo, ere, | uli, pulsuin, i 

iir to: 
to go ill . .; 

i 

■ 
K I'l'l I 
Claudius. 

. AITI 



20: 



APPROBO— ARTE. 



with. Applicire st ad arbortm, telean against. 

APPROBO, are, avi, atum/tr , ad-probo, to 
approve v conimond, applaud, praise; to prove, 
establish. 

API'ROriNQUO, aro, avi, atum, intr., ad-pro- 
jrinquo, propinquus, to draw nigh, approach, 
coma on, approximate. Primus ordinibus ap- 
propinquare, to be near ob'taining thefirst rank. 

APPULSUS, a, urn. part., appello. 

APRILIS, is, m., (for aperilis, aperio,) the 
month in which the buds open, April. 

APTUS, a, lAn, adj.. originally part, of apo, 
whonce apiscor, apt, proper, convenient, suita- 
ble, adapted, fit. 

APUD, prep, with ace, at, close by, near, with, 
by, among, in, before, in Dresencp of: at or in 
tin. house of, in possession of. 

AQUA, K, f., water. 

AQIL-1TIO, onis, f., aquor, to gel water, the 
act of getting, carrying, or fetching water, a 
watering. Aqualionis causa, for the purposeof 
obtaining water. 

AQUILA, aj. f., an eagle : aisp the standard or 
ensign of a Roman legion, which was commonly 
in the form of a golden or silver eagle. The eagle, 
as a' standard is said to have been introduced by 
Slarius. 

AQUILEIA, a>, f. Aquileia, a seaport at the 
northern extremity of tho Adriatic sea or Gulf 
of Venice : I, 10. 

AQUILIFER, eri, m., aquila-fero, a standard 
bearer, an officer who carried the chief standard 
, of the Roman legion. 

AQUITANIA, a, f., an adj., sc. terra, 6no of 
the three principal divisions of Gaul,, bounded, 
according to Julius Cajsar, by the Garonno, Py- 
rennees, and. the Lay of Biscay t I, 1. 

AQUIT^INUS, a, tira, Aquit^niam, of Aquita- 
nia; subs., an Aquitanian. I 

AJIAH, aris. or Araris, is, bu., Gr. J3o, Rem. 1, 
the Saone, a river of CelticGaul uniting with 
the Rhone near Lyons. 

ARBITER, ' tri, v\., ad-beto=adeo, one to 
whom persons go to decide disputes, an umpire, 
arbiter ; judge. 

ARBITR.4TUS, a, um, part., a'rbitr r. 

ARBITRIUM, i, n., arbiter, the sentence or 
judgment of an arbitrator, a determination, 
decision; will, pleasure, inclination, choice. Suo 
arbitrio, according to one r s own discretion. 

ARB1TR0R, ari, atus sum, dep., arbitei ' f, 
|222, 29, a; to judge, think; suppose, reck it, 
consider. Active form arbitro, to estima 

B8S. 

ARBOR, and Arbos, oris", f., a tree. 
AJtCESSPT'JS, a, im, part., from 

ESSO, ere, ivi, /turn, tr., arcio, ad and 
do, tq call, send for, invite, summon, fetch. — 
Hcnpqfe arcesscre, to hiro in, introduce on pay. 
!E. See Arte: frou- 
ARCTjg. SecArtus. 



ARDEO, ero, si, sum, intr., to burn, bs on 
fire, blaze'. Fig. to blazo, be on fire, as v/UA 
anger, <tc., to be ready, eager, impatient. 

ARDUENNA, te, or Arduonna silva, f. Ar- 
dennes, an extonsivo forest in Belgic Gaill : V, 3. 

ARDUUS," a, um, adj., high, steep, difficult', 
hard, laborious, arduous. 

ARECOMICI, orunl, m., the Volc«e Arecomici, 
a people of the Gallic Province, whose territory- 
was west of tho Rhone : TIT, 7. . 

AKGENTUM, i, n., silver. 

ARGILLA, as, f., white clay, potter's eartjh. » 

ARIDUS, a, um, adj., arco, to be.dry, dry. 
thirsty, arid. Fig. slender, meagre. Ariduia. 
i, n.. sc. solum, dry land. . 

ARIES, etis, m., a ram. an e«^;ine us«d in 
battering clown walls, with a hoad like that of a 
ram ; a battering ram. Also a buttress or prop 
'Pro ariete, as a buttress. 

ARIOVISTUS, i, m., a king of the Germans, 
who invaded Gaul but was defeated by Ca>sar : 
I, 31. 

ARISTIUS, i, m., (M.) Aristius, a tribune of 
thesoldiers under Csesar in the Gallic .war : VII, 
42. 

ARMA, orum, n., originally defensive armor, 
then arms offensive and defensive, armor. It is 
applied only to such offensive arms as are held 
in the hand, while tela is used of those thrown 
tc a distanco. Fig. war, warfare ; a battle, ac- 
tion; instruments, equipments, tackling as ef 
a ship. Esse in armis, to be in arms, to carry 
on war; also, to be under arms, to bo armed. 

ARMAMENTA, orum, n , anno, implements 
(especially of ships,) tho ropes and cables 
ships; the rigging. 

ARMATCfRA, as, f.. anno, the kind of armor, 
equipment; then, soldiers, soldiery. jViiinii* 
levis armaturm, the light armed Nuuiidians. 
. ARM^ITUS, a, um, part.,/w?» 

ARMO„are, avi, atum, tr., anna, to arm; fit 
out, equip for war. 

ABJVIORICUS, a, um, adj., Armoiic, of or be- 
longing to the Armoric states. 

ARMORICJE, sc. civitates, the Armoricro, the 
general name of tho states of Celtic Gaul on th-a 
jwstern coast betwoen the Loire and the 
V.L 53, 

ARPINEIUS, i, m. (Caiu^,) A,-;, 
man knight: V, 27. 

ARROGANTER, ^dv., arrogag 
pro^y, insolently, Arrogantly, a™ 

iy-1 ' . 

. Aip,OGANTIA, 03, arrogaas, ad 
haughtiness, conceitedncss, presumption, arito- 
ganCe. 

ARSfltis, f.; contrivance. skill; science, art, 
profesSon, *ecupation,employinont : stratagem ; 
habit, practice. 

ARTE or Arcto, adv.. ;;;•<:< ■'■ closely, nan'-'.v- 
ly : tightly. 




go, pride. 






ARTICULUS— AUSCI. 



ARTICULUS, i, in. dim., artut, a joint, a 
inanll joint; juncture; a joinj or knot. 

ARTUS or Arctus, a, um, ior, issimus, adj., 
arceo, strait, narrow: close; strict, severe; 
scanty, small. 

• ARTIFIOIUM, i. n., artifcx, ars-facio, the 
exorciso of a profession, employment, trade, 
art; skill, science, ingenuity, workmanship, 
iexterity ; any ingenious ooutrivance ; device, 
trick, strategem : I. 31.. 

. ARYERNUS, i, nm, adj., Arvornian. Arver- 
tKU, i. m.. 'in Arvcrnian. 

ARX, cis, f„ arceo, a castle, fortress, citadel; 
d«ri stnee castles were usually on hill-taps, a 
height, summit, peak. » 

A.SCENDO, ere, di, sum, tr. and intr., ad- 
scando, to cliv$b ; to ascend, mount, climb. 

; INS IV.' us. m., oscondo, the act of as- 
cending: an ascent. 

re, ivi, tium. tr., ad-scisco, to ap- 
provt, sciof to take, receive, admit, unit 

ASPECTl'S. us. in., aspicio, ad-epoi 
looking at. a beli. .Ming; the sight; of the thing 
seen, countenance, look, aspect, ail 

now. 

ASPER.'era, erum, adj., rough to the touch, 
rugged; harsh to the taste, sour; of prrscnal 
qualitv 'gp) cruel. Troubl 

us, formidable, perilous, f. 
ASSIDUUS, a, um, adj., assidoo, ad-seJoo, 
t', tit near: frequent) Continual, incessant, per- 
petual, constant, nndeaeing; diligent, indus- 
trious. 

ASHISTO, are, stitl, tr., ad-sisto, reduplicated 
from sto ; to stand, to stand near. 

ASSI I . eci, aetum. tr., assuco-fa- 

to accustom, habituate, iuur», use to a 
g, bring one to anything by use or custom. 
all. of limitation, or the inf. 
ASSVEFACTL'S, a, um, part., nssuefacio. 
ASSDESCO, ere, e\i, «tum, tr. and intr., ad- 
enosco, suoo, to beccme accustomed ; to accustom 
one's self* to .version), habituate; to he accus- 
tomed. 

AT, conj., Gr. gl23, Rem. 14; but, yet; ot 
least, but yet. 

ATQUE, conj., Gr. J123, Rem. 3; ad-que, the 
sxmc at ac.; and, and also; and indeed, and even; 
is sometimes added to introduce a (fr- 
ee with greater empha^i III. 1 *. ♦.! 
'Ur aliter, secus, alius, Ac, than; of- 
similis. Ac, at; as. Idem atqut, the 



At: 
ai from . 




■ami 



f 
ITBBTm, atis, m 'one of the Atrcbi 
Atrebat 

ATREBj4TES, lum, or um, in., Die Atribatcs, 
a people of Relgic Gaul, wl ;y bcr- [ 

dared upon those of the MoriniaudXera£: II. 4 



ATRIUS, i, m., (Quintus.) Atrius, 
I Caesar's army : V, 9. 



? 



ATTAMEX, conj., at-iamenfbut, but yet, for 
all that, however. . 

ATTEXO, ero. xui, xtuin.tr., ad-t, 
weavf ; to weave on to, add by weaving. 

ATTINGO, ere, igi, actum, tr., nd--ta- 
touch, rcach.gain, arrive at ; to bonier upon, c *- 
tend to. 

ATTUTRCO. ere, ni, tttnm, tr., ad-tri! 
attribute^ assign, ascribo, impute, lay to the 
charge of; to bestow, give, allot.. 

ATTU11UT1S. a, um. part., attribus. 

ATTTLT. etc. See Affero. 

AUCTOR, oris. m. and f., augOO, an author i » 
contriver, creator, maker, inventor; a founder, 
establishes leader, bead j arepi irter,attnonncer, 
informant; «n adviser, approver, instigator, di- 
rector, AucUttttse. to" favor, approve. M out- 

tore, by my advice. 

AUCTORITAS. ntis. r, auctor, being an 
tor; counsel, advice, infli reight. 

credit, reputation, authority, | 

AUCTUS, n. um, J^.irt., an 

AUDACIA, ae. 1'., and ax. audio, in a gornl 
sense, boldui -s. com i 
sense, audacity, bare-faced impudence, prcsumj>- 

• 

auDacii i 

ciislmj j adv.. 

courag. u ly. 

AUDEO. ere. auMii sum, intr.. Gr. J&iii t-- 
dare, adventu. : pn ume ' < . 
to endeavor, undertake, attempt, dare t . do. 

AUDIEXS, tis, part, ai d adj., hearing 
dient, subservient, from 

AUDIO,' t're, ivi, .'turn. tr.. to hoar, hearken, 
listen tO J attend, mind, Jjccd, understand: »/> 
approve, to regard: I bo informed of, hi 

AUDITIO, onis, f., audio, the act of hi 
a hearing; a lesson: a report, hearsay, l - 

AUDZTUS,"aV«n), part., audio. 

AUQEO, ere, ami, auctjiin, tr., 1 t m 

augment, magnify, enlarge; to adorn, furnish 
abundantly; toadvance, promote; to exalt t.v 
i . commend, extol. 

AL'LERCC8,a,Um, adj., Aulercian. Aulerci 
orum,m~, the Aulerci, nations of Celtic <im) 
whoso territories are sup) 

uate.l between the Seine aad the Loire. Thri*« 
branches are mentr n : th« 

Aulerci F.burovircs, or Ebut ni HI,"; lulei 

nani,VII, 75 ; and Aulerci "Iran: 
VII. To. 

i i I .i"S. i. m. Aulus. a Roman pracnomen. 

Al'R/GA, ao, m. an.lf . aurea^rufie, and ago, 
'Jie who manages the reins, the chat i 

from 
M'KIS, [a, C,Uieezt< rnal part oftht 



AURUNCULEICS, 1, m. Bee C 

i. orum, m., the Ansel, a people of 
iquitania: 111. 



>04 



AUSDS— BIPEDALI3. 



AUSUS, a, um, part., audeo. 

AUT, cmij., Gr v J123, Rem. V ; or ; or else; 
either; aup-aut, either— or. 

AUTEM, conj.. (ir. 123. Rem. 11; but, yet, 
nevertheless, However ; alio, likewise, more- 
over. 

AUTUMN IS, i. in., for nuctnmnus from au- 
geo, autumn, the time of abundance, extending 
from 22nd Sept. to 22nd Dec.. _ 

AUXi, etc. See Augeo. 

AUXILIARIS, e, adj. auxilinm, assisting, 
aiding, helping, auxiliary. Auxiliares, 7n.pl., 
-auxiliaries, allies. 

AUXILIOR. ari, at us" sum, dep. intr . uuxil- 
ium, to assist, help, aid. 

AUXILIUM, i, n., augeo, help, aid, assist- 
ance, succor. A. uz ilium ferre,to brjng assistance, 
to aid, succor; pi. auxiliary troops, auxiliaries. 
Auxilio (gl44)-ucnire, to come to one's assistance. 
Rtperire auxilium alicui rei, to find a remedy. 
' AVATiICENSIS, e, adj., Avaricum, of or be- 
longing to Avaricum. . 

A-VAUICUM, i, n.,' afterwards-called Bituri- 
gao, whence its modern name. Bourges, tho 
principal city of the Bituriges: VII, 13. 

AVARITIA, ae, f., avurus, covetuos, aveo ; 
avarice, coreiousness, greedy desire. 

AVEBSUS, a, um, part, and adj.,/roTO 

AVERTO, ere, ti, sum, tr„ ab>-verto, to turn 
off or away, avert, withdraw ; remove, turn, put 
to flight; to change, shift ; to turn one's feel- 
ings from ; hence to alienate, estrange. Hostis 
avcrsus, ari enemy who had turned his back in 
flight, a flying enemy. Aversus ab hostc cir- 
eumveniri, from behind, in the rear. 

AVIS, is, f.. a bird, fowl. 

AVUS, i, m., a father's or mother's father, a 
grandfather or grandsire. 

AXOKA, ae, m., the Aisne, a branch of the 
river Seine; II, 5. 



B 



BAC&'NTS. is, f., Bacenis, a forest of Ger- 
many, supposed by some to be the Ilartz forest, 
by others to bo part of the Thuringian furest : 
VI, 10. 

BACULUS, i, m., (Sextius,) Baculu«, a cen- 
turion in Caesar's army, of tho first v rank: II, 
25 ; III, 5 : VI, 38. 

BALEARIS, e, adj., of the Balearian islands, 
(Majorca, Minorca, and some smaller islands 
situated on the eastern coast of Spain, whose 
inhabitants were noted slingers.) Balearic, 
Balearian: II, 7. 

BALTEUS, i, m., and BALTEUM, i, n., a 
belt, a sword-belt. 

BAL VENTIUS, i, m.. (T.) Balventius, a Roman 
centurion of the f first rank: V, 35. 

BARBARU3, a, um, adj., barbarian, barbaric. 
The Greeks and Romans called all nations but 



themselves barbarians, and despised them I 
civilized; ktnrr, wild, savage, rude, uncivilized. 
barbarous. 

BASILCS. i. m., (L. Minucius.) Basil: 
officer in Caesar's amry: VI. 20. lie was 
wards one of the conspirators by whom Cacfitu 
was slain. 

BAT -4 VI, orum, m., the Batavians, HoU&n 
ders, Dutch, the inhabitants of the territory 
called by Caesar, Insula Batavorum. which wa» 
fojmed by tjje mouths of the Rhine : IV, 10. 

BELGA, ae, m., Belgian. The Belgians in 
Tiabited the region bounded by tho Marne, thn 
Seine, the Rhine, and the ocean : 1, 1. - 

BELGIUM, i, n., Belgium, a #>untry in ttv 

western part of Belgic Gaul, including the Bel 

lovaci, the Atrebates, and the Ambiani: V, 24. 

BELLICOSUS, a,um, adj., belluiu, Gr. g222 

19 ; warlike. 

BELLICUS, tu nin, ailj., bollum, of or ]•>: 
taining to war; warlike. 

BELLO, are, avi. atum, n., bollum, to war. Ii 
wage or carry un war; to contend, fight. 

BELLOCASSI, orum, m., the Bellocassi. h 
people of Belgic Gaul inhabiting a territory 
north of the Seine. 

BELLOVACI, orum, m., tho Bellovaci, ii wen- 
like tribe of Belgac adjoining to ths BeUocast i 
11,4. 

BELLUM, i. n., for duollum, duo, war ; :i 
battle, fight. Jlfllumfacere alicui, to make \va 
upon. • 

BENE, adv., bonus, melius, optime ; well 
successfully, happily. 

BENEFICIUM, i, n., bene-facio, a kindnew 
favor, benefit. 

BEN'OVpLEXTIA,ac, f., bonovpleus, beat 
volo, friendly disposition, good-will, kir 
favor, sincere regard. 

BIBRACTE, is, n., Gr. J2I, Exc.„ Autun, Mi* 
principal city of the iEdui; I, 23. 

BIBRAX, actis, f. Bibrax, a city 
about eight miles from tho -txona : II, 6. 

BIBROCI, orum, m., the Bibroci, a people u) 
Britain, who are saicT to have inhabited the re- 
gion now called Bray. 

BIDUUMyJI, n., bis-dios, the space of two 
days, two days. ' 

'BIENNIUM, i, n, bis-uuuus, the space ol 
two years, two years. 

BIGERRIONES, um, ru., tho Bigerrionep. a 
people of Aquitauia near the foot of the Pyre- 
nees: III, 27. ' , 

BJNI, ae, a, adj., Gr. £63, for duini from d-w. 
like helium for duettum; two at a time, two by 
two, two. 

\ UT1T0, adv., bi or bis, and partitu*. 
in two parts or divisions. 

BIREDALIS, e, adj., bis-pes, two feet long, 
thick or wide. BiptdaUt trabes, beams twu 
feet thick. 



BIS— CANTABRUS. 



12D-". 



BIS, adv, for elm's from due, like helium lb* 

■'ucVtim, twice. 

BTTURTX. if:; 1 ', m., one of the Blturige •-, fl 

i of Celtic Gaul, whose territories were 

weit of the Loire, by which they were Bepara- 

ted from the £dui: VII. 6. 

RODl'OGXviTUS. i,m.,Boduognatus, a leader 
of the Nerrii: II, SB. 

HOTA, ae. f., sc. terra, tin untry Inhabited 

by the Boil: VTI. 14. 
POIUS, a, urn, adj.. Boian. 
BOII, ornm. m., the Boii, ft German tribe, 
(I, .'>,) lacorporated with the JCdui: 1,88, 
lidMTAS, atis f., bonus, goodness; excel- 
lent Quality. 
BOrJUSi a, inn, adj , melior, optimum; Gr. 
goi d, lit. suitable; skilful, noble, virtu- 
■us; brave, gallant; favorable, kind. 

l'.i'M'M. i, n., any good; a good thing; bene- 
fit, advantage, profit ; bona, n.pl.. goods, prop- 
erty. elTects. 

BRACHIUM. i. n., originally tLo forearm, 
from the- elbow to the hand; then the whole 
aria ; an arm or bough of a tree. 

UKAWOY/CT.S. inm, in., a tribe of the 
Lularci. See Aulerci: Til, 75. 

BBANNOVTI, orum, m., a people of Celtic 
(fall: VII. 75. 

HRATUSPAXTTUM, i. n.. Bratuspintiuna, a 
' wn Of the Hellovaci: 11.13. 

URKYIS. o, adj., short— both of time and 
>p\ ■■: transitory, brief. Brtvi, abl:, (sc. Um- 
pire,) in a short time, shortly. 

RREV1TAS, ntis, t, brevis. shortness, brevity; 
hortnen or townees of stature. 
BREVITER, adv., breris, _ short)y, briefly, in 
", in a word, summarily. 

3. i. m., a Briton, inhabitant of 
n: T.11. 
BRITAXXIA, ae. f., ic. terra, Britannus, 
Itritain or Great Britain: IV, 20. 
RRJTAX X KTS, a, nm, adj., Britannug, Brit- 
tle, irrithih. 

ffRf/MA, ae, f, brevlssima, brevima, brenma; 
the shortest day of the year, the winter solstice, 
midwinter. 

BRUTUS, i, m. (Decimtis) Brutus, one of 
''■sear's officers : III, 11. 



BRE 

Krtta I 



c 



C-, en abbreviation of the praenomen Calus. 
to Roman notation, a bajedred. 

CABILLONUM, i, n. Chalons, a city of the 
fldui upon the Saono : TIT, 42. 

CABf/RUS, i, m. Cabnrns, (C. Velcrtus,) n 
. hirf of tbe TTelvii : I, 4T ; and VTI, 65. 

CACrjMEN, Inis, n.,— acumen, with prefix r, 
•i tuo ; the top or summit of anything, tl 

CAIMYKR, eris, ■ , sado, cr,rp««,dead 1 

f"ADO, ere, sccidi. casum, intr., to falf.tumbla 



down; to fall or die in battle, be slain, perish. 

CADURCUS, a. am, adj., belonging to the 
Qadurci, a people in theBonthern part of Celtic 
Qaul; ri/hs.n Cadurcian: VTI. 5. 

CJCDES. is. f.. cesdo, Gr. {33, Rem. 8, Bxi 
cutting down, murder, slaughter, df'strmtio'i 
tdem, to do or commit murder. 
CTEDO, ere, ceci'di, caesum.tr.. cado, to 
to fall : hence, cut down, lop, fell, cut : to strike. 
beat: to kill, destroy; to sacrifice. 

O.'KR.'Ksrs. a, um, Cnreslan, pertaining t.. 
tho Caraesi. a people of Belgic Gaul: II, 4. 

I'.l'lilMUXIA, a<i, f. Crrcs.:\ very ancient 
town .,f Btrnria' in snme Way connected with the 
religious worship of Rome; — religious ccrciii.. 
nies, sacred rites. 

CJERULEUS, a, um, rtlesius, bluish grey : 
sUy-Muo. azkre, sea-green, cerulean. 

-AR, aris, m., caesos, caedo, Cesser, 
family name in tho Julian pent. Caius Julia:. 
Cntar, son of Lucius Julius Caesar and Anrelia, 
the daughter of Co tta. Seelin appended to this 
work. L. Cmsar, a lieutenant in Gaul under 
Julius Caesar, and a kinsman of the latter: If T. 
65. 

•t'S. a, um, part., caedo. 
CAICS, i. in., a common praenomeu 
'he Romans. 

\MITAS, fttis. f„ calamus, a re, d ,,.• 
stem; originally, the damage or destruction ot 
crops; calamity, misfortune, disaster, adversity 
loss, injury, damage. 

<\W.»;\D/K, .arum, f., pi., calo, to call; Qi 
{234,5; the first day of the month on which 
the high priests proclaimed the calendar dates ; 
the calends. 

CAL.ETES, lum. m.. the Caletes, a people . t 
Gaul who lived near the mouth of the Seine ■ 
11,4. 

CALLIDUS, a, um, adj., calico, to have callum 
or thick akin by reason of exercise ; hence, tot* 
skillful: skillful, experienced, shrewd. practised: 
in a bad senw, crafty, bIv. subtle, deceitful, 
cunning. 

CALO, onis, m.. the slave of a common sol- 
dier, a camp boy. 

CAMPESTER, tris, tre, adj., campus, of er 
belonging to a plain or field, level, flat, cham- 
paign. 
CAMPUS, t, m., a plain, field. 
CAMULOGjENUS. i, m. Camnlogonn". a 
general of tbe Aulerci : Til, 67. 
CAXINIU8, i, m. See Rebilus. 
CANO, ere, cecinl, cant urn. Intr. and tr ., i 
make musical sounds, to alng: to sing or chant 
the praises of any one; to celebrate in verse.— 
Since prophuiej were giitn in rerte^ to prophe- 
sy foretell, predict. To play or blow npon a 
rnu-ical instrument. Oinilur, imp., a signal ie 
piven. 
CAXTABRUH. a, nm, adj., of or pertaining 



203 



C A N TIUM— C AUTES. 



to the Cantabrians, a warlike people in the 
north of Spain : III, 26. 

CAXTIUM, i, n. Kent, a district of England 
at the mouth of the Thames : V, W. 

CAPILLUS, i, m., root cap, whence caput; 
the hair of the head; while crinis is any hair. 

CAPIO, ere, eepi, captum, tr., to take ; to 
seize, lay hold of; to take possession of, occupy; 
to capture, take captive, take prisoner ; 'to ac- 
quire, obtain ; to enjoy, feel, as, dolorem, volup- 
tattm ; to choose, select, make choice of. To 
captivate, allure, attract ; to take in, deceive, 
entrap, ensnare, Capert consilium, to form a 
design, to adopt a plan or measure. Caprre lo- 
cum, portum, ete., to gain, make, reach or ar- 
rive at the plac» of destination, port, etc. Ca- 
ptrt locum (in military language.) to select a 
place suitable for a camp. Capert fugamto flee. 
Capert initium, to begin. 

CAPRKA, a?, f., capra, a Bhe-goat ; a roe. 

CAPT/VUS, a, urn, adj., capio, captive, taken 
prisoner, enslaved; subs, a prisoner, captive.. 

CAFTUS, us, m, capio, a taking or seizing; 
capacity, talent, genius, ability, state, condi- 
tion. Ut est captum Germanorum, considering 
the condition of the Germans, for Germans. 

CAPTUS, a, um, part., capio, taken, seized, 
caught ; robbed of the free use of ono's,powers, 
deprived; occupied; captivated, delighted, at- 
tracted-; chose a, selected. Capta. orum, ».,things 
taken in war, booty, -spoils. 

CAPUT, itis, n., root cap., a head of men or 
animals ; of inanimate things, the top, extremi- 
ty; of a river, the mouth; by mttonomy^a, man, 
person, life. Caj)itum Helvetiorum mille, a thou- 
sand head of Helvetians, i.e. a thousand Helve- 
tians. Capitis poena, capital punishment. 

CARCASO, onis, f. Carcassone^a city of the 
Gallic Province west of Narbo : III, 20. 

CAREO, ere, ui, itum, intr., to be without, 
want, be in want of, be free from ; to be absent 



from. 






CARJTNA, ae, f., the keol or bottom of a ship. 
CARNUTES, um, m., the Carnutes, a people 
of Celtic Gaul: 11,35. 

CARO, carnis, for carinis, f., the flesh of ani- 
mals. 

CARPO, ere, psi, ptum, tr., akin to rapio ; to 
gather, pluck or pick fruits or flowers ; of ani- 
mals, to graze To pluck one's character; htnee, 
to carp, fin.' fault with, blame; to vilify, slan- 
der, calumniate, asperse. To diminish, weaken. 

CARRUS, i ; m., and Carriim, i, n., a kind of 
vehicle used by the Gauls and Germans for con- 
voying heavy burdens; a eart. 

C-4RUS, a, um, adj., dear, cqgtly.; lience, pce- 
cious, beloved. 

CARVILIUS, i, ju. Carvilius. a king of Kent : 
' V, 22. 

CASA, ae. f., a hut, shed, cottage, cabin; a 
thatched house ; a soldier's hut. 



CASEUS, i, m., and Casrum, i, n., cheese, 
-CASSI, orum, m., the.Cassi, a British nation : 
V, 21. 

CASSI^INUS, a, um, adj. (Cassius.) of or be- 
longing to Cassius. Cassian. Bdlo Cassia ■■: I. 
13, the war in which L. Cassius command* 1 and 
in which he was slain by the Tigun'ni. 

CASSIS, idis, f., a helmet of metal ; gau. 
ihg a leather helmet. 

CASSIUS, i, m. Cassius, ,the name of a T. 
gens. Lucius Cassius Lgnginus, a Roman consul 
defeated and slain by the Helvetii : A. U. C. 047 : 
I, 7-12. 

CASSIVELLAUNUS, i, nr. Cassivcllaunus. a 
British king who was appointed commaii.!ir-in- 
chief of the British forces in the war against 
Csesar: V, 11. 

, CASTELLUM, i, n., dim., castrum, a castle, 
town, fort, r«doubt. 

CASTICUS, i, m. Casticus, a Sequan, whom 
Orgetorix persuaded to aim at the sovereignty 
of his state: I, 3. 

CAST/GO, are, avi, atum, tr., castum-ago, to 
chastise, punish, correct; to reprehend, chiel« 
reprove; to mend, improve. 

CASTRUM, i, n.. a fort; p'. caatra, orum. •• 
camp, encampment. Fig. war, warfare. As . 
Romans pitched their camp at the close of > .< 
Hay, caatra. <& put also for a day's march. ( '<s- 
tra navalia, the fortification around ships druwil 
up on land. In castris usum habere, to have ex- I 
perience in military affairs. 

C.4SUS, us, m., cado, the act of falling, a full. 
That which falls out or happens unexpectedly, 
au event, change, accident, opportunity. As 
chances are nftener bad tha7i good, a calamity, 
misfortune, mishap. Ran ad extrcmum perdu- 
cere casum — bring to the last pass, the last ex- 
tremity 

CATAMANTALEDES, is, m. Catamantale- * 
des, a chief of the Sequani : I, 3. 
CATENA, ae, f., a chain; fetter. 
CATIVOLCUS, i, m. Cativolcus, a king of 
the Eburones : V, 24. 

CATURIGES, um, m., the Caturigcs, a Gallic 
nation inhabiting the Alps: 1, 10. 

CAUSA, a», f., a cause, reason, ground ; mo- 
tive, inducement ; a causo, suit, or process at 
law; in a bad sense,n, pretence, pretext, excuse. 
A state, situatiou, condition. Causam dicere, to 
plead for one's self, to plead, make a defence. — 
Ctiusa with agenitive is a very common mode of . 
expressing a purpose; on account of, for th» 
purposfe of, lor the sake of. Qua de causa, for 
which reason. It is sometimes omitted with 
the genitive. Per causam, for the sake of, on 
account of. 

CAUTE, adv., cautus, cautiously, warily, cir- 
cumspectly, prudently. 

CAUTES, is, f., a ragged or pointed rock, 
crag, cliff. 



CAUTUS— C1NG0. 






CAUTUS, a, nm. part., eaveo, with ■■ ntidd ■ \primorum ordinwn, ore also tho three 

first centurions of each legion, via: Woprimipi- 
l at, the primus princeps, and the primus hatt '- 
tut. See 
CEPI, etc. See Capio, 

CERNO, ere, cri vi, en turn, tr., to separate,! 
sift; to distinguish, jndgo, determine, perceive, 
comprehend, understai 
to Bee, discern, bsi rve. 

CERUMEN, into, n., oer%, a contest eithei 
friendly or hostile; a strife, contention, dehate : 
a game or exercise; a battle, engagement.fight. 
CERTS, adv., certus, certainly, aesnredly, un- 
doubtedly; at least, at all evi rits. 
CERTO, are, avi, atum, intr.. cerno, to decido 
vr,-, to c intend, contest, strive. 
vio, itrnggle, fight: to attempt. 

is. a, um,adj.,cenib, determined; fixed 

tablished, appointed; certain, sure, on- 

oat-worthy, fixed, tried, faithful ; 

dear, well-known, v. ". ascertained, manifest. 

evident, true. ■ ■' .'>'»>'' • ,;r 

t . inf. .rm, acquaint, a; prise. Cert 
I am inform ■! or apprised, I receive intolll- 
With de. 

\UB, i. m.. a stag; ce'.vi, in military 
language ■ resembling 

the horns of a stag, achovauxdi frise, abattis 
CXSPES, or CJ SP ' '''■ il t,lrt 

or - id cut out, 
CESSl Oedo. 

CETERA, urn, a lj., (n mi. sing, masc 

residue, remainder 
'. 
tains in the GatUc pr rin ■ west f th ' 
separating tha Arverni fr..m the Tlelvii : 

CHEItUSCX olrum, mi, the Chen: 
of Genu t 

irtl%,i.!i.. th 



tense; having guarded one's self; legally secur- 1 
ed; secure, safe, defended; 'cantio 
wary, provident, circumspect. 
CAVARILLUS. i, m. Cavarillus, a chief of 

i lie /T.dui: VII. 67. 

CAVAR7NU8, i, m. Cavarinus, brother of 
Moritasgus, king of the Senones : V, 64 

CAVEO, ere, cavi, caututn. tr. and ii 

be on one's guard, to beware or tako u 1 of, 

against, avoi '. Ok 
security by ho 

CF.CIIH. etc, Se< Qado. 

C/-;Dit. ereierssi, ctfjun, ti and intr., logo 
from a place, withdraw, .retire, depart. To 3 o 
■ nut of some one's way. give place to, yield, re- 
treat. T" yield in ran): or position; be inferior 

'"■ - • 

CELSIUS, a. am, 

CELER, «'m to impel ; swjft, 

speedy, fleet, quick. 
CELEUITAS Btis,f., eeler, swiftness, quicfe> 
eed, celerity. Ad cfUritatem onerandi, 
Ling expeditiously. 
CELEKIT Kit, celerius, celerrime, a A\ 
swiftly, quickly, -; ■ lily, immediately. 

CKI.'I. are. avi. atum. tr.. M.'l.a. t> hide, 
conceal, kepp sevet, 

CELT.t:, arum, m., th 
of Celtic Gaul, called by tin li: 1,1. 

F1LLD8, i. m. Celtillus, the fathei of 

\ ' ', . : V 1 1 . ' 

NX orum, m., tho Ceninuupt, a 
anciently i 
in the eastern part of England i 
•s: V, -1. 
CEXOM INI, omm, m., the Cononiani, one of 
ie tribes of the Aulcrci: VII, 75. 
CEKSEO, i' ui, censuin, rar-'i/ c« nsitum, 
tr.. to weigh, • 

ipinion, to advise, bo in favor of 
Ive. 

• 

i ving bwii taken. 
CENTItoN US, u a, m.. the Csntr >n is,a Gallic. 
nation luhabiujn : the Alps: 1, 10 

• 
i M :. num. ad ,a bun Ircd, 

rli nn- 
iing at 
a (bit tieth part ■ f t lie 
infantry in al f 1 

d i eople. 

i i n . nirion. 

ifantry in a 
Ccntu 
*ontn: 



Cibariu wit 

», i. 

■ 



an allowance or : 

: dour. 

n mrUhnieni, victuals. « 
tua Tullius) ' 
the brotlier i f •' 
Tullius Cii ■ . '. II" was on 

Gaul, bdt during • '• war atta 

llllll-el! to tll<- 

I I 

■ 

' 






208 



CIPPUS— CLAM. 



I ingere murum, sc. militibus, to man the 

CIPPUS, i, in. acippus: a sharp slake or 
pailisadc. 

CIRCA, prep, with ace, and adv., ciFcus, 

■i-aa, around. 

CIRCINTJS, i, :n., circus, an instrument) with 

'which circles are described, a pair of compasses. 

CIRCITER. adv. and prep, with ace, circus, 

.)■ \it. near, somewhere about. 

CIRCLED ■•! i, iri, iri and ii, ituin- 

tr., irr, circuin andeo, togo round or about; to 
surround, 'encompass, invest, environ; to visit 
in course or successively, to go the rounds. 

CIRCUIT US, us, m., circueo, a going round 

in a circle; a circuit, revolution, kmpass ; a 

circuitous path or ros litu, in circuit 

or circrfm i so, Dund about, circuitous- 

.... fifteen miles 

ii 

CIRCUIT.. part., circueo. 

CIRCUM, prep, with ace., and adv., 
circus, around, 'about ; near. 
CIECUilCZDO, ere, »'di, isuni, tr.,circni 

i .it or paro about, te cut around, diminish, 
. ribe. 

, urn, part, and adj., i 

. ill o 
'. 
CIRCUMCLi- "DO, ei sum, tr., circuui- 

, 
Ivor. 

.., urn, part., from 

. 

id : to surround, 
... 

rcumaafA mu- 

build a Willi aroun L 

... ■ 

to lead or draw aiuum^H 
LCUMDUCTUS, a,um,p2».. 

CIRCTTMrUMX 1 , ci i. a, tr., ciruun- 

uindo, fJ14S, Ex., to. pour around; 1 o surround, 

iron. ■ -.'.; sense, 

to scatter themselves around in crowds, to 

press upon. 

CIRCUMFETSUS, a, urn, part., circumfundo. 

CIRCCMITUS, a, um, part., circumeo. 

CIECCMJECTUS, a, urn, part., from 

CIItCUMJICTO, ere, eei, ectuiu, tr., circum- 
jacio, to cast, throw or place around ; to en- 
compass, surround. 

CIRCUMMISSUS, a, urn, part., from 

CIRCUMMITTO, ere, si, ssuni. tr.,. i 

it to, to scud'around. 

CIRCUM.MUMO, ire, tvi, itum, tr., circum- 
munio, to fortify all around. 

C^BCUMMUN/TUS, a, um. part., circum- 
munio. 

CIRCL'MPLECTOR, ti, xus sum. dcp. tr., 



circum-plecto, to twine; to embrace ., 
around, to surround. 

CIRCUMSISTO, ere, steti, tr. and iutr., Ctr 
cum-sisto, reduplicated from sto, to plact : t 
stand around, surround. 

CIRCUMSPICJ ■ 
th, oil cnm-spi c'ii ..... : i i i 

cautious, to take heed, t wi igh, 
fully, ponder over, examin- 
revolve, consider. 

CIRCUMSTO, ai , irenm- 

sto, to stand around, surround. 

CIRCUMVALLATUS, a, um, part.,/ro»l 

CIRCUMTALLO, ■ .., tr-., eircuni- 

vallo, tomalct to surround 

rampart; to be ■ ;■ to surround. 

CIRCUMVECTUS; a, um, part.j/rom 

CIlfcUMYEIIO, ere, xi, ctnm, tr., circuni- 
voho, to carry; to carry, round about. / 
ride around. 

CIRCUMVEXLJ, ire, vcui, ventuni, tr., cir- 
cuiu-veuic,' i . tando around; 

round iu a hostile manni r; ass, if) 

vest, beset, blockade; to oppress, afflict-; to 
. i heat, defraud, circumvent. 

. ; i STUB, a; um, part., circiu. 
CIS, prep, with ace, (akin to ii With the de- 

. 
. . . . . usually denotes th 

1 1 Rome. 
•CISALP/NUS, a, um, adj., cis-Alpes, 
pine, on t! 

, cuue. 

i -iNUS, a, um, 

. ,t or Gal 
side. 

CITA, 
knight: . 

up, moved; hii ried, swifti peedy, rapid. 

EKIOR, oris, adj. comp., Gr. ... 
a .i. . - hither. 
CITO, are, avi, atum, tr I 

late; to summon. 

I IITO, citius, i i i 
quickly, speedily. 

CITRA, prep., abl. sing, of 'citur. on thi 

CJ,TRO, •adv., old ace, citpoh of citer, 
only m connection with ultro; ultra e, 
this way and that, to and fro, backward and for 
ward. 

, C/VIS,; is, m. and f., a citizen, a free man 01 
woman. 

CIVITAS, atis, f.,ciTis,i;itizenship; an assem- 
blage of citizens ; a nation, the inhabitants of 
state ; a city or state. 

CLAM, adv. and prep., with aec. or abl., G, 
JJ.20, Rem. 1, celo, without the knowledges u 
privately, privily, secretly. 




Ci.AMl'P) CO IT. 






. I. atutu, ii . .-ml iu'r., freq., 
■ lamo, to csy al ml, vociferate. 
CLAMO, a#e, avi, atum, tr.'and hitri, tocry, 
ud, exclaim, complain w ith a loud 

• 

CIijCSII li:, oris, 1. 1., '':.<.!!". a loud void-. Crj oi 

tuon or animals, ehout ; clam ir, .my loud noisa 

US, urn, idj., clarn^ i ei ret, 
led, hidden, unkuov, n, private, i 
tine. 

CLARE adi .. cl :• di - 

tinctly ; openly, plu lyjai 

CLAK ■ J.-, 

: . : ueutal 

man . ■ i "- 1 in >us, illu 

t!i.' Roman peopl 'nltiib ; 

bodj of or in 

i i lament. 

( \LA i'l'l is. i. in . is, a con- 

sul, A. 1 . 0. Tim : V. 1. 

CLATTbO, ei •'. -;. sum, I I >sc up; 

up the 
rear of the ai my. 
CLACSl'S. a, urn, port., i laud >. 
CL.lVl' 8, i. VOL., (k nail. 
OLEMENTBR, exh 
toltly, 

nassioi ,i,l!;.. 

Cl.r.Mi.NTl A. ae, .'.. . , entlej mihl- 

umanitj . cli money, 
iearance, mercy. 

I.T !).*.. S. tl-. n :■ cluens, from 

.1,. ne under the protection 
s, the 

i",.; liN'Xj:; \. . , state or rela- 

1 otectibn ; j*!., 
.its or ,h pendents. Of a 

or 1 a in- . 

erful ■: adenl states them- 

. ■ iileliia/it'uj,. 
rliunt or dependent. 
CLTVUS, i ■ uinfii 

livlty. 

I I. 'lil 1 .-. 1. in. (l'ulih; . Roman, 

nili and talent*, but still 

r hit) endaoious profligacy; lo- waskilled 

v II. 1. 

CN., " 1 abbntoialion n/tht prmnomen CdScur. 

< N 1.1 3, • 1 Cm as, 1. hi. Cneus, .1 oommt D 

praeiionien among the Romans. See J\,mpi:ius. 

' OACi i.\ \ 1 ; B, a, am, putt. .from 
COA('Ki;\ ' >. in 1 , ari, atnra, i: . 

v ,) to b< ap : igi t',' 1 : toheap up, 
. 
'■' tlljj, a. uai, part., cog", a f.,ning, con- 
straining; compulsion. Utodonly in abt,0r.{51. 

r2 



COAGMENTO, are, avi, aUim, tr.. coagmeri- 

t'.i-ten togother, conn 

COARCTO, or Coal 1 • nni. tl'.,(cou- 

- 

I II' I'--'. 

• -.I'i'KS. u;u, anil ium, 111, t 
[uttania : I II. 27. 
COB • 

('(ELESTI8, e. adj., ccctum, the heavens; 
lial. (fylesics, ium, m. ; 

COSMO, ere, emi,°euiptum, tr., 
buy up, to purchase I 

a,'um, pu:.. 
ii, i ivi, ii, ami iiiiiu. Intl'i in 

'.i, COl- 

(M I'l. 1, dof., Or., §113, 1 b 
. 

lilive-. 
OOl'.I'l'l s. a, inn. part., ccepi. 1 
COERCEO, <i'j, ui, it urn, tr., c ■ 

binder 

rrom motion; to keep in. confine, restrain. 
check; tor. pre; s, eurb. 

. i\. COgito,a lliinkir 

berately ; a thought, an op 
j udgmeut. 

COGITO, are, avi, atum, tr. and intr., 
agito, to pursue something in the. mind, think 
upon: onsider, meditate, reflect. 

deliberate; to design, intend. 

\Tio, onis. I in-nascor, re- 

lation by hloodV kindred. Homo '..'•, 
tionis — having powerful relatives. 
ilTUS, a<-wm, i»art../;on» 

vi, itum, tr., e.on-nosco>Gr. 
be acquainted with, examine: I 
I'teover. unil, 

mod, know, invesl ,-, ro- 

counoit gnitum at, it I was found 

Cignila ■ 

COGO, ere, CO«gJ, 00actum.tr., co-ag i, to bring 
or collect together; to drive, impel . 
do any thing; to condense. 

COIIORS, ti>. I., an Inclosuro, cattle or poul- 
try yard ; thai the things inclosed. In military 
language, a cohort, a ban* of foi 

1 three manipuli, or six centQi Ii 

■la legion. Cohort prmtoria, tlie 

praetoriM cohort, the 1 j guard chosen by tin* 

or commanding general for his ow u de- 

1 "lim.TAi 10, i, an txb it- 

'■' '■ 
COHO •■ uiu, part.,/rom 

COHORTOR, ari.atus buu., i tr . eon-hor- 
tor, to *xhort. «ncouraga. 
001 *». 






210 



COLLATU3— COMMQVEO. 



COLLviTUS, a, urn, part.; confero. 

COLLAUDATUS, a\ urn, part., /rom 

COLLAUDO, are, avi, atum, tr., con-laudo,.to 
praise in all respects, extol, commend highly. 

COLLECTUS, a, urn, part., colligo. 

COLLi'GA, ae, in., con-lego, one who is cho- 
sen at the same time with another; a colleague, 
partner in office. 

C0LLIG.4TUS, a, um, part.,/ro»i 

COLLIGO, are, avi, atum, tr., con-ligo, to 
to bind or tie together ; to join or fasten 
together, connect. 

COLLIGO, ere, egi, ectum, tr., con-lego, to 
g ither, draw or bring together, collect, assem- 
ble ; to obtain, acquire, procure. OMigere se, 
to recover or collect one's self, recover one's 
courage. 

COLLIS, is, m., Gr. g33, Rem. 6; cello, hill, 
rising ground. liicolle medio, halfway up the 
hill. 

COLLOCATUS, a, um, part., from 

COLLOCO, are, avi, atum, tr., con-loco, locus, 
to place, put, settle, post, station, establish; to 
dispose, arrange; set, place, lay. Of money, to 
put at interest. Of a daughter, to give in mar- 
riage. 

COLLOCcT'CUS, a, um, part., colloquorS 

COLLOQUIUM, i, n., colloquor, the act of 
conversing, conversation, discourse; a confer- 
ence, interview. 

COLLOQUOR, i, cwtus sum, dap. iutr., cou- 
loquor, to speak together, converse, confer. 

COLO,'ere, ui, cultum, tr., to cultivate, till; 
to bestow care upon, attend to, foster, cherish, 
practice; to respect, regard, venerate, worship. 

COLONIA, ae, f., (colonus, a farmer, fr. colo) 
the lan«l of a farmer; a colony or plantation 
to which people are sent to dwell; thai a num- 
ber of people transplanted from one country to 
another to form a colony; colonists. 

COLOR, oris, m., a color, complexion, tint, 
hue. 

COMBc/RO, ere, ussi, ustuin, tr., con-uro, 
to burn ; to burn together, to burn or consume 
utterly. 

COMES, itis,m. and f., con-eo, a companion, 
associate, comrade, attendant. 

COMINUS, adv., con-manus, nigh at hand, 
hand to hand, in close combat. 

COMIT^ITUS, a, um, part., comitor. 

COMITIUM, i, n., ooiy-eo, the comitium, a 
place for assembling in the Roman forum for 
tLe trial of causes and tho holding of elections. 
Fl, comitia, the comitia, an assembly of. the 
whole people to make or repeal laws, choose 
magistrates, etc. The election?, 

COMITOR, ari, atus sum, dep. tr., come. 
£222, 29, a; to accompany, attend, ; 
with, follow. 

COMME ATVS, us, m., cemmeo, a going back 
and forth : permission to go back and forth, a 



furlough, leave of absence from the army for a 
limited time'; persons who go back and forth, a 
trading company, caravan; that which is trans- 
ported; provisions, supplies. Duobu.i comnieat 
ibus exercilum reportare, at two transportation* 
or passages. , 

' COMMEMORO, are, avi, atum, tr., con-mem 
oro, memor, to mention, call to mind, detail 
recount, relate. 

COMMEXDO, are, avi, atum, tr., con-mando 
to commit to any one's charge for safe keeping 
consign to any one's eare ; entrust to ; tt 
commend to; to recommend. 

COMMEO, are, avi, atum, intr., con-meo, to 
go; to go and come ; to pass back and foi tu ;*ti 
go, come, visit, frequent. Commeare ad aliquem . 
to go to any. one frequently, to visit. 

COMMILITO, onis, in., con-miles, a fellow - 
soldier, comrade. 

COMMISSfRA, ae, f., committo, a joining 
together, knot, joint, juncture, seam. 

COMMISSUS, a, um, part., .from 

COMMITTO, ere, isi, issuin, tr., con-mitto, to 
join together, connect, unite, to bring togethei 
in a contest,, to begin (a battle, war;) to begil 
any course of action (especially what is wrong. 
to Commit. '• With ut, to be in fault so that, 
cause that, To place a thing somewhere for, 
protection, to give, commit, intrust. Commissus 
est, a fault has been committed, a cause ha- 
been given: commissum (aliquid,) a crime com- 
mitted. 

COMMIUS, i, m. Commius, a king of tin- 
Atrebates, sent by Ctesar to Britain : IV, 21.— 
lie afterwards joined iri a general revoli I' the 
Gauls under Vercingetorix : VII, 70. 

80MM0DE, adv.,commodu3, duly, iith 
conveniently, rightly, advantageQuflly, c^n...u 
diousl'y; opportunely; well, suitably. Stttk 
commode, conveniently enough, with sufficient 
readiness or ease. 

COMMODUM, f, n., (u. of commodus,) advan- 
tage, profit, utility, convenience. 

COMMODUS, a, um, adj., con-modus, having 
full measure, complete, perfect, suitable, conve- 
nient, apt, fit, expedient; useful, opporl 
agreeable, acceptable. 

COMMONEFACIO, ere, eci, actum, tr., (eom- 
monco, to remind, and facio,) Gr. glu7, Rem. 1, 
to put in mind, to remind forcibly, warn, im- 
press upon. 

COMMOR^tTUS, a, um, part., /row 
■ COMMOROR, ari, atus sum, dep. tr. and iutr . 
con-moror, to stop, pause, stay, abide, remain, 
tarry, sojourn with. To stop, detain. 

COMMOTUS, a, um, part., moved, troubled 
disturbed, alarmed, from 

COMMOVEO, ere, ovi, omrn, tr., con-moveo, 
to meve together or wholly, put in violent mo 
tion. Fig. to affect, agitate, move, touch; to 
disquiet, trouble, alarm. 



COMMUNlCATUS»-Ci>NCITATUS. 



:n 



( ■■ >MMUN1C.4TL"S, a, inn. part.,/rom 
COMMUN'ICO, arc, avi, atom, tr., communis, 
to make common with one, I licato, im- 

part, share with an j one, make n partner at, 
hold communion with; make a common cause 
with one, commune, confer, partake, shared to 
join, unite. Cum aliqwconfilium ounmwiicarc, 
to impart or communicate to, share h tl 
mune or consult with. 

■ IMTJNIO, i"\ I'vi, itum, ir.. con-munioj 
n\ all around or stro soure, fortify. 

t OMM r\IS. e, adj., con-munus, 'common to 
several or all, common, general, univei 

ing to the public. 
or tji 11 1 nit interest, 
COMMl 1'ATIO, onis, r. 

for tilt bettt r o 
. )MMC1tO, are,,avi. atum, cou-muto, to al- 
ter : (•' exchange, barter. 
c.>Mi'AK.rrrs, a, um, parfc,/row 
COMPARO, arc'. a\i. atum, tr., con-paro, 
p ire earnestly or carefully, furnish, pro- 
■ procure; get; to make; acquire; to 
buy. purchase. 

COMPELLO, ere, pnli,p n-pello, 

to drive or briug together, ass< mbtaj collect ; to 

drive, impel, urge,, compel, constrain", r 

•COMI'KM'I! M. i. n., con-pendOj what is 

i together, b ad ; gain 

. saving) profit, advantage. A sparing, 

abbreviating. 

eri, pertum, tr., c. a-pario, 

with certainty, ascertain 

accurately; get intelligence "1". detect, lean), be 

rtum'habeo, (stronger titan 

■ i. I k in >w . i 
ml. a discovery is made. 
COLLECTOR, i, exus 'sum, dcp. tr., con- 
: win* roifiid, go round, an- 
-. surround : to comprisi 
head, contain ; to love, favor; to 
COMPfcEO, ere, i \i, num. tr., cou-pleo, obs., 
full, fill up; complete; to perform, finish, 
fulfill. 
COJiri./. II a. a, im, part., compleo. 

'LEXUS, ub in., GMnplei -tin . i irrumfc- 

npleetor. 

1 i >>1 ii. M; - : . urium, u.Jj., con- 

[ilus, ' ■ . . .ml. a 

ui, Mtinn. tr., .k-u-i . 
put or | i r. to join, connect, pUtce in 

> 

.\ i. atum, tr., i o&forto, to 
illo t. 

■ '•■ i c • ; ; . < hendo, 

. .t with I '"ih lin 
apprehend; tal 

i illi the 



miii'l, comprehend, understand, discover. Com- 
ffrehendunt utrumquo— laj hold 
ikt fire. 

COMPREHENSUS, a, urn, put., i 
hendo. 

CQMPROBO, arc, avi, alum, tr.. con-probo, 
to approve entirely, to sanction; prove, '-"ii- 
lir ii. make go id, reniij . bo shon to beg I. 

COMPULI, i 

COMPULSUSj a. am, part., compello. - 

C ,v . ITUM, i, n., conor, a thing atten 
an endoavor, effort, nndertal 

ClNMTUS, as, in., cwior, the acl of attempt- 
ing, an ai tempt, endi 

COX-I'lTS. a, um. part.. I 

O0NC£DOlere, essi, osBiim, tr. and im c m 
retire, yield, depart, withdraw 

to go, repair (to it 
place;) t i assent to; to yield, give up ; to 
. allow, permit, o 

dum est, imp., permission should 
request should be granted. 

liUTi », art', avi, atum, intr , con-ccrto, 

. 
DESSDS, us. m. permitting ; 

pftrmisa 

Ii, isum, tr.. con-credo, Or. 

l'-2l, S ; to cut I : i ui 

down. kill, slay, destroy utterly; to 1 
■ ruin. 
'1)|>, ere. idi, intr.. coii-fcado, td fall 
down. .'.■ in. I ; (of the win,]., 

si.lt- ; to fall in i 
ill cay, i ruin. 

COXC1 l.l'>. ai -. a\ i. atum, tr., oncil 

(Mite, jl 

to attach, unil . tiring 

about, make. 

■ 
■in assembly, mi 

' u< h an 

as emblj - Ih i . an- often 

interchanged and the distinction lost siulit of. 
C'lN' n meeting m 

where 
an oral' 

. c|ituni. tr.. con-capio, to 
with both li in 

'. im- 






conoito— confiteor. 



, ire, avi. atum, tr.. con-cji >, to 
~tir tip. put in violent motion, excite, stii 
i, move, raise. 
CO-NCI..-!'' 1 "- are,ftvij atuin, intr'., eou-clamo, 
!.■> cry ; to crj cl y aloud, shout, ex- 

claim. !■, ure'SM'efort'ajn, Gr> §150, 

Hem. 2, total's ' ; of victory: concla- 

'viarc a Shout to arms I With 4tZ 

.when a desire is implied. 

CONCLrilO. ere, si, sum. tr., cbn-fcjaudo, to 
shut up, confine, inclo e, circuntecribe) to hem 
in: to include, comprise; to end, close. 
CONCLITSI - it ■:., conclwdo. 

CONCUPO, are. in, itinii, intr., QOn-Cupo, to 
rattle, to mak< ' -h. rattle-, ring: ccn- 

cupare B ■• to male a i 

striking th shi Id ' ith tlie sword. 

GON( DIJ.RO, ere. eurri, cursum, intr., eon- 
cuwyl crowds-; flock or rush 

t.< gether; to i un together (with or without vio- 
lence.) To rnu-together in a hostile nia 
to fight, engage hi "fight, charge. To happen 
together; to concur, to occvir simultaneously: 
eoncurritur. imp., they rush or llocl to 
Ad arma coricurri oporlet, it is necessary for 
the soldiers to ran t 

CONCTJRSO, are, avi, atum, intr. freq., con- 
curso, to rush violently together, to run to and 
fro, to run up and down: concursalur, imp., 
they run up and down, hurry to arid fro. 

CONCURSTJS, us, in., cmcurro, a running or 
flocking together ; a meeting, assembling; an 
assembly, concourse ; a dashing Or striking to- 
gether ; a hostile running together, a conflict, 
charge, attack, onset. ■ 
CONCUKSUS, a, um, part., concorro. 
CONDEMNO, are, avi, atum, tr., con-damno, 
to sentence, find guilty, to condemn, charge 
with. 

CONDITIO, onis, f., condo, to put together,, 
establish ; the external position, state, position, 
condition, circumstances ; nature, quality. The 
establishing of terms, a contract, condition, com- 
pact, stipulation, terms ; a proposition, propo- 
sal : conditionem ferre, to offer or propose terms. 
• CONDONO, are, avi, atum, tr., con*-doijo, to 
give fretly, grant, prusent, bestow-, offer as a 
sacrifice. To give one a debt ; to remit, excuse; 
. to pardon, forgive : with jtAe accusative of the 
crime and the dative of the person it si'/nifies to 
pardon the fault for his sake, on his account. 

CONDRITSI, oruni, m. pi., the Coudrusi, a 
peeple of Belgic Gaul : II, 4. 

CONDi/CO, ere, xi, ctum, tr. and intr., con- 
duco, to bring or lead together, assemble, col- 
lect, to bring together by pay, to hire. Intr. to 
be profitable; to serve. 
CONDUCTUS, a, um, part., condttco.. 
C0NET0Dt7NUS, i, m. Conetoduuus, a lead- 
\ er of the Carnutes : VII, 3. 



eONFBCXUS, a, um, part. 

'ERCJO, ire, (no pexf.,) turn, tr., con- 
farcio, to stuff; to Btuff, crowd, or cram together, 
to press close together. 

CONFERTUS. a, um, part, asd adj., crammed, 
full, crowded ; thick, cl ■; dense, in close ar- 
ray: confertissima acie or agminecpnferti 
in very clo^e array. 

C0NFER0, ferre, contuli, collatum, tr. irr.. • 
con-fero, to bring, carry, put. or lay together : 
to collect, gather. To contribute, pay. To 
into connection, to unite, join; (in a hostile 
sense,) to fight. To briug together in compari- 
son, to compare. To shorten hy l>: lights -to- 
gether, to abrid-. Can, {n,tnsive, to 
carry or direct, a thing somewhere, to betake : 
se fin/., to betake one's self. To apply, bestow; 
to attribute, ascribe, (culp im alicui.) To trans- 
fer to a future time, to put off, defer, .delay. 

CONFESTIM, adv., a'cin iofcstinb, fero. forth- 
with, immediately, speedily, with mt a moment's 
delay. ' 

COXflCIO, ere, cci, ectum,~tr., con-facio, t.> 
make completely; to finish, terminate, com- 
plete, settle, accomplish: tb effect, to cause; to 
execute, perform ; to finish a person, to kill, ' 
sweep. away,.destroy. To prepare, provide, bring 
togfSfeer : conjlctre tubules Uteris Grxcis, to 
compile, write. 

COKE /DO, ere, idi. and isus -um, intr., con- 
fido, to trust, to'tFHSt to, •feel confident in; to 
coniide in ; to'rely upon; to believe certainly, 
to be assured. 

CONFJGO, ere, xi, xum, tr., con-figo, to fix ; 
to fix or fasten together, fasten ; to pierce, 
transfix. « , 

CONF/NIS, e, adj., con-finis, next to, adjoin- 
ing, bordering upon, contiguous. 

CONFINIUM, i, ii., confinis, a boidering up- 
on, a oonfirje, common boundary, bound, limit, 
frontier ; neighborhood, nearness. 

CONFIO, clef., cou-fio. See Confit. 

CONFIRMATIO, onis, f., coufirmo, a confirm- 
*■* j 

ing, establishing, securing; encouragement, 

consolation; confirmation, proof ; an assertion, 
information, declaration. 

CONFIRMylTUS, a, um. part, and adj., cou- 
firmo, confirmed, established, settled; eneou r- 
aged, consoled; resolute. 

CONFIRJUO, are, ari, atum, tr., con-firmo, 
firmus, to make firm, strengthen, fix, confirm, 
establish; to Strengthen one's courage, encour- 
age, animate, enliven, persuade, consolu, sup- 
port ; to satisfy, confirm ; to prove; to affirm, 
assert, assure, declare. Lege confermare, to set- 
tle or fix by law. Confirmare se, to encourage 
one's self, take courage. ^ 

C0NF1SUS, a, um, parw, confido. 

CONFIT, confieri, cou-fio, Gr. gl!3, 11 : it is 
done. 

CONFITEOR, cri, essus sum, dep. tr., eon-fa- 



I 



CON FIXUS— CONSENSUS. 



!I8 



;or. f> confess, acknowledge, fu^ly. wit, can 

i 'lie, admit, allow, grant. 
CONFIXUS, a, am, ; art., c 
CONf ' • . avi, atum, intr., 
! urn, to burn, be on nre. 
■ . i i 

t r ■ 

■ 

■ 

COXORJU 

I, 

1 



CO^?UJRATIO, •nis, f., conjwro, a < 

ion : in a b,i ' 
spiracy, plo( : i 
be j . 

■ f, atum, int: . 

1 

4 

C 

! 

having a common 

board ship, ta 

j .in! knowl 
■; with 

- 

»i, kill 

kuow- 
. privy 

i 

I 






A, t. 
with 












■ 
atum, t: 



•i 

■ I 
I 



214 



COSSENTIO— CONSUL. 



.'-•nt: consensu omnium vestrum, by consent of 
you all, as you all agree. 

CONSENTIO, ?re, sensi, gensnm, intr., con- 
sentio, to agree in opinion, to consent, assent, 
agree in asserting, to determine, decree ; to plot 
together, conspire. 

COHSEQUOR, i, cittus sura, dep. to\, con-se- 
quir. to follow so as to lie along with, go after; 
to follow succeed; to imitate; to pursue; to 
come up with, overtake, reach, attain ; to pro- 
cure, gain pcssession of, obtain, get, gain, ac- 
quire; to attain intellectually ; to understand, 
learn. 

CONSERVJTUS, a, um, part., from 

CONSEEVO, are, avi, atum, tr., conserve, to 
preserve, leave unhurt, take care 6f, keep, de- 
feud, protect, save alive ; to observe, keep. 

CONSIDIUS, i, m., (P.) Considius, one of 
Cmsar's officers: I, 21. 

CONS/DO, ere, scdi, scssum, intr., con-sido, 
to set d<nvn, a collateral form, of sedeo; to sit 
down, seat one's self; to meet, hold a meeting ; 
to settle permanently, take up one's abode ; in 
military language, to encamp; to settle, fall, 
sink, subside. * 

CONSILIUM, i, n., (co?» and obs. sulo, whence 
consul, consirfo,) counsel, advice, deliberation ; a 
design, measure, course, scheme, plan: art, 
management, stratagem, design, intent, pur- 
pose, drift, judgment, determination, resolve: 
presence of mind, prudence, wisdom, skill, dis- 
cretion, sagacity. Sometimes confounded with 
concilium, a council of war : coiuilio abcsse, to 
take no part in, have nothing to do with a plot: 
consilium capere, to form a design : consilio est, 
it is a matter for deliberation. 

CONSIMfLIS, e, adj., con-similis, exactly 
like, similar in all respects. 

CONSISTO,' ere', constiti, constitiim, intr., 
con- sisto, to cause to stand, reduplicated from 
sto ; to stand firmly, stand fast, make a stand, 
stand, halt, station, one's self, stop. To stay, 
post one's self; to rest, continue) exist, con sist 
of: censent ut consistanl, they _ determine to 
make a stand. Vita c»tisistit in, — is occupied 
or spent in : contra consisterc, to oppose. Ad 
ancoram consistere, to ride at anchor. In ali- 
quo consistere, to persist, persevere in anything. 

CONSOBR/NUS, i, m., con-sobn'nus fur sor- 
orinus from soror; the son of a mother's sister: 
in a more general sense, a first cousin. 

CONSOLJTUS, a. um, part., from 

CONSOLOR, ari atus, dep. tr., consular, to 
console; to console earnestly, comfort, oheer, en- 
courage, solace. 

CONSPECTUS, us, m., conspicio, *a sight, 
view. In conspectu, in sight. In conspeclum 
venire, to coin;' in sight. 

CONSPEXI. See Conspicio, 

CON'S PIC JITS, part., eonspicor. 

CONSPICIO, ere, exi, ectum, tr., couspeeio. 



to look ; to see, look at with attention, behold, 
discern, observe, get a sight of, perceive. 

CONSPICOR, ari, atus, dep. tr., (colli 
form of conspicio,) to get a sight of.. see, behold, 
descry. 

CON'SP/RO, are, avi, atum, intr., con-spwv. 
to briaiht's to breathe together, blow or sound'.' 
together; to harmonize, agree; to unite, ccni-i 
biue. In a bad sense, to conspire, plottogethei; 

CONSTANTEll, adv., constans, oonsto, firnA* 
ly, steadily, constantly, uniformly, consistently 
with one consent: constantcr nunciare, to a 1 
gree in announcing, give the same report., 

CONSTANTLY, ae,f., constaii3, iconsto, firm- 
ness, steadiness, self-possession, constancy, con- 
sistency, perseverance; <jpol courage. 

CONSTERN ATVS, part., from 

CONSTERNO, are, avi, atum, tr., con-sterno. 
to spread f to stretch on the ground, overcome : 
to alarm, terrify,* affright, dismay, disquiet. To 
disquiet politically, excite to rebellion, arouse: 
perhaps in this sense ihe'expression Animo con- 
sternati, excited to new effort by fear ; but 
more probably, prostrated, cowed. 

CONSTERNO, ere, stravi, stratum, tr., con- 
sterno, to spread ; to spread or cover all over. 

C0NST7P0, are, avi, atum, tr., cou-stipo, to 
pack ; to crowd closely together, pack, cram. 

CONSTITI. See consisto and consto. 
• CONSTITUO, ere, ui, tttum, tr., con-statuo, 
to cause to stand, sto; *o set up, place, dispose, 
post, station ; to stop, halt. To establish in the 
mind, intend, determius, appoint, constitute, 
fix, settle, agree upon, resolve, decide; to decree, 
ordain, proscribe; to regulate, arrange; to cre- 
ate, make. JVavem constituere, to moor a ship. 

CONSTITt'TUS, part:, cunslituo. 

CONSTO, are, stiti, statum, intr., con-s»o, to 
stand still, stdp, stand together, stand ; to be. 
exist ; to be consistent ; to st and firm, persist. 
remain, continue ; to agree, correspond ; to rest. 
depend, consist; to be established, settled, evi- 
dent. To stand at a curtain price, to cost :• coh- 
starepenes aliquos, to rest with, depend upon : 
constat, imp., it is evident, clear, plain, it is a 
greed : constat inter unities, all agree or admit, 
everybody knows. 

CQNSTRJTUS, part., consterno. 

CONSUESCO, ere, cvi, etum, tr. and intr., 
con— suesco, sueo, to accustom; to accustom one's 
self, to become accustomed : consuevi, Gr §113. 
Rem. 5, I have accustomed myself, htuef, 1 a i 
used or wont. 

CONSUETZ7DO, iuis, f., consuesco, custom, 
usage, habit, manner of life. Social Intercourse, 
acquaintance, familiarity, intimacy. Prx^tr 
,conswludincin, unusuaL: conswtudo itineris, 
manner of marching. Ex consuetttdinef&ccord- 
iny to custom, as usual. 

CONSUL, ulis, m., (on same stem with cpnsulo 
and consilium,) a consul, olie of the two chief 



>'■ 



CONSULATUS— CONTRA. 



2] ft 






magistrates annually elected at Rome. 

CONSUL. 1TUS, ns, m., (consul, through, the 
Intermediate form consulare, to be a consul,) the 
of consul, consulship, time of being con- 
sul. 

CONSTJLO ere, ui, tnm, tr. and intr., (con 
and nlis. sulo.) to consult, deliberate; to delib- 
erate upon a thing, consider, disease, weigh. To 
Isk advice of, consult; to conclude, determine. 
IVith a <l«t. to provide for, take care of, took to 
the safety of, regard, respect. SorttbtU consul- 
Wk, to deliberate or determine by lot: coiisid- 
\en vitte alicujus, to spare. 

(80NSULT0, arc avi, atum. tr. and iutr. freq., 

mi ulo, t.i ask advice p-f, consult ; to take care, 
provide, look to ; to deliberate maturely, con- 
sult, advise. i. 

CONSULTO, adv., (aM. of consuUum,) with 
deliberation, deliberately, designedly, on pur- 
pose; considerately, prudently, wisely. 

CO.WSL'I/n'M, i. n., consultus, a thing delib- 
eratedand decided upon, a docre^gtatute, prdi- 

ICMO, ere. jisi, ptnm, tr., con-aumo^ to 
wholly or completely, take to one's self, 
sal up; devour, consume, destroy, kill. slay. 
Of time, to spend, pas?. 
C0N8UMPTUS, put., oontumo. 
CONSURGO, ere, surrexi, rectum, iptr., con 
drgu for surrigo, sub-rego, to rise up 
iMtcd or assembly; to rise, 
adjourn. t 

GONTABDLATIO, onis, f. oontabulo. a plank- 
ing up or over, covering with planks or boards, 
. plauking ; a floor, Btory, 
CONTABULO, are, avi, atnni. con-tabulo, 
tabula, to cover with planks or boards, to plank 
djp or over, to plank or floor with hoards. Mu- 
ruin lurribus coilahulare, to elevate with tow- 

Mroral Stories, or with w ten towers. 

CONTACT i. i Bis, f.. COOtingo, touch, contact, 
connexion : in a had sense, contagiou, infection. 
CONTAMINATES, part., from 
CnNTAMlNo. an, avi. atum, tr. (con and 
(amino/,. r tngmiuo, strengthened f.rm of i;v-o, 
tango,) to pOQuU by touching, stain, contami- 
nate, defile. 

I ' i\TKG<>, ere, xi, ctum, tr., r,n-l 
•"over over, conceal by covering, bide, conceal. 
CONTBMNO, ere. psi, jit inn. tr.. c 'n-temno, 
to despise, to set small value upon, to despise, 
contemn, slight, treat with contempt. 

CONTKMPTIO, onis, f. contemn, a despising, 
contemning; disregard, contempt, scorn, dis- 
dain, lieui, te fall 
nipt with. !>•• despist '1 U\ . 
CONTl.MI'l : "-". 11-, m.. contemt 
-corn, disdain, dcrisio t'-inpt. 
CON'I o. Am, tr. and Inti 
beta with all 

attempt ; to 



hasten, go, shape one'.- Course; to peek for ear- 
nestly, urge, entreat, beg; to assert earnestly. 
insist, contend. ( Cos — together.) to strive to- 
gether, contend, dispute, fight. Oentendit ju'err. 
he persists in begging, begs earnestly. Summis 
copiis contendere, to come to a general erigage- 
nienl Obntenditur, a contest is carried on. 

CONTENTIO, snls, f, coutendo, an earnest 
Btretching »>• straining; an effort, exertion, en- 
deavor; a strife, debate, contention, contest, 
dispute. 

CilNTKNTUS, a. urn, part, and adj., contineo. 
holdiog one's self in one's proper place, re- 
straining one's self from (undue desire; Aence, 

content, satisfied. 

i i INTESTATUS, part., coutestor. 

COXTESTitK, ari. alns dop. tr., con-testor. 
testis, to i -all to witness, invoke, conjure. 

C0NTK3C0, ere, ui, turn, tr.. con-texo. to 

weavt, to weave together, interweave, entwine. 

unite, connect, join together; to make by Join- 
ing, compose. 
G0NTJ5XTUS, part., contexo. 
OONTIGI, SeeContingo. 
CONTINENS, entis, part, and adj.. c mtineo, 
holding together, holding, containing; adjoin- 
ing, adjacent, next to ; continuing. . continual, 
holding on without interruption : 
noun, sc. terra, the continent. 

COXTINENTKi:, adv., centihons, continual- 
ly, unceasingly, without intermission <ir inter- 
ruption. 
C< IN TiNENTIA. ae, f, continens. resti 

;. beeping within , i tem- 

tnoderation, abstiw nee, 
CONTINJBO, ere, tinui, tentum, tr.. 

tei to hold in c mipletcly or on all si h 

contain, comprise, comprehend; to oncoi 
surround; to keep, keep in, detain ; to hold in 
check, curb, restrain. To confine, limit 
to take up, ocean/; to connect, join. 
ner« tt, to restrain one's self; also, to slm: 
self up. 

CONTINOO, turn, tr. and intr., 

con-tan 

to reach, "arrive at; to border upon. Of occur- 
rences, usuiUy favorable ones, to happen, fall 
out, turn out, come to pas. 

OONTINUABPionis,f.,con-tinuo,continuus. 
a joining without interruption, a continuation 
succession. 

CONTINUO, adv.. following without any in- 
| delay, immediately, (brthwitl 
stantly,/roffl 
• 
. uninterrupted, « [| I glon. 

■ 

the 

other ha 



I 



216 



CONTRACTUS— CRASSUS. 



flic other hand. Foll&ved by ae. atque, rt .. oth- 
■ rwise than. 
CONTRACTUS, a, um, par* and adj., /rom 
• ONTRAUO, ere. xi. ctum, tr., con--traho, to 
draw together, assemble, unite, collect; to di- 
minish by drawing together, to draw in, con- 
tract. 

'CONTRARIUS, a, um, adj., contra, lying oyer 
against, opposite; contrary, at variance with, 
"repugnant, opposed. Ex eontrario, on the con- 
trary. In contrariam partem revincire — upon 
the opposide side, in the opposite direction. 

COXTROVERSIA, ao, f.,controversus, contro- 
verto, a being turned in the opposite direction ; 
a controversy, debate, dispute, quarrel. Dedu- 
. eere rem in controvcrsiam, to call into questioa, 
make a subject of discussion or dispute. 
CONTULI, etc. See ConfCro. 
CONTUMELIA, ae, f. , con and root tem, whence 
t-enino, an affront, abuse arising from contempt, 
a reproach, outrage, insult, contumely: a shock, 
brunt, violence. Contumelia vcrborum, insulting 
Or abusive' language. 

COXVALESCO, ere, lui, intr. inc., con-vales- 
co, valeo, to grow entirely well, to acquire 
rtrength, grow strong ; to recover from a dis- 
ease, convalesce. 

COXVALLIS, is, f. , con-vallis, a plain sur- 
rounded on all sides with hills, a valley; while 
eallis is a plain surrounded on two sides. ■ 
COXYECTUS, a, um, part. 
COXVEUO, ere, xi, ctum, tr., con-veho, to 
carry or bring together. 

COXYEXIO, ire, eni, entum, intr. and tr., 
cou-venio, to come together, meet, flock, assem- 
ble, collect. Convenire aUquem, to meet, have 
an interview with. To agree, correspond ; to be 
agreed or settled. Convenire ad aliqucm, to go 
to, betake one's self to : convenit; imp., it is fit, 
proper ; it is agreed, agreed upon, settled. 

CONYENTUS, us, m., convenio, a meeting, 
assembly, convention ; a judicial meeting, court ; 
the assizes. Ad conventus agendos, to hold the 
assizes: eonventibus peractis or conventuper- 
acto, when the assizes aro over. 
CON VERSUS, a, um, part., from 
CONVERTO, ere, ti, sum, tr., con-verto, to 
turn or wheel about, whirl about, turn ; to 
change, transform, convert. Signa convertere l to 
change the direction of the standards, i. «. to 
face about, turn about. 

CONVICTOLITANIS, is, to. CouvictoUtanis, 
a chief of the Mdai : VII, 32. 
CONVICTUS, a, um, part., /row 
CONVINCO, ere, ici, ictum, tr., con-vinco, to 
conquer by argument ; to convict, prove a crime 
upon ; to prove, demonstrate. 
CONVOCATUS, a, um, part., frtm 
CONVOCO, are, avi, atum, tr., con-voco, to 
cull together, assemble, summon, convoke. 



CO.ORIOR, in.ortus sum, dep. inir., con-ori^i . 
to rise together : to rise, arise, st.vnd forth, ap- 
pear. 
COORTUS, a, um, part., coorior. 
COPIA. ac. f., c m-ops, plenty, abundance : 
supply, store. PL effects, substance, wealtli. 
stores, necessaries, conveniences of life, resour- 
ces, goods and chattels : an armed force, army, 
forces. Factre copiam, to supply or furnish. 

COPIOSUS, a, um, adj., copia, full of, plenty, 
copious, abundantly provided; plentiful, rich. 
wealthy, abounding. 

COPULA, ae, f., con and root ap, that which 
joins, a grappling hook. 

COR, cordis, a., the heart.. Cordi est, it *>■ 
agreeable or pleasing ; pleases, is dear U>. 

CORAM, prep, with, abl., (aiintoo*, with 
dem. prefix c,) before, in preience of, before the 
eyes of, openly, in person. 

CORIUM. i. n., the skin er hide of a beas' ; 
leather. 

CORNU,. us. n.. the horn of an animal, i 
trumpet, horn : the.trjng of an army. 

CORONA, ae, f., a crown, garland ; a ring .,/■ 
crowd of people : a circle of troops round a be- 
sieged city. Vender? sub corona, to sell nndei 
the corona, to sell for slaves, the captives being 
Crowned with garlands like animals preparsd 
for sacrifice. 

CORPUS, oris, n., a body, solid substance ; the 
body, person. 

CORRIPIO, ere, ipui,eptum, tr., con-rapio. t.- 
snatch, seize violently, take by surprise ; to 
take away by force, carry off; rob, plunder; to 
attack ; to reprove, blame. 

CORRUMPO, ere, upi, upturn, tr.,con-rnmpo. 
to break; to break all ft> pieces, to desdroy, to 
waste, impair..' mar, spoil, damage, hurt, injure. 
corrupt. 

CORTEX, icis, m. and f., the bark of a tree, 
the rind. 

CORUS, i, m., or Corns yentus, the north- 
west wind : V, 7. 
COSS., an abbreviation of Consnlibus. 
COTTA, ae, m. Cottu, (L. Aurunculeius,) one 
of Caesar's lieutenants in the Gallic war: II, 11. 
COTUATUS, 1, m. Cotuatus, a leader of the 
Carnutes : VH, 3. 

COTUS, i, m. Cotue, a nobleman of the JEdui : 
JII, 32. 

CRASSITCDO, inis, f., crassus, thick; thick- 
ness, bigness. 

CRASSUS, i, m. Crassus, a Roman family 
name of the gens Licinia. Marcus Licinius 
Crassus, a Roman distinguished for his immense 
wealth, who united with Pompey and Caesar to 
form the first Triumviate: 1,21. Publiut Cras- 
sus, the son of M. Crassus, was one of Cajsar's 
lieutenants in Gaul; J, 62, and II, 34. U. Cras- 
sus, a quaestor i« Csesar's army : V, 24. 



ORATES-CUSTOS. 



!17 



CRATES, is, f.. a hurdle, wicker work : a 

texture of rods or twigs wattled together ; in t 
military language., fascine?. 

CRE.4TUS, a. am, part., oreo. . 

CREBER, lira, brum, akin to cresco, adj., fie- 
quent, repoated, thick, close, crowded, nnmor- 
ou . 

CREBRO, adv., creber, frequently, oftentimes. 
repeatedly. 

CRA'DO. ere, idi. ituin. tr. and intr.. irrtuui— 
do, to commit or intrust, ( rcdit, have confidence 
in, believe, trust; to think, suppose, imagine, 
be of opinion. 

CREMO. are. avi.atum.tr., to burn, tine usual 
expression for burning the dead, criminal?, Ac. 

CREO, are, avi.. atum, tr., to make, create, 
torm, generate, begot ; to appoint, elect. create; 
to produce, cause. 

CR.ES, rtis, m., ace. pi., Oirtas. adj^ Cretan. 
Subs., a Cretan, one born in the island of Crete: 

n, 7. 

CRESCO, ere. crevi, upturn, intr., creo, to in- 
CT( we, grow; to be promoted, advanced; rise, 
thrive, acquire authority ; to become greater. 

CR/MEX, inis, d., (for crimen, /row i ernoy) 

origi/iaily a judicial decision, then a charge, ac- 
cusation, indictment, impeachment; a fault) 
offence, crime. 

CR/XIS, is, m., (usually referred to root C£R, 
whence cerno, crimen,) the hair of the head > 
hair. 

CRITOQX^ITUS, i, m.,a chief of the Arverni : 
VII. 77. 

C$UCI.4TUS, us, m., crucio, crux, torture, 
pftin, agony, distress, vexation, angufth. IV wire 
in summum mutatum, to suffer the severest 
torture, to be tortured to death. 

CI'.l'Di'LIS. e, adj., (crudus./or cruidus./rom 
eruor.) cruel, fierce, unmerciful, hard I 
inhuman, savage, barbarous. 

CRUDELITAS, atis, f., cruddis, cruelty, bar- 
barity, inhumanity. 

CRUDEMTKR, udv.,crud'lis, in a crud man- 
ner, cruelly, barbarously. 

CRUS, uris, n., the leg from the knee to the 
anklo. 

CUB7LE, is, cubo, to lie ; a place where met 
or bea-t , lie down, a coucb, bed; a n< <t. 

CDI and Cujus. Pee Qui and Quia. 

CCJCSQUEMODI or Cuj usque modi, of what 
k,lnd or sort soever, of every kind. See quiiqut. 

CULMEN, inis, n., {for columcn. /rom cell<>.) 
the top or summit of anything. 

CULPA, ao, f., (by some thought to bo akin 
to tcflun,) crime, defect, fault, failure, blame, 
guilt. 

COLTUS, us, m., colo, cultivation, culture.-* 
Fig. cultivation, civilization, elegance, polish ; 
style, manner of living. Cultus corporis, dress, 
apparel, attire. 

CUM, prep, with abl., Gr. $120. with, along 

S 



with ; together with: in conjunction with. In 
a hostile sense, with, i.e. against. 

CUM. See Quum. 

CUNCTATIO, onis, f., cunctor, a delaying, 
lingering, deferring; delay, doubt, hesitation. 

CUNCTOR. an. atus sum, dep. intr., (by some 
derived from CO nor, by Others' from Cltnctus;) to 
delay, linger; to hesitate, be perplexed, doubt. 

CUNCTUS, a, urn, adj., con-junetus, all, all 
together, the whole. 

ITX I'.ATIM. adv.. wedge-shaped, in theform 
of a wedge, from 

CUNEUS, i, m., a wedge ; a body of Soldier* 
placed in the form of a wedge. 

CUNICULUS, i, m., a coney, rabbit. From 
the custom of European rabbits to burrow ir.thr 
ground) a mine, a subterranean passage. 

CUPIDE, ius, issimf. adv., cupidua fondly. 
eagerly, desirously, zealously, vehemently. 

CI I'IDITAI, ntis, f. cupidus. desire With 
longing, eagerness ; eager or inordinate desire. 
lust ; thirst for gain, avarice, covetousness. 

CLTIDUS, a, urn, adj., cupio, desirous, fond, 
eager, sarnost; greedy, lustful. 

CUPIEXS, tis, part, apd ailj., desiring, desi- 
rous, wishing, eager, from 

CUPIO, ere, ivi, itum, tr., to covet, desire, be 
willing, wish, long for. Cupcre alicui, to wish 
one well, be friendly to. 

CUR, adv., quarc, why? wherefore? for what 
to what purpose? with what intent ? 
or in indirect questions, why, for which, where- 
fore. 

Cl'RA, ae, f., quaero, care, concern, anxiety, 
solicitude, trouble, sorrow, affliction, grief; care, 
diligence, attention, pains, study, thought, re- 
gard ; guardianship, charge ; management, ad 
ministration. Est tnihi curie, I have a care, I 
take care of, attend to. 

CURIOSOLITES, um, or Curios olitas, arum, 
m. pi., the Curiosolites, a people of Celtic Qaul : 
II, 34. 

CTRO, are, avi, atum, tr., cura, to take care 
of, see to, order, treat, provide, care, attend to. 
manage, administer. With afui. past, part., to 
order or cause the doing of a thing, have It 
done. 

CL'RRO, ere, cucurri, cursum, intr., to run. 

CURSUS, us, m., curro, a running speed; a 
course, journey, way, passage, march, ilagno 
curat, at full speed. Cursum ter.cre, to hold or 
keep one's course at sea. 

CUSPIS, idis, f, a point ; a spear, javelin. 

CUSTOD1A, ao, f., custoe, the act of keeping, 
mg, watching, guarding; care, charge ; 
a guard, watch. 

'UM, ire.ivj, »tum, tr.,i nstos, to guard, 
».it li. preset 'fend. 

CU8T08, odis m. and f., a keeper, preserver, 
guard, watch; a spy placed upon ons's actions. 



213 



D1CI— DEFATIGATIO. 






D 



ID., an abbreviation of the prasnomea Dec- 

iMXtB, 

DACI, orum, m. pi., the Dacians, a warlike 
people inhabiting a large country on the north 
of the Danube, extending eastward to the Eun- 
ice, and comprehending Transylvania, Moldavia 
•$B Walachia : VI, 25. 

DAMX.4TUS, a, um, part., condemned. — 
Dzmnati, m. pi., condemned persons, convicts : 
from 

DAMNO, are, avi, atum, tr., <3nr::-nuni, to 
i-nndemn. doom, sentence. 

DAMNUM, i, rr., (perhaps from demo, to take 
,?way,) loss, hurt, damage, injury. i 

DANUBIXJS, i, m., the Danube, the great river 
of southern Europe : VI, 25. 

DATES, a, um, part., do. 

DE, prep, with abl., down from, away from, 
from. Of time, from, immediately after, at ; aa 
de node, at night ; de terlia vigilia, after the 
netting of the third watch, at or during the 
third watch. De media node, immediately after 
midnight. Of, about, concerning, with respect 
to. Of the causes from which an action procieds r 
for, on account of, because of; 7m de causis* De 
improviso, sc.loco, suddenly, unexpectedly. 

DEBEO, ere, ui, itum, tr., de-habeo, to owe, 
be in debt. Pass^ to be due, to be'come due. — 
With the infinitive it denotes duty, it is proper, 
it i3 indispensable., one ought. Debere aliquid 
alicui, to be indebted or under obligations to 
one. Debet pugnare, imp., a battle should be 
fought, they should fight. 

DEC.EDO, ere, essi, essum, intr., de-cedo, to 
depart, go away, withdraw, retire, retreat. Dis- 
cedere or vita discedere, a euphemism for moriri, 
to die, decease : discedere alicui or aliquo, to de- 
part from, shun, avoid. 

DECEM, num." adj. indl, ten. 

DECEPTUS, a, um. part., decipio. 

DECEENO, ere, crevi, cretum, tr., de-cerno, 
t9 decide, determine, decree ; to think, judge, 
conclude, resolve.; to give sentence, vote, order, 
appoint, settle. To decide by a contest, to fight, 
combat, contend, engage. 

DECERTO, are, avi, atum, intr., de-certo, to 
contend vehemently, strive, fight, dispute-. — 
Prcelio decertare, to fight, engage. 

DECESSUS : us, m., decedo, a going away, de- 
parture; decrease, disappearance. Decessus «*- 
tus, the ebbing of the tide. 

DECETIA, ao, f. Decctia, a city of the ^Edul : 
VII, 33. 

DECIDO, ere, idi, intr., de-cado, to fall from, 
fall down. 

DESIM^INUS or Deiumanus, a, um, adj.,dec- 
imus, of the tenth. Dtcimana porta, the deel- 
man gate or rear gate of the Roman camp, so 



called because the tenth cohorts were sfaiioaci" 
there. 

DECIMUS, a, um, num. adj., decern, the- 
tonth. 

DECIPIO, ere, epi, eptnm, tr., de-capio, tc- 
ensnare, entrap, deceive, beguile. 

DECLvlRO, are, avi, atum, tr., do-claro, cla- 
ms, to show clearly, make clear ; to prove, 
ovinco, manifest; to proclaim, announce, de- 
clare. 

DECL7VIS, o, adj., de-cltvus, cli'EO, bending 

or sloping 'downwards, steep, eloping. JEtftiali- 

ter declivis, sloping regularly. 

DECLIVITA3, atis, f., declivis, a declivity, 

escent, eloping downwards. Ad' declivitatunre 

fastigium, a descent, downward slope. 

DECRi'TUM, i, n., (part, from decerno,) a 
thing determined, voted sr ordered ; a decree,-' 
aet, ordinance, statute.' 

DECR£TUS, a, um, part., decerno. 
DECUMvlNUS, a, um, adj., decimu?. See Dec- 
imanus. * 

DECURIO, onis, in., decuria, decern, originally 
the commander of a decuria or ten horsemen. 
Jt is used also for the captain or commander of 
a turma or troop, consisting of thirty -two horse- 
men. 

DECURRO, ere, curri and cucurri, cursuni, 
intr., de-curro, to run down or along, to run, 
hasten. 

DEDECUS, oris, n., (de-decus, glory, from 
decet,) disgrace,' dishonor, shame, infamy; a. 
shameful or disgraceful action. 
DEDI. See Do. 
DEDIDI, etc. See Dedo. 
DEDITIO, oais, £, deab, a yielding ap, sur- 
render, submission, capitulation. Accipere or 
recipere in dedttionem, to admit to, surrender. 
Venire i?i dediiioncm, to surrender, capitulate. 
DEDITITIUS, a, um, adj., deditn3, one who 
has surrendered. Subs, dediiitii, orum, m., sub- 
jects. 

DEDITUS, a, am, part, and ad^, dedo,. g'v i> 
up ; devoted, addicted, attached to. 

D.EDO, ere, idi, itum, tr., de-do, to give or 
deliver up; to submit, surrender, consign, yields 
to devote one's self. 

DEDJ7C0, ere, xi, ctum, tr., de-dnco, to bring, 
lead or draw down or away; to draw or lead off, 
withdraw, remove, bring or lead forth, lead out, 
to bring, conduct, lead ; to conduct a bride to 
her husband, to take as a wife ; to accompany 
out of respect ; to bring to an opinion, lead, 
move, induce ; to turn away, \lraw aside, mis- 
lead, seduce. Deducere naves, to bring down 
from land to sea, to launch. 

DEDUCTUS, a, um, part., deduco. 
DEEST, &c. See Desum. 
DEFATIGATIO, onis, f., defatigo, a wearying 
out, tiring down, fatiguing ; weariness, fatigur^ 
exhaustion. 






"DEFATIGAT'OS— DBMITTO. 



210 



©EFATHJjiTOS, part., dcfatrgo. 
DEFATiGO, arc, avi, atuni, tr., dc-fr' 
woary or tire greatly, tiro out, fatigue, exhaust. 
DEFECTIO, ouis, f., deficio, a failing, filling 
-iff, defect, failure ; a revolt, defection. 

DEPENDO, ere, di, sum, tr., de-fendc, cb.t., to 
r ward off, keep away, repel ; to defend) 
keep, protect, guard, preserve, Support. 

DEFENSIO, cnin, f., dofendo, a defending, de- 
Xvoee. 

DLFEXSOR, oris, in., dofendo, one who keeps. 
or wards off, a defender, an advocate. 
DEFENSJ : : , a. 811 , [art., defend©. 

. ESQ, terrc, tuli, latum, in-, tr., de-fero, 
to bear, bring, or carry down or away, to carry, 
bring, convoy ; to carry over, transfer, 
: . give, coiner, bestu\ , 
Dnoojnee, tell, narrate, report. Ad ali- 
■•. to lay anything before 
• inc. 

DEFESSUi, a, um, part, and adj., de-fctiscor, 
tired down, worn out, fatigued, faint, weary, 
languid, exhausted. 
DEFETISCOR, i, fessus, i -latiscor, 

I i v, eatj out, exhau-'. . 
DEFICIO, c re, f:ci, fectui:i, tr. and inl 
facio, urt ih a middle sense, to make on 
down or off from, hence, ' • I, leave, 

,iba:i ■■ intr. to fail, be wanl 

*efiri«:it, cease, disappear, losestreDgth wcqur- 
i i>h. Defieere ab aliquo, to revol I . 
DE1VGO, ere, xi, ctum, tr., de-fi'go, td fix in 
the ground, plant, fasten down; to fix, fasten. 

1 XIO, ire, t'vi, t'tura, tr., de-fiuio. 
minute, hound, limit; to designate, mark out 
the limits of, define, determine, explain ; to pre- 
scribe, assign. 
DKl'iX/TUS, part., definio. 
DEJ IXb'.S, a, uni, part., d 
. DEI ' Gr. J113, 15; to bo about to 

. will cr would be 
minting. 
'DK. ['.,r;aa, ugly, ml sho- 

iftightly, deformed. 
DEFi I i-fugto, tofli 

•diun. avoid. 
DEI . j :nn. 

8, adv., .hi ii- r anotb- 

ly, continuously, immediately foj- 

I>iii.\°DK* or Bein, adv., de-ind*, then, after 
in the next j 
rule, ia the fu-i plan — In I 

... dejicio, athi 

-. 

ECTU8, a, I adj., dejlclo. 

: down, Uuil dewn, .Iriro d . 



overthrow, kill, slay ; U> drivo away, dislodge. 
To cast down from a hope or prospect, do;.rir 
or rob of a thing. 

BEL.-1BOR, i, lapsus, dep. intr, do-labor, fall 
down, slip or slide down, fall. 

PE LAPSUS, part., delabor. 

DEL.1TUS, part., defero. 

DKLECTO, are, avi, atum, tr. freq., ( 
de and obs. lacio. to allure.) to allure, invite ; I > 
charm by alluring, delight, please. 

DELECTUS, US, r.i., deligo, a picking on;. 
choosing, selecting, choice; a lirvy, draft, of 
soldiers. 

DELECTUS, part., deligo, ere. 

DELEO, ere, cvi, etum, tr., de-ole ', to blot 
out, hinder from existing, efface, overthrow, de- 
stroy, annihilate. 

DELjETUS, a, um, part., deloo. 

DELIBERJTUS, a, um, part., /rom 

DELIBEKO. are, avi, atum, tr., (de-libra, a 
balance, from liber, froo to move either way,) to 
weigh well, to consult, deliberate, advise, de- 
bate, think upon, consider, ponder. 

DELIBRviTUS, a, um, part., from 

DELIBRO, are. avi, atum, tr., (do-lib. ■; . 
to strip 6IT the bark, peel. 

DELICTUM, i, n., (dellnqno, to do wrong.) 
lly a thing left undone; tfun a fault 
either of emission or commission, ac:i:; 
fence, sin. 

DELIG.iTUS, a, um, part.,/ro.7v 

BELIllO. are, avi, atum, tr., (do-ligo. ,' 
to tie, bind, make fast. 

DELIGO, ere, egi, cctum, ir., de-leg. >. to pick 
out, to select, choose, detail; of soldiers, to 
levy, 

DELITESCO, ere, litui, intr. inc., d< 
lateo, to lie hid» be concealed i 
self. 

DEMENTIA, ae, f., (demons, Triad, de-men*,) 
madness, roily, fooli*hne:>«, insanity. 

DEMESSUS, a, um, part.,from 

DEMEIO, ei 
mow duwn, reap, cut down, gather. 

DEMKiK.ITI .-. a; um, part .from 

DEMXQRO, are, avi, atum, intr., (de-migrc. 
' . remove,) to remove from, chanf 
from, xmigrati 
dciiart. • 

DXMINUO, ere, ul, utum. tr., de-minuo, to 
lessen by taking from, (diminuo, meai 
break Into snja'.l pieces:) to diiniui-'^ 
take fruia a thing, withdraw, impair. 

PEMIN/'TI'.-v a. um, part., dcji 

i, li*uni, tr., 
. t down, sink, let down, let fall. 
■ Ure u, to deecend, ? 

1, despair. 



310 



DEMO— DES1UO. 



D.EMO, ere, psi, ptum. tr., do-enio, to take 
away, take off, subtract, withdraw, remove. 

DEM0NSTR,1TUS, a, uru, part.,/rom 

DEMONSTRO, are, avi, atuni, tr., (de-mon- 
stro, to show, nionco.) to show, point out, prove 
evidently, demonstrate ; to represent, signify, 
declare, name, mention, make mention, state. — 
Demonstralum est, it has, been shown, mention 
has been made. ,* 

DEMOROR, ari.atus sum, dep.intr. and tr., dc- 
moror, to delay, tarry, wait for ; tp stop, retard, 
hinder, prevent, impede. 

DEMOVEO, ere, ovi, otuni, tr., de-moveo, to 
remove, put away, displace, dislodge. 

DEMPTUS, a, um, part., demo. 

DEMUM, adv., (a lengthened form of demon- 
strative suffix dcm,\ at length, .it l-tst. just, pre- 
cise, not till, in fine, finally, l.i„.i,>. Turn di- 
mum, then indeed. 

DENA'GO, are, avi, atum, tr., de-nego, nr-c- 
*io, to say no, to deny, refuse, reject (a request 
or petition.) 

DEHI, ae, a, adj., decern, ten by ten, ten each, 
ten at a time, ten apiece. 

DEN1QUE, adv., probably for deinque, in fine, 
at last, finally, lastly; in short, in a word; at 
length ; at least. 4 

DENSUS, a, um, adj., ior. issimus, thick, close, 
*et close, frequent. 

DENTJNCIO, are, avi, atum, tr., de-nuncio, to 
announce officially, intimate, declare, forewarn, 
ibretell ; to threaten, menace, denounce ; to 
command, enjoin, order. 

DEPELLO, ere, puli, pulsum, tr., de-pello, to 
drive, cast, or thrust down ; to drive away, ex- 
pel, remove, repel. Loco depellere, to drive from 
a p»8t or position, dislodge. 

DEPENDO, ere, di, sum, tr., de-pendo, to 
weigh ; hence, to pay ; to spend. 

DEPERDO, ere, didi, ditum, tr., de-perdo, to 
lose; to destroy, ruin. 

DEPEREO, ire, ii, intr., de-pereo, to perish, 
be lost, go to ruin, be undone. 

DEPQNO, ere, sui, situm, tr., de-pono, to lay 
or put down ; to lay aside ; to leave, leave off, 
resign, give#vp ; to laj up, put by, to put in a 
place of security ; to deposit. jUeponert mnn- 
uriam alia/jus, to forget. 

DEPOPUE-i'IUS, a, um, part., de-populor, 
used passively, Gr. $10V, 2. 

DEPOPULUR, ari, atus sum, dep. tr., de-pop- 
ulor, to lay waste, pillage, spo.I, ravage, plun- 
der, depopulate. 

DEPORTO, are, avi, alum, tr., de-psrto, to, 
carry down; to carry oil', convey . away, trans- 
fer from one place to another. 

DEPQSCO, ere, poposci, tr., dc-posco. to de- 
mand or request earnestly, requii ". 
DEPOSITUS, a, «m, part,, depouo. 
DEPR^VO, are, avi, atum, tr., de-pruvus, to 
. make crooked, distort, pervert ; to deprave, 



spoil, corrupt, vitiate, impair, mar. 

DEPRECATOR, oris, m., dopj^cor, he that 
averts by praying, an interccssou; mediator. 

DEPRECOR, ari, atus sum, dep. tr., de-pre- 
cor, to pray, prex, to avert by praying, depre- 
cate, pray against, try to beg off from ; to pray 
or entreat earnestly ; to allege or plead in ex- 
cuse, excuse. Deprecdndi causa, to pray for 
forgiveness. 

DEPREHEN'PO, ere, di, sum, tr., de-prehen- 
do, to seize, catch, take unawares, overtake ; to 
detect, to find out, discover. 

DEPREHENSUS, a, um, part., deprehendo. 

DEPRIMO, eri, essi, ostium, tr., de-premo, to 
press or weigh down, depress, sirfk. 

DEPUGNO, are, avi, atum, intr., de-pugno, to 
fight eagerly, to fight it out, contend violently. 

DEPULSUS, a, um, part., depello. 

DERECTUS, a, um, part., derigo. 

DEUEL1CTUS, a, um, part., from 

DERKLINQUO, ere, /qui, ictum, tr.. de-relin- 
quo, to forsake utterly, to abandon, leave, de- 
sert, leave behind.^ 

DERIGO, ere. exi, ectuni, tr., de-rego, to 
make straight. JJerecta ad papcndicalum tig* 
na, set or sunk perpendicularly. 

DERIV ATUS, a,.um, part.-, from 

DER/VO, are, avi, atum, tr., do-rivo, to drain 
off, rivus, to lead, convey or draw off. 

DEROGO, are, avi, atum, tr., de-rogo, to tak* 
away or repeal part of a law ; to take away 
from, abate, lesson, diminish.. 

DESCENDO, ere, di, sum, intr., do-scando, to 
climb, to go or come down, descoud, march 
down ; to lower one's self to, to have recour«j{ 
resort. 

DESECO, are, secui, sectum, tr., de-eeco, ' to 
cut, to cut off. 

DESECTUS, a, um, part, deseco. 

DESERO, ere, ui, turn, tr,, de-sero, to join to- 
gether, to undo one's.conjpction with"; to aban- 
don, leave, forsake, steseJfc 

DESEUTOR, oris;, mi'-desero. .me who for- 
sakes or abandons ; atwserter. 

DESERTUS, a, uni, part, and adj., de-rtjg>. 
deserted; desert, lonely, uninhabited. 

DESIDER^iTUS, a. um, part, and adj., fr,,m 

DESIDERO, are, avi, atum, tr.. (de and root 
sid akin to vid,) to look with longing, to de- 
sire, wish, long for; miss. Zhsiderari, pat:s., 
to he lost, wanting, missing. 
• DESIDIA, ae, deses, slothful, desedeo, sitting 
a long time in a place, sloth, slothfulness, idlr- • 
ness, inactivity. 

DESIGNO, are, avi, atum, tr:, de-signo, sig- 
num, to mark, mark out, describe, define; t<* 
signify, designate, denote, mean; to appoint, 
elect. 

DE6ILIO, ('re, silui, sultumjilntr., de-salio, to 
leap, to jump or leap down, alight, ICquites «d 
pedes desiluerunl, — alighted, dismounted. » 






lJEiS!>0-l'l(T10 



221 



DESIXO, exo, ivi *r ii. itum. tr. ami intr., 
de-sino, to leave off, give over, desist ; to cease 

M"]i. end. 

DIOSIS'IM. ere, Btiti, Btitnoi, tr. and inlr.. cfe- 
reduplicated from* sto, to cease, ^•\' 1 over, 
Ei om, discontinue, leave off. 

DESPECTUS, a, urn, f.iri., despicio. 

DESPECTUS, us, in., despicio, a looking down 
upon, a view or prospect from an elevated plai e. 

DESPERATIOj anls; f., deepen), h despairing) 
despair. 

DESPERATUS, ft, urn. part, mid adj.. de- 
. despaired of, desperate, abandoned. 

UKSl'/'KO, are, avi, atum. tr. and intr.. de> 
spero, with dat. or dc and llic all., to despair 
of, be without hope, despond. 

DESPICIO, ore. i'xi. ertum, tr., de-specio, to 

.<«•-•. to look down, to look down ui"'ii ; despise, 

look upon with contempt. Qua dmpici pot~ 

i ould look dow n whence 

there was a pr 

DESPOUO, are, avi, atum, tr., de -polio, to 
robj plunder, rava pillage, strip. 

depriti i 

ItKSTIN <Ti >. a, um, part., desttno, assign- 
ed, appointed, destined; fastened, intent. 

DEST/NO, are, avi, atum, tr.. (de and root 
«ta if st.'.) to cause to stand firm, to tie. fasten, 
bind'; to destine; to determine, resolve, aim; 
ii assign, appoint, choose ; to depute, send. 
, I ii. See Desisto. 

1 (TUO, ere, r.i. utum, (r., de-statno, to 
put di w n : to put one's self away from; hrnre, 
»K-a; forsake, nh indon. 

"IfcESTITJ/TlIS, a. um, part., destituo. 

DESTR1CXUS, a. um, part., from 

DESTRlXG >, ■ ■ , iuxi. ictum, tr., do-stringo, 
to draw tight, to ^t rip, pull, or pluck off; to 
draw, mslicath. 

l'l.r-l'M. essu, l.il, intr. irr.,- de-sum, to fail, 
to be # wanting or laekinL *_ 

DESUPBR, adv., >U-4apcr, from above. 

BETERIOR, US, adj., *Hjv-gV4, 1; deter, de- 
ter^ physically worse, poorer, moaner. Faeere 
dtfrrius, to make worse, injure, impair. 

DJtfCERREO, <-re, ui, itum, tr., do-tcrreo, tp 
•care off, to deter, frighten ; to hinder, discour- 
age from, prevent. 

l>KTEST.m>. a. um. part., from 

DKTESTOR, ari, atus sum, dep. tr., dc-testor, 
i> curse, to execrate, devote to destruc- 
tion ; abominate, detest. 

DET1XEO, ere,ui, entuin, tr., ae-teneo, to 
hold off, to detain, itay, kn p 1. ck, hold, stop, 
hinder. 

DETRACT) > #r DKTRECTO, are, avi, atnm, 
tr„ de-trio to, traho, to draw back from, to de- 
cline, refuse. 

DETRACTL'S, a, um, pafC., /rum 

• ETRAHO, ere, xi, ctuin. tr., dc-traho, to 



draw or drag down, pull down or off, take a- 
way, snatch away, remove, withdraw. 

DETRIMEXTOSUS. a, um, adj.. detrinicn- 
tum, full of harm or loss, detrimental, hurtful. 

DETRIMENTUM. i. n.,detero,«ie-tero, arub- 
bing^iff, detriment : disadvantage, damage, loss, 
harm. 

DETULI, etc. Bee DEFERO. 

DliTURB.ITU?. a, um, part., from 

DETURBO, are, avi, atum, tr., de-turbo, to 
disturb, to tumble down, cast or throw down 
violently, to overthrow ; to pull or tear down, 
demolish, dislodge, drive. away. 

PKf'RO, ere, ussi, ustum, tr., de-uro, to burn 
down. 

DEUS, i, : m., a god, deity or divinity. 

DEUSTUS, a, um, part., deuro 

PEVEHO. ere. xi. ctum, tr., de- velio. to earn 
down ; to carry, convey or bring to a place. 

DEVBNIO, ire, eni, entumj devvenlo, to 
come from one place to another; to come, ar- 
rivo, reach. 

DEVEXUS, a, um, adj., deveho, Inclining 
downwards, sloping, declining, steep. 

DEVICTUS, a, um, part., devinco. 

DEVINCIO, iii'. inxi. inctum, tr., de-vincio. 
to bind fast, tie tightly; to oblige, place under 
obligation. 

DEVINCO, ere, tci, ictum, tr., de-vinco, t' 
conquer completely, vanquish, subdue. 

DEVOCO, are, avi, atum, tr., de-voco, to call ' 
down or away. In dubium dtvocart, to bring 
into danger, endanger, expose. 

DEVOTUS, a, um, part, and adj., devoveo, 
bound by a vow, d( voted, doomed, deatini 
voted, attached /'• voti, crum. m.pl., devoted 
followers. 

DEYOYEO, ere, ovi, otum, tr., de-voveo, to 
vow; to devote, give up, attach one's self to an- 
other; to curse. 

DEXTER, ten and tra, terum and trum, a>U-- 
Gr. l"2, 4; on the right hand, right. Dtxkrm 
or dr.xlra, sc. manuf, the right hand. 

DIABLIXTES, ium, in., the Diablintea, a peo- 
ple of Celtic Qaul : 111,9. 

DIOO, are, avi, atum, tr., to proclaim, offer, 
give up, set apart, dedicate, devote, consecrate, 
vow. Dicart it alicui 'in clienU lam or serviiu- 
tern, to give ono's self up to be a client or bond- 
man. 

PICO, ere, xi, ctum, tr., to Bi«"ik, say, tell, 
. i ■ unt, write of; nar- 
rate, rclatu ; to appoint, name, determine, fix 
upon, agree to, promise ; t© mention. Dm tun, 
(jl, imj tion baa been 

made. rUcerr _,.-.■ ..niirtr Justico, giv«- 

Judgment. 

DICTIO, onia, f., dico, a speaking or uttering. 
a word, aajlng or expression; » phrase; a 
.•course ; a pleading, a doftnc*. 



s2 



i 



222 



DICTUM— DISCEDO. 



DICTUM, i, d., dico, a word, saying, expres- 
sion, remark ; a command, picto audiens, obe- 
dient, Gr. §148, 2. 
DICTUS, a, urn, part., dico. 
DIDICI, etc. See Disco. 
DID TOO, ere, xi, cturn, tr., dis--d«co, to lead 
«r draw apart, separate, sever, part, divide ; to 
distribute, disperse, scatter. 

DIES, d, m. and f., Gr. j!19; a day; time, a 
period of time. Diem dicert, V> appoint or fix a 
•hue or day. Diem sumere, to take time. Diem 
*» die ducere, to put ofl' day after day. Ad 
diem, at the appointed time or day. In dies, 
daily, from day to day, every day. Diem noc- 
Gsmquc, day and night. 

DIFFERO, ferre, distuli, dilatum, irr. tr., dis- 
fcro, Gr. gLll ; to carry apart or in different di- 
rections, carry up and down, scatter, disperse; 
Ifa spread abroad, divulge, publish, proclaim ; 
its defer, ,-}>ut off, prolong. Intr. to be different, 
differ. 

DIFFICILE, (ius, lime,) adv., difficilis, diffi- 
«ttltly, with difficulty. . 

DIFFICILIS, e, uor, limus,) adj., dis-facilis, 
Ward, difficult. I'alus di_[ficilis, — of difficult pas- 
sage. 

DLFFICULTAS, atis, for difficilitas, difficilis, 
difficulty, trouble. Affici difficultate, to be in 
difficulty, to meet with difficulty. lies est mihi 
«a magnis difficultatibus, I am in great trouble. 
DIFF/DO, ore, fiaus sum, intr., dis-fido, to 
Artist, not to trust, to distrust, mistrust,, lack 
*oafidence, despair, be hopeless. With dat. or 
trU. with de. 
DIFF/SUS, a, um, part., diflY'do. 
DIFFLDO, ere, xi, xum, intr., dis-iluo, to 
fitva, to flow asunder *r in different directions. 
JZJienus in plures difflait parte.-., — divides or 
•roparates. 

DIFFDNDO, ere, udi, usnm, tr., dis-fundo, to 
pour out, sprei i. scatter, diffuse ; to spread out, 
extend. 

DIGITUS, i, m., (root Die,) that which points 
»ut, a finger; of the foot, a toe. Digitus pollex, 
the thumb. 

DIGN1TAS, atis, f., dignus, worthiness,,merit, 
desert ; dignity, greatness, grandeur, authority, 
nank, value, excellence, worth. , 

DIGNUS, a, um, adj., (root wc,) worthy, de- 
serving ; convenient, meet, fit, suitable, proper. 
DII, etc. See Deus. 

DIJUDICO, are, avi, atum, tp., dis-judico, to 
ifistinguish, discern, decide, determine. 
DILECTUS, a, um, part, and adj., diligo. 
DILIQENTEB, ius, issime, adv., diligens, 
•filigo, carefully, attentively, industriously, earn- 
estly, diligently . particularly, accurately, ex- 
actly. 

DILIQENTIA, a?, t, diligens, diligo, careful- 
ness, attentiveness, circumspection, caution, at- 
tention, earnestness, industry, diligence. 



BILIGO, ere, exi, cctum, tr., dls-lego, fo dis- 

tiuguish by selecting from others ; to love, es- 
teem highly ; to thoose, select. 
DIMENSUS, a, um, part., dimetior, measured 

or being measured, Gr. gl09, 2. 

DIMETIOR, iri, ensus sum, dep. tr., dis— ni?- 
tior, to measure out, (each part being in due 
proportion.) Tigna ad Jluminis allitudinen* 
dimensa, — proportioned to, adapted to. 

DIMICATIO, onis, f., dimico, a fight, strug- 
gle, furious encounter, battle; then, a fwnteit 
or any kind. 

DIMICO, are, avi, rarely ui, atum, intr., dis- 
mico, to move quickly to and fro, 'to brandish 
one's weapons ; hence, to fight, skirmish, en- 
counter ; to contend, struggle. Dimicatur, i>np.. 
a battle is fought, they fight, Gr. glli, 5 Divn- 
care prcelio, to fight, coutend. * 

DIMIDIUS, a, um, adj., dis, medius, halved, 
divided into t\v\» equal parts, half. Dimidut 
pars or uimidium, halt or the half. 

DIM1NUO, ere, ui, utum, tr., dis-miuuo, tu 
break into small pieces, diminish, lessen, abate, 
withdraw, take away, detract. 

- DlMlNfT'US, a, um, part., dis-minuo. ' 

DIM1SSUS, a, um, part., diuutto. 

D1M1TTO, ere, t'si, issuin, tr., dis-mitto, to 
send different ways, send off or away, dispatch; 
to dismiss, discharge, let go ; to break up, dis- 
band ; to lay down ur aside, give up, abandon, 
leave off; to reject, discard; to leave, desert, 
forsake; to omit; to lose, let slip, let go; to 
free. 

DIKECTO, adv., directus, in a straight line. 

DIRECTUS, a, um, part, 'and adj., dirigo 
made straight, in a straight line either korizon- 
tal or perpendicular; level, horizontal, straight 
right, direct ; precipitous, headlong, steep. Di- 
recta materie injecta, — laid on lengthwise. 

D1REPTUS, a, um, part., diripio. 

DIK1GO, ere, exi, ectum, tr., dis-rego, to lay 
straight or parallel with something else ; hence 
to place straight, draw up ; to direct, point, 
guide, steer, level, aim ; to arrange, set in or- 
der. Dirigere opera, to extend the works to a 
certain place. 

DIRIMO, ere, enii, eniptuin, tr., dis-emo, to 
part, divide, separate ; to interrupt, put an em 
to, break off, bring to naught, frustrate, destroy 

DIRIPIO, ere, ipui, eptum, tr., dis-rapio, ■ 
snatch, to tear asuudor or iu pieces; to plunder, 
spoil, pillage, lay waste, destroy. 

DIS, Ditis, m. Pluto, the god of the infer 
nal regions. ' 

DIS, m. and f., dite, u. gen., ditis, adj., whence 
ditior, ditissimus, same as dives; rich, wealth; 

DISCjEDO, ere, essi, essum, intr., dis-cedo, to 
part asunder, separate, divide ; to depart, go a- 
way, leave, march off, set out. Di'sceditur, imj 
a departure is made, they go, depart, go away 
Ab armis discedere, to lay down one's arms. 



DISUEPTATOR-- DIV1D0. 



D1SCEPT.4TOR, iris. in., discepto, an umpire, 
urbitrator, judge. 

DISCEPTO, arc. avi. utuin. lr., dl6-capto, 
eapio, to separate persons quarreling; hence, to 
judge, decide, determine. To debate before com- 
ing to a decision, to dispute, discuss, troat. 

DISCERNO, ore, crtvi, crctum, tr., dis-cerno. 
to separate, distinguish, discern, make a differ- 
ence. 

DISCESSI. See Disced... 

DISCESSUS, us, in., disenio a separation; a 
going away, departure, marching off. 

DISCESSUS, a, urn, part., discedo. 

DISCIPL/NA, ae, f., for discipulina, disci- 
pulus, disco, instruction, teaching, learning, ed- 
ucation ; knowledge, science, skill ; an 11:1, pro- 
fession, system ; nlllltarj discipline. 

DlSCiiVDO, orejsi, sum, tr., dis--<.lau.f.. to 
shut up apart, separate, keep at the proper dis- 
i.uirr apart. 

DISCLiVSUS, a, uni. part., dis ludo. 

WSOO, ere, didfei, tr., for dic-sco, root mc, 
to learn, acquire the knowledge of a thing, to 
become acquainted with ; to be informed or ap- 
prised of. t" become acquainted with. 

DISOK/MEX. inis. 11., for diacerimen, from 
dtBoerno, dh I ion, separation, interval ; ■> differ- 
distinction; tlie turning point, danger, 
risk, liazard, crisis. 

DISCURRO, ere, curri and cucurri, cursum, 
intr., dis-curro, to run different ways, to and 
fro, up and down, hither and thither. 

DISCUSSUS, a, urn, part., from 

DISCUTIO. ere, ussi, ussum, tr., dis-quatio, 
to shake asunder, dash to pieces, destroy, shat- 
ter, break up, disperse. 

DI8JECTUS, a, um, part., disjicio. 

PI8JICI0, ere, eel, ectum, tr., dis-jacio; to 
drive asunder, disperse, scatter, rout, discomfit, 
put to flight. 

DISPAR. aris, adj., dis--par, unequal, dis-imi- 
lar, unlike, different. 

DISPARO, are. avi, atum. tr., dispar, to lap- 
arato, divide. 

DISPERGJO, ere, si, sum, tr., dis-spargo, to 
spread or scatter on all sides, scatter about, dis- 
perse, distribute. 

DISPKRSIS, a, um, part., dispergo. 

DISPOXO, ere, posui, positum, tr.. dis—pono, 
to place here and there, set in different places, 
place or set in order, draw up, arrange, distrib- 
ute. 

DI3POSITU8, a, bin,' part., dispone. 

DISPUTATIO, onis. f., dispute, a disputati. 11, 
arguing, renaming, disputing, debate, dispute. 

IHSPL'TO, are, avi, atum, tr., dis-puto, t" 
think differently ; hettct, to del, ate. dispute, ar- 
pie, discuss; to treat or d 1- M amine, 

Investigate. 

I'lsHNMo.onis. ^difference of opinion. «is- 
i 



agreement, dissension, difference; v.vrltvnce, dls- 
cord, quarrel ; from 

DISSEXTI ). ire, si. sum, Intr., dis-sentip, t« 
differ in opinion, dissent, disagree. 

DISSER), arc, cvi, itum. tr., dis- 
to fix at certain distances, plant in the ground. 

DISSIMUI/>, are, avi. atum. tr., dissimtlia, t 1 
make a thing unlmo it really is, t,> dissemble, 
cloak, disguise, conceal, counterfeit. 

inssii'.ms. a, nut, part., dissfpo. 

DISSIPO, are. avi, ahi.u, tr., dis-sipo, ODS., I'i 

throw, to scatter abroad, disperse, dissipate. 

DISSOLT i> era olei, olutu u. tr., dis -sol* >, 
to loosen asunder, to dissolve, loose, untie* na- 
loose, disjoin, disunite, destroy. 

DISS!' Vl', > . < ; . sum, tr., dis -sun I 
advitt, to dissHiade. advise to the mtrarv. 

DI3TBND0, .■•!■<■. di. turn, tr., dle-tendo, Is 
stretch asund or, extend; toswelloul J 

DISTINEO, ere iuul, entuin tr.. di-t--tcn • • ;• 
keep separate, keep apart: to separate, divide : 
Ife distract the attention, perplex; t • hold, off, 
hinder, prevent, del liu, stop. 

DISTO, are, intr., dis-sto, to stand apart, to 
he distant or apart ; t > dilV 1. I> . lifidreul 

DISTRAHO, ere, xi, ctum, ti\, dts-traho, te 
draw different ways, draw or pull a,ua 1 -i. tear 
: toseparate, divide, disjoin ; to alien- 
ate, estrange. 

DI8TRIBU0, ere. tii, 1H11111 tr., dU-tribu >. to 
divide, distribute. 

IMSTRIBTTUS. a, um, part., distribu .. 

D1STR1XU0, ere, xi, ctum. tr.. dis-stringo. 
to chaw apart, detain, hinder. 

DISTUI.I. etc. See Difforo. 

DISTURBO, are, avi. atum, tr., dis -turbo, t • 
drive violently asunder; to throw down, otii. 
throw', demolish, destroy. 

D1TI0, onis, f., probably from do, rulo, pow- 
er, dominion, sovereignty, empire, authority. 
control. 

D1TISSIM1 S. a. um.alj., sup. of dis. 

DIU, adv. Gr. §119, 3, in the day tint", b) 
day. As dies frequently means a period of time, 
long, for a long time, a long while. Diutiut, 
longer ; too long. 

DIUKNUS, a, um, adj., dies, of or pertaiuing 
to the day, diurnal, daily. 

DIUTINU8, a, um. adj., din. long, durable, 
lasting, continual. 

DIVEBJO, ere, ti. sum. intr. and tr., dis-- 
verto, to turn aside; to separate. 

DI VERSUS, a^um, part. an. I adj., div 1 
different directions, separated ; InftMdoi 
a different way. at different places, separate, 
different, nnliki . diverse; distant, remote. 

DlVICOk enis, m DW •. a lUlvntlan g«net- 
al I I. 13. 

DIYSPO, ' ■ ■■ » n '' ■* 

In, part, separate. 









.CJ 



221 



DIV1NUS— DURITIA. 



DIV/NUS. a, urn, nilj., divus, dem, relating 
deity, divine Iwavenly. lies divinaL a 
religious ceremony, sacrifice, etc., divine wor- 
ship. 

P1V/SUS, a, rim, part, and adj., divido. 

DiyiTIACDS, i, m. Divitiacas. a chief of the 
JEdui: fc 8 and 16, Also, a king of the Sues- 
•ionea : II, 4-. 

DiVUb'-t), are, avi, aluai, tr., dis-vulgo, to 
make public, mike common to all, publish, di- 
vulge, 

DIAL etc. See Uico. 

DO, dare, dedi, datum, tr., to give, bestow, 
grant, concede, allow, permit; to commit, con- 
fer; to make cause, occasion; to bestow, offer, 
present', tfure arbitros to name, appoint. Dare 
iter to Slow a passing, permit to pass. Dare- 
in fnjiJ-iii. to put to flight. Dare se verity, to 
commit one's self to*the wind, to set sail, put to 
fiea. 

DOCEO, ere. cui, ctuin, tr., to teach instruct; 
ii show, point out, inform, tell, declare, apprise. 

D0CUJ1ENTUM, i, u., docoo, a means of 
allowing or proving, a document, example, pat- 
tern, lesson, warning; a proof, instance, speci- 
men. 

D OLLO, ere. ui, hum, intr. and tr., to suffer 
pain, to grieve, sorrow, be sad or sorry, bo' in 
pain; to%iourn, deplore, lament. 

DOTOjkpris, mi., doleo, grief, 'pain, distress, 
sorrow, aguish; chagrin, vexation, mortifica- 
tion, indignation ; a cause of grief, offence, af- 
front, insult. 

DOLUS, i, m., craft, /a device, artifice, artful 
contrivance, trick, guile, deceit, treachery, cun- 
ning, fraud. 

. DOMESTICUS, a, urn, adj., domus, of or per- 
taing to a house, home or family, domestic, 
familiar, private, household; of or belonging to 
one's country, domestic, civil. 

D0MICIL1UM, i, n., domus, a habitation, 
place of abode, residence ; a house. - 

DOMINATIO, onis, f., dominor, dominion, 
rule, mastery, authority, power, sovereignty ; 
usurpation, tyranny, despotism, domination. 

DOMINOR, ari, atus sum, dep. intr., doniinu*, 
to be lord audmaBter, rule, bear rule, domineer. 

DOMINUS. i, n., domus, a master of a house, 
master of slaves, proprietor of anything, possess- 
or, owner, lord, ruler, master. 

DOMITIUS, i, m. (L.) Doniitius Ahenobar- 
bus, a consul, A. U. C. 699 : V, 1. 

DOMUS, us, and i, f., Gr. J4S, Rem. 4; a house, 
home, dwelling, place of abode. Domum after 
a verb of motion, home; Gr. (S154. Domi, Cr. 
§166, Exc, at home, in one's own house : in on«'s 
own country. 

DONO, are, avi, atum, tr., domum, to give as 
a present, bestow freely, present ; to pardon, 
remit a deb* or obligation; to give up, yield. 

DONOTAURUSJ, m. See Valerias. 



D0NUM, i. n„ do, a gift, present, offering t« 
a deity. 

DORSUM, i, n., the back of a man or beast. 
Montis or juyi dorsum, ridge or summit. 

DOS, dotis, f, dj, a marriage portion, dowry. 

DRUIDES, urn. in. pi., the Druides, priests of 
Britain or Gaul : VI, 13. 

DUJBIS, is, in., the Daubs, a river of Belgi« 
Gaul : I, 38. 

DUBITATIO, onis, f., dubito, a doubting; 
doubt, uncertainty, hesitation. Dubitatio mi/ii 
I itur, doubt is excited in me, I doubt, hesitate. 

DUBIlUruS, a, um, part., dubito. 

DUBITO, are, avi, atum, intr., to doubt, be hi 
doubt, be uncertain, scruple. Non dabtto, qtfin; 
Gr. gl'JJ, Rem. 4; JJ195, Examples. 

OUBIUS, a, u,n, adj., duo-via, having tvre 
ways which we cannot choose between; hence. 
a :tiv -iii, wavering, uncertain ; passively, doubt- 
ful, undecided: uncertain, precarious, critical. 
Non est Uubiuin, quia, there is no doubt that: 
Gr. \ 193, Rem. i ; §195, Examples. Dubinin, », 
n., doubt, uncertainty". 

DUCENTI, ae, a, num. adj., two hundred. 

DfiTCp, ere, xi, ctum, tr., to lead, conduct, 
draw, .take along; to lead, command, cause to 
move-or march, be loader of; to bring forward; 
to protract, prolong; to defer, put off, make t» 
wait; to spend, pass; to draw, extend, build, 
make or construct; to draw, deduce, derive oiie'n 
origin from any thing: to lead, induce; to rs- 
teem, hold, think, consider, reckon, regard. 
Da (ire uxurentf to marry. 

DUCTUS, us, m., dueo, a leaJiug, conduct 
command. 

DUCTUS, a, urn, part., d«co. 

DUM, alv.au.i c.mj., Or.JlJi'; while, whilst. 
as long as, until. 

tflJMXORIX, igis. m. Duimiorix, a chief of 
the'-JEdui: 1,3,9,18. 

DUO, ae, o, num. adj., two. Gr. §61. 

DUODECIM, ind. num. adj., duo— decern, 
twelve. 

DUODECIMOS, a, uui, num. adj., duodeciut. 
the twelfth. 

DUOD.ENI, ae, a, um, num. adj., duodjeim, 
twelve by twelve, twelve eacli, twelve. 

DUODEVIGINTI, num. adj. ind., (duo, de 
and viginti,) eighteen. 

DUPLEX, icis, adj., duo--plieo, to fold, doub- 
le, two-fjld ; of character, false, deceitful. Du- 
plicem aciem instrucre, to draw up an army -in 
two lines. ( 

DUPLICATUS, a, um, part., from 

DUPLICO, are, avi, atum, tr., duplex, to 
double; increase, enlarge. 

DURE, ius, issime, adv., d«rus, hardly ; harsh- 
ly, roughly, sternly. 

DURITIA, ae, f., durus, hardness, callousness 
harshness, roughness ; hardness, , austerity 1» 
living ; self-denial ; cruelty, severity. 



DURO— EIS. 



225 



DURO, are, aTi, ntiini, tr., dtuus, to harden, 
tnako hard; to inure to hardships, make hardy 
or strong. Intr. to bear up,- hold out, endure, 
stand linn ; to remain, last, continue. 

DUROCORTORUM, i, n. Durocortorum, a 
town of the Rem! from ilfhom it afterwards 
took the name, of Rheims : VI, 44. 

DUKUS, i, in. S«e Laberius. 

Df/RUS, a, urn, adj., hard ; harsh to the taste; 
toilsome, laborious, difficult, arduous, severe, 
disagreeable, adverse; hard in manners, rough, 
unpolished, rude, uncouth, hardy: bard in 
character, rigorous, severe, inflexible, obstinate. 
cruel. .St nil sit during, if there is no unusual 

dancer. 

DUX, ducis, m. and f., a leader, guide, con- 
ductor : general, captain. 

DUXI. etc. See Duco. 



E 



K, of Ex. prep, with abli E stands befort 

consonants only, ex before cither vowels or conso- 
nants. From, out of, of ; alter: on account of, 
iu consequence of; according to, in accordance 
with. With partitives, of, among. Denoting a 
chaniji of condition, from, in place of. instead 
of, from being; ;'.'-". Facilia ex dificiUiun 
iu place or instead of. Aquitania ex lertia parte 
GaVin ustimanda — as the third part. Una ex 
part'. 6n our side. Ex tisu, of advantage. 

EA, EA8, etc. Sec Is. 

EA, adv.. (abl. of is, bc. parte,) thai \...\, 
there. 
JfeADEM. etc. See Idem. 

fEBUKoXKS, um, m.. the Eburones, a people 
Belgic Gaul. See Aulerci: 11,4. 
BBDB0V7CES, um, m..the Eburovici 
pie of Celtic Gaul : III. 17. dee Aulerci. 
ED/CO, i re, m. i turn. tr. and iutr., e- 
declare publicly, make known, decree, ordain, 
. ad, order, issue an i 
ED1CTUM, i. ii.. edioo. an edict, proclama- 
tion, order, charge, injunction, 

EDISCO, el '•. didici, tr., e in!< nsiri , — disco, to 
learn thoroughly, barn by heart, commit to 
memory. 

l.l'l i I S i. um. part, and adj.. cdo, put forth, 
published, raised, elevated; nigh, lofty. 
EDO, ere, idi, itum, tr.. i eat, to 

put forth ; 1 o,bring 

. to I \- 

bibit; to publish, spread abroad, hlrreomnia 
• in aliqu< iii, t i inflii t upon on< 
p mishment. 
! i" ii r< > ere, ni, 

■ il i.r in- 
IOW. 

I l S, ;i- um. | 
BD ■ • draw w 

lead i irth, draw nut. draw, bring out, summon; 



of time, to spend, pass. Of fowls, to bring out 
from the egg, to hatch, raise, rear; of children, 
to bring up, maintain, educate. 

EDI CTUS, a. um, part., educo. 

EFFARCIO and Effecclo, 4re, noperf., turn. 
tr., (ex-farcio, to stuff.) to stuff, cram, fill up. 

EFFECTUS, a, um, part., efflcio. 

EFFAMIXAXD08, a. um. part., /rom. 

EFFEMIXO, are, avi, atum.tr., ex- femina,t" 
make a woman of: to render -soft or effeminate, 
unman, enervate. 

EFFERO, efforre, extuli, elatum. tr. irr., <\- 
fero, to bring forth, carry forth or out. to pub- 
lish, spread abroad, proclaim ; lift up, elevate. 

valt. Effi rri aliqua re, to be puffed up. 
elated. 

EFFICIO, ere, cci. ectum, tr.. e«-facio, tc 
workout, to bring to pass, do, effect, accomplish. 
calico, occasion, render ; complete, finish, exe- 
ento : t i make, form, construct ; bo make out of 
another, to get, obtain, jirocure ; Jo produce, 
yield: to make out, prOTC. Um.Vm arena if. 
cere, to convert into — . 

EFFODIO, ere, odi, oesum, tr., ex-ibi 
dig out. dig up; to tear or gouge out. put out. 

II I OSSUSj »• um, part., effodio. 

EFFUG10. ere, ugi, intr. and tr., ex-i' 
fly, flee away, escape; to avoid, shun, flee from 

EFFDXDO, ere, »*di, usuin, tr., cx-fundo, to 
pour out, pour forth, drive out. east, out, send, 
out, spread abroad; to hurl, discharge ; to over- 
throw, to expel; to spend, Bqhander, consume, 
wa-t.-. Effundere se, to rush forth in crowds, 
pour forth, scatter, disperse. 

EGEXS, ti ■-.. pa it. anil adj., egco, m 
wanting: needy, in want. poor. 

EGEO, ere, ui. intr.. to be poor; t inei'd,want. 
be in want of: to bc without, lack, be destitute 

of. 

EGESTAS, atiftj f.. egeo, want, extrcn 
city, indigence, beggary. 
tc. Bee Ago. 

i. pro.. Or. £7- ■ i ■ 
Qr.g78, Hem. 2: I mj 
v.i- ours 

EGHEDIOR ■■ dep., iutr. and tr.. 

(e-gradior, to step,) to go out. move or • 

I ■ 
climb. Kjitti: • i bark. 

debark, land, ii >t 

ugly. 
. Um, adj 

bb-. eminent, 

surpass ! ""'- > lll " , < 1 ■' ' 

in t-. extraordinary. 



E< 
lent! 

t.'. i;i 



22<5 



EJECTUS— ERKPTUS. 



EJECTUP, a, mn, part., cjicio. 

EJICIO, ere, cci, ectum, tr., e-jacio, to cast or 
throv/ out, eject, expel, throw off; to banish. — 
Of ships, to rnn" aground, strand, wreck. Ejic- 
ero se, to burst forth, rush forth. 

EJUS. Seels. 

EJUSDEM. Seo Idem. 

EJUSMODI, pro. gen. of is and modus, Gr. 
§132 ; of this or that sort or kind, such. 

EL^IBOR, i, psus sum, dep., intr. and tr., e— 
labor, to slide or slip away, glide away, fall out, 
get off, escape. 

ELAPSUS, a, urn, part., elabor. 

EIMTUS, a. uin, part., effero. 

ELAVER, eris, n., the Allior, a river cf Gaul 
falling into the Loire : Til. 34. 

ELECTUS, a, nm, part., eligo, chosen K picked 
our, selected. 

ELEPHANTUS, i, in., an elephant. 

ELEUTERI or Eleutheri, orum, m., (Cadurci) 
a people of Gaul : VII, 75. 

ELICIO, ere, ui and lexi, itum, tr., (e— lscio, 
to allure,) to draw or entice out, fetch forth, 
elicit; to draw, entice, induce; tocallforth, find 
out, discover. 

ELIGO, ere, egi, ectum, tr., e— lego, to choose, 
select, pick out. 

ELOQUOR, i, c«tus sum, dep.tr., e-ioquor, to 
epeak out. declare ; to utter, prpnounce. /• 

ELUS--1TES, ium, m., the Elusateu, a people 
of Aquitania, whose principal city was Elusa : 
III, 27. 

EMIGRO, are, avi, atom, intr., (e-migro, to 
remove.) to remove from one place to another, 
migrate. • • 

EMINENS, tis, part, and adj., emineo, rising 
up, projecting, standing out or over, eminent, 
high, lofty, prominent, conspicuous. 

EMINEO, ere, ui, intr., (e-mineo, to hang 
over,) stand out or over, project, run out, Kland 
or show itself above others, be prominent ; to 
appear, be conspicuous; to excel, be eminent. 

EMINTJS, adv., e-manus, from a distance, at 
a distance, far off. 

EMTSSUS, a, urn, part., emitto. 

EMITTO, ere, j'ui, iscum, tr., e-mitto, to send 
forth or cut, letgo; to sling, hurl, throw, dis- 
charge 1 ; to let slip, release. 

EMOLIMENTUM, i, a., (emolior, to -accom- 
plish, e-molior,) pains, difficulty, trouble.. 

EMO, ere, emi, emptum, tr., to buy, purchase. 

ENASCOE, i, natus sum, dep. intr., to sprout 
or grow out or forth ; to spring from. 

ENIM, conj., Gr.§123, Rems. 17 and 20 ; for, 
indeed. Weque enim, for not. 

ENJTOR, i, fsus and ixus sum, dep., intr. and 
tf., e,--:i!'tnr, to make an effort, strive,, struggle, 
endeavor hard ; to force one's way out or\i\<, to 
mount, reach by climbing or with difficulty. 
aENPIIERO, are, avi, atum, tr., e-numero, to 



enumerate, recount, reckon ap, recite, count up, 
rate, estimate. 

ENUNCI^tTUS, a, urn, part., from 

ENUNCIO, are, avi, atum, tr., e-nuncio, t 
say out, toll (a Bccret) ; spread abroad, divulgi 
disclose, rrveal, declaro, state, say, express.— 
Enunciatunx est, imp. a disclosure was made. 

EO, t're, t'vi, or ii, itum, intr. irr., Gr. Jill j 
to go (in the widest sense of the word,) to wallr, 
travel, march, proceed. Itur, imp. they go. — 
Itum est, they went. 

EO, adv,, for eon, old ace. of is, thither, t 1 
that place, person or thing, to those .places, etc.; 
so far, to such a pitch, to such an extent, t 
such a pass ; in or upon thpm, that or those. — 
All., ou that account, therefore, for this reason : 
lor Hi, there, in that place. Eo quod, like proj- 
terea quod, because. 

EO. See Is. 

EODEM. Seo Idem. 

EGEEM, adv., for eondem, old ace. of idem. 
to the, same place; to the same purpose, end s 
object. Eodtm pertinere, to tend to the sarr 
thing or tho same result, to have the eame in- 
fluence, i.e. upon one's mind. 

EORUM, etc. See 13. 

EOSDEM. See Idem. 

EPIIIPPIvlTUS, a, urn, adj., furnished with a 
saddle. Ephipplati cquites, horsemen riding with 
an cpltippium: from 

EPIIIPPIU3', i, n., a horse cloth, housin .-, 
saddle. 

EPISTOLA, ae, f., a letter,, epiatio 

EPOREDORIX, igis, m. Eporedorix, a chiei 
of the jEdui : VII, 3S. 

EPULUM, i, n. PI. Epulaj, arum, f., afea?t. 
banquet. 

EQUE. See E or Ex and que. 

EQUES, itis, m., cquua, a horseman, a kuighi.. 
Equilcs, horsemen, a title of rank among tr~ 
Hainan:. The knights constituted an crder i 
citizens briween the patricians and plebeians.- - 
Also collectively, cavalry, horsemen. 

EQUESTER, tris, tre, adj., eques, portainii 
to a horseman,; equestrian. Equestre prcelimn, ■■ 
cavalry battle. Equestri prcclio contendere, to 
fight with cavalry. 

EQUIT.iTUS, us, m., equito, eques, ridin, 
cavalry, a body of horsemen, troop or squadrt. 
of horse. Magnus equitatus, a groat body j : 
cavalry. 

EQUUS, i, m., a horse, steed. Ex equo or eqtti . 
on horseback. 

ERAM, etc. See Sum. 

ERATOSTHENES, is, m. Eratosthenes, ■ 
philosopher, poet and geographer ; a native 
Cyrene : VI, 24. 

' ERECTUS, a, nm, part, and adj.; erigo, eb* 
vated, erect. 

EREPTUS, a, nm, part., eripio. ( 



ERGA— EXCITO. 



ERGA, prep, with ace., (akin to vtrgn,) to-' 
words. 

ERGO, cunj., (akin to vergo,) therefore, then, 
i , tisequcntly. 

ERIGO, ero, oxi, cctum, tr., e-rego, to raiso 
nj). set upright; to lift or set up, build up, elo- 
t to ; arouse, excito, chocr, encourago. Erigere 
m, to raise one's self up, rise. 

ERIFIO, ere, ui, eptum, tr.,(o-raplo, to snatch,) 

itch away, tako away by forco, to take 

away, withdraw ; to pull or drag out ; to free, 

lerato, rescue. Have, deliver from, extricate. 

ERRO, are, avi, atum, intr., to wander up 
(«id down, wander about; to stray, mis* the 
right way, err, mistako, go wrong. 

ERUM PO, err, i/p[, upturn, tr. and intr., (o- 
rumpo, to break,) to break or burst forth. Bally 

rth impetuously, rush forth. 

ERUPTIO, onis, f., erumpo, a bursting forth. 
■ i sally. 
' ESSE, etc. See Sum. 

ESSEDARIUS, i, m.,essedum,one who fought 
from a war chariot, an ossedarius. 

ESSEDUM, i, n., tho essedutn, a kind of two- 
whcelod war-chariot used by tho ancient Brit- 
ons. 

ESSUI, orum, m., the Essul, a people of Gaul 
whose place of residence is uncertain : V, 24. 

EST. See Sum. 

ET, conj., Gr. £123 ; and, even; also, too; 
et—tt, both — and. When et occurs before' each 
of two or more successive words or clauses, the 
first et is omitted in translation. 

ETIAM, conj., ct-jam, Gr. £123; also, like- 
wise, furthermore, besides ; cvon ; nay, nay 
% rather; with comparatives, yet, still ; att,etiam 
gravius. 

ETSI, conj.,Gr.J123; et-si, though, although. 
It is usually followed by tamen in a subsequent 
clause. 

EUM. See Is. 

BUNDKNDEM. Seo Idem. 

EV.4D0, ere, si, sum, intr., (e— Tado, to go,) to 
go out, go forth, get away, run away, escape ; 
to escape upward, to ascend ; to happen, come 
lo pass, occur. Tr., to shun, elude. 

KVKLLO, ere, elli or vulsi, vulsum,tr., e-vel- 
II out, pull out, pluck up. 

EYENIO, ire, veni, tentum, intr., e-venio, to 
come out or forth; to happen, fall out. 
(orn out, result, issue. 

K\ I'.NTL'S, us, in., cvenio, an event, occur- 
rence, accident; an issue, result, consequence, 
end. Ex cvrntu natrium, from what had hap- 
pened to the • 

EVINCO, ere, vi'ci, victum, tr., o-vinco, to 
OTercomo completely, conquer thoroughly. 

EVOCO, are, avi. atum, tr., o-voco, to call out 

forth, to bring out, invite, challenj 
; to command to appear ; to draw, attract, 



EVCC4TUS, a, um, p.-,;?. called cut, sum- 
moned. Evocati, orum, m., RutUiers, who having 
served out their time wen terwarda called on 
to serve r.s volunteer.;. 

EYOLO, are, avi, atuic. •.:., (o— Yolo, to Jty,) 
to fly out or away ; to sal!., forth, rush forth ; 
escape. x 

EX. See E. 

EXACTUS, a, um, part., exigo. 

EXiEQUO, are, avi, atum, tr., ex-ceqmo, to 
mako equal or even with anything, I ;>luce on 
a level, regard as oqual. 

KXAGITATUS, a, um, part., ex.. 

EXAGITO, are, avi, atum, tr.. ox-agito, to 
drive out of place, stir up, disturb; to harass, 
vex, agitate, toss about; to drive out, drive from 
place to place, toimont, persecute. 

EXAMIN^Tl'S, a,.um, part..//o»i 

EXAMIXO, are, avi, atum, iuir. and tr., (ex- 
amen, a sUxlyarJ, ox-ago,) to v .igh; to exam- 
ine, weigh, ponder, consider. 1 iminarcadcer- 
tumponJus, to make of a cert.-... m weight. 

EXANIM.1TUS, a, um, pari deprived of lifts, 
dead) tired out, out of brea:.i, wearied, from 

EXANTMO, are, avi, atuin, tr., ex-animus, to 
deprive of life, kill, slay; to scare to death,terri- 
fy, alarm greatly; to weaken, exhaust. 

EXARDESCO, ere, arsi, intt . inc., ex-ardeseo, 
ardeo, to kindh . to grow hot, become inflamed, 
blaze, be on firo. Fig. to be i, illumed, enraged. 

EXAUDIO, ire, tvi, ituiii, tr., ex-audio, to 
hear, hear from a distance, hear perfectly ; to 
give ear to, hearken or listen to, regard, obey. 

EXAUD/TOS.'a, um, part., exaudio. 

EXC&'DO, ere, cessi, eessuni, intr., ex-cedo, to 
depart, go forth or out, retire, withdraw ; to go 
beyond, advance. ExcccUre pugna or prozlio, to 
retire from the contest, give over fighting. 

EXCELLO, er<», ui, sum, intr. and tr., ex-c\ i- 
lo, obs., to rise, elevate one's self, be high, be 
raised high. To excel, outdo, outstrip, surpass. 

EXCEPTO, are, a i, atum, tr. frcq., excipio, 
to take up ; to take or draw in, catch up, snuff 
up; to receive, takei 

EXCEPTUS, a, um, part., excipio. 

EXCESSI, etc. SoeExcnK 

EXC/I>0, ere, idi, isum, tr., ex-ca:do, to cut 
out or off, cut or hew down; to overthrow, de- 
stroy, rase. , 

EXCIPIO, ere, e\>\, cptuin, tr., ex-capio, to 
take nut, exi ept ; to fetch, taki ; t" catch with 
the oar, to attend or listen to, to heed ; to sur- 
prise, come upon Unawares; to obtain; 
upon one's seif; to receire, sustain, encounter, 
endure, bear, support: to follow, topoeed, re- 
lieve, rapport. 

EXCITvlTUS, a, um, part., excib . 

EXCITO, are, »\i, atum, it freq., ex-ciep, to 
call out ; to call i, ut, «a)to up. route; to more, 
stir or raise up, excite, kindle, spur on, stimu- 
latu, enliven. 



328 



EXCLUDO— EXPLORATUS. 



EXCLJTDO, 'ere, si,- Bum, tr., tx-claudo, to 
abut out, exclude ; to cut off, to separate, divide; 
to except, exclude; to drive out; tohinder, pre- 
vent, prohibit, delmr. 

EXCLTSUS, a, urn, part., excludo. 

EXCOGITO, are, avi, atum, tr., ex-cogito, to 
think out, think over, devise. 

EXCRUCIO, are, avi, atum, tr., ex-crucio, to 
torture, crux, to torture greatly, excruciate; to 
afflict «r torment exceedingly ; to distress, dis- 
quiet, harass, fret, vex. 

EXCUBITOR, cris, m., excubo, a watchman, 
Kuard, sentinel. 

EXCUBO, are, ui, itum, intr., ex-cubo, to lie ; 
to lie or sleep out of doors ; to lie out on guard, 
watch, be on guard, stand sentry ; to be vigilant, 
be on the alert. I 

EXCULCO, are, avi, atum, tr., ex-calco, to 
trample upon, calx, to tread or trample upon ; 
to tread firm or close, fill by treading, ram. 

EXCURSIO, onis, f., excurro, to run out ; a 
running out, excursion ; a sally, attack, inroad, 
invasion. • 

EXCUSATIO, onis, f., exewso, an excusing ; 
an excuse, plea, defence. 

EXCFSO, are,-»vi, atum, tr., ex-oausa, to ex- 
cuse ; to allege in excuse, plead as an excuse. 

EXEMPLUM, i, n., exinio, to take out ; what 
is taken out as a sample, a copy, transcript, im- 
itation; a design, model, sample, pattern; an 
uxample, incident, precedent; a manner, way ; 
.1 warning example, severe punishment as an 
uxample to others, exemplary punishment. 

EXEO, ire, ivi, and ii, itum, intr. irr., Gr. 
Jill ; ex-eo, to go out or forth, go away, depart, 
march out ; to terminate, end. 

EXERCEO, ere, ui, itum, tr., ex-arceo, to 
drive axuay; to drive on, keepjrasy ; to practise, 
train, inure to labor, keep actively employed, 
exercise ; to do, practise, be employed upon ; to 
agitate, vex, trouble; to harass, distress. 

EXERCITATIO, onis, f., exercito, an exer- 
cising, exercise, use, practice, skill. 

EXERCIT^TUS, a, urn, part, and adj., exer- 
cito, exercised, well versed, trained, practised, 
accustomed. 

EXERCITO, are, avi, atum, tr. frcq., exorceo, 
to exercise diligently, practise. 

EXERCITUS, us, m., exerceo, originally an 
exercise, training; then a trained body of men, 
an army. In distinction from equitatus it sig- 
nifies the infantry: as, excrcitum equitatumque 
castris continuit. 

EXHAURIO, ire, si, stum, tr., ex-haurio, to 
draw ; to draw or drag out, empty, drain, ex- 
haust ; to take out, remove, carry away. 

EXII, etc. See Exeo. 

EXIGO, ore, egi, actum, tr., ex-ago, to drire 
or thrust out, to lead out ; to send forth ; to pass 
through or beyond ; of time, to pass, lead, spend, 
finish, complete ; to demand, require. 



EXIGTJE, adv„ exiguus, briefly, sparingly, 
scantily, hardly. 

EXIGUITAS, ntis, f, cxigiius, smallness, 
shortness, fewness. 

EXIGTJUS, a, urn, adj., exigo, small, brief, 
short, slender, scanty, slight, few. 

EXIMIUS, a, lini, adj., eximo, to take oiit ; 
excellent, choice, select, remarkable, extraor- 
dinary. Eximia opinio, a high reputation. 

EXISTIMATIO, onis, f, existimo, an opinion, 
judgment; Teputation, character, credit, good 
name. 

EXISTIM^ITUS, a, urn, part., from, 

EXISTIMO, are, avi, atum, tr., ex-ajstimo, to 
judge, deenr, think, consider, esteem, suppose, 
imagine; to decide, determine, rass.imp. it is 
thought. 

EXITUS, us, m., exeo, a goi::g out, exit, de- 
parture ; place of going out ; passage out, end, 
close, termination, result, amount, sum, pur- 
port, sum and substance. 

EXORIOR, iri, ortus sum, orititrus, dep.intr.. 
ex-orior, to rise, arise, spring up unexpectedly. 

EXPEDIO, ire, »vi or ii, itum, tr. and intr., 
ex-pes, to pull the feet out of a net ; hence, to 
free, discharge, liberate, loose, disentangle, dis- 
engage, extricate ; to bring out, make ready, 
elear; to despatch, finish, accomplish, manage, 
settler; to explain, unfold, declare, relate, tell, 
set forth. Expedire aditum, to clear up or open 
a way. 

EXPEDITIO, onis, f„ expedio, an excursion 
against the enemy, an expedition. In expedi- 
tionem, upon an expedition. 

EXPED7TUS, a, um, part, and adj., expedio, 
freed, liberated ; free from baggage, unencum- 
bered, light-armed, prepared, equipped, ready, 
disengaged, unoccupied; free from obstacles, un- 
impeded, easy. Expedita re frumentaria uti, to 
be promptly and easily supplied with provis- 
ions. 

EXPELLO, ere, puli, pulsuin, tr., ex-pello, to 
drive out or away, expel, banish. 

EXPERIOR, iri, ertus sum, dep. tr., ex-pe- 
rior, to try, make trial of, attempt, prove, expe- 
rience. Omnia experiri, to try every expedient 

EXPERTTJS, a, um, part, and adj., experior. 

EXPIATUS, a, um, part., expio. 

EXPIO, are, avi, atum, tr., ex-pio, to appease, 
pius,.to expiate, atone for, make amends for, do 
away, make satisfaction for. 

EXPLEO, ere, evi, etum, tr., ex-pleo, obs., to 
fill, fill up ; to satisfy, satiate ; to complete, fin- 
ish, accomplish; to fulfill, discharge, perform. 

EXPLOR^TOR, oris, m., exploro, a spy, scout. 

EXPLORJTTJS, a, um, part, and adj., exploro, 
explored ; ascertained, certainly known, sure. 
Babeo rem ezploratam, stronger than rem ex* 
ploravi. Habere pro explorato, to consider ad 
certain, be confident. 






EXPLORO— EXURO: 



220 



EXPLORO, arc, av:. alum. tr.. eX-plorO, 
cry- out, to se&rch diligently iftto, prj in1 
tinize, explore, examine, seeife put, ascertain, 
reconnoitre; to spy out, sootrt ; to try, prove, 
put to the ti i. 

EXP0NO, ere, sui, i-itum. tr.. ex-pono, to pn1 
out, sefr/orth, expose ; to expose to view, dis- 

play : tO put away: tO w-l on Shi 

bark, land ; to oxplain, tell, relat 

I 

BXPORTO, are, avi, alum, tr., ax-porto, to 
carry or bring out, convey away, export, 

;:\ P0S( ' ■■ ere, poposci, tr., e 
or require earnestly, cat, im- 

plore. 

EXPOSITUS, a, um, part, and adj., i 

EXPRI5IO, ire, essi, cssum, tr., ex-premo, 1" 
press out, Bqueoze out, compress, strain. 
i ilently ; to press int 
to represent, express, portray, imitate, d 
t., i express, signify, dec! re; to pronounce, utter. 
ulatc : to raise, raise op, t 1 ' 

BXPUGNATIO, onis, f.,expugnp,atal 
tsault . . torm, storming. 

EXPUG-NA CUS, :. um, pa 

i:\ pi ■ ro ■■■ i. atnm, tr/, ex-pn ;ne, to 

take or carry by Btorm, to i arry by ass uilt, to 
storm ; to conquer, vanquish, subdue, on 
in by force, i 
CM. etc .-. . ■ i . 

i:\ cxpcllo. 

EXQU/RO, ■ tun, tr., ex-quaero, to 

Bearcli ".it. - ly, a.-eertain, iixjuiro 

illy into, examil 
quirere scntentias, to take the opinions. 

i:\i.'i [SITl i um. part, and adj., exquirt). 

l . \ 3 1 
follow to the end, ; [ i\v after, take 

pattern alter: to follow u . finish, 

execute, perform ; to go throteh with in tell- 
ing, to relate, i< 11 : to I. 'How with pun 

maintain. 

EX3ERO, i'iv. ui, tunv tr., 

li out. protrude. 
i part, and 
thrust forth, um o\ 

i i. stituni. inl . (ex-tUto, 
re luplicated from slo,) to i 

nit, app u' : t.. artoe, - , . . 
me. 

i, intr. ami tr., ex- 
■4epivto, to look 1'iit or wail for • 
Vpect, to look forward either with 

'I read: 
. :. delay ; t i look oul . I • 

: ' 

■Uiiii- to happen, 
■ 

mk into 
; 



;;\ riXHSXTO, ere, nxi, nctum. tr., cx-tinguo. 
Input oul .- to put out (a light,) to extinguish : 
to cut Off, kill, destroy ; to abolish, annihilate, 
annul. 

EXSTO, are. intr.. ex-sto, to slaTtd ; to stand 
out, project; stand up, appear or be above; to 

remain, be extant, exist. 

EXSTRUCTUS, a, um, pari., oxstruo. 

EXSTRTJO, ere, xi, etum, tr.. ox-struo. to pile- 
up; to build up, rail. e. r.'.ir. pile up, heap up ; 

to hoard up. 

KM SIX. ulis.jn. audi'., BX-BOlum, soil, one 

i from his native soil, an exile. 

EXTENDO, ere. iji. Mini and' tum, tr., cx- 

temlo, to stretch Gut, spread out, extend. 4on- 
t ii'ue. longtherJj increase, ajnlafge. 

EXTERIOR, us, adj.. {comp.qf exter, (Jr. ',::. 
■i.'i outward, exterior, outer. 

EXIERREO, ere, ui. itum, tr., ex-terreo, to 
]r, frighten greatly or suddenly, affright. 

BXTERRITUS, a, um, part, exterreb. 

EXTERUSor EXTER, a, 
Rem. 1; on the outside, outer, outward, for- 
• ner country. 

EXTIMESCO, ere, timui, intr. and tr. inc.. 
ex-timesco, timeo, to be greatly afraid, fear 
greatly; to dread. 

EXTOLLO, ere, extuli. elatum, tr., ex-tollo,, 
jto lift out or up, raise up, elevate, exalt, in- 
i large. 

EXTORQUEO, ere. si, tum, tr., ex-torqueo, 
to tibist ; to twist or wrench out, take away by 
force, wrest, extort: to pul out of joint, torture. 

EXTORTUS, a, um, pan., extorq 

EXTRA, adv. and prep, with ace., (abl. of 
exter, »c. parte,) without, oul of, outside of, on 
the outside ; except, besides. « 

EXTRAUO, ere. xi, ctnin, tr.. eX-tl i 
draw ..ui, drag out) • ' 
liberate, extricate ; to draw out. protract, pro- 

to . -011-111110. waste, pai - away. 
EXTK/.'MUS, a, um. adj.. (tup. of exter. 
•• tromc : last, 
final; :.; loteet; hindmost, in tl 

the end or close of. Or. £12s, Kern. V Kxtremum 
the tear, tho rear-guard. Kxtremum. 
i, n., the end, extremity, farthest point. Ad 
extremum, at last, at length ; to till l 
extremity*, in extreme ponle, on tho end of tho 
bridge. 

i, t/sum, tr., ox-tnido, ( > 
elude. 
drive off, keep out. 

. 8D8,a,um, part., exti 
i;\ : iio. 

iT. put 
. lay 

i r ti 



280 



EXUSTUS— FERAX. 



EXUSTCS, a. rim, part,, exi.-ro. 
EXf7TUS, a, irai. part., exu > 

F 

FABER, bri, m,, one who works iu wood, 
.•mot;'.:; a carpenter, smith, mechanic, 
workman. 

FABIUS, i, m. Fabius, the name of a distin- 
guished patrician family. Q. Fabius Maximus 
Vitnctator, the famous dictator in the first Punic 
war. In his consulship - he defeated the Ar- 
verni 'and Ruteni : 1,45. C. Fabius, one of 
Cwsar's lieutenants : V, 24. L. Fabius, a cen- 
turion in Cttsar's army : VII, 47. 

FACILE, facilius, facillime, adv., facilis, easi- 
ly, readily, without difficulty. 

FACILIS, e. adj., facio, capable of being done, 
easy, ready; easy of access, affable, courteous.- 
Hoc facilius, the nrore easily. Gr. §16S. 

FACINUS, oris, u., facio, an action, deed, af- 
fair or exploit (either good or bad ; but as bad 
daedsare more common than good ones, Hence,) 
a bold or audacious act, villany, crime, wicked- 
ness, guilt. 

FACIO, ere, eci, actum, tr. and into., tomato, 
do; to act; to form, create ; to produce, cause, 
render; to commit, perform ; to furnish, give; 
to value, esteem, regard. Facere copiam, to fur- 
nish a supply. Facere jussa or imperata, to 
execute commands. Facere prsedam, to plun- 
der. Facere sijnifihationem, to intimate. Facere 
castra, to pitch a camp. Facere potestatem, to 
give leave or an opportunity. Facere fidcm, to 
make to believe, show, prove, persuade, con- 
■vince; also, to give, a promise, pledge one's 
faith, promise. Nihil reliqui sibi facere, to 
leave nothing remaining or undone ; to omit 
nothing which one can do. Factum est, imp., 
if cams to pass. 

FACTIO, onis, 1., facio, a making, doing : a 
company of persons acting together; a faction,. 
party, side, sect. Gallise totius factiones esse 
duas, that all Gaul was divided into two parts. 

FACTUM, i, n., facio, a thing done,, a deed, 
act, action, exploit, conduct, achievement;^ 
t?ifi abstract, action. Facto opus est, there is 
nood of actio a, one must act. Si quid facto 
opus csset, if any thing should need to be done, 
if there should bo any necessity for action. 

FACULTAS, atis, f., facilis, capability, power, 
ability, occasion, opportunity, means, resources; 
abundance, plenty, abundant supply. 

VAGUS, i, f., a beech-tree'. 

FALLO, ere, fefelli, falsum, tr. and intr., to 
deceive, delude, dupe.cheit, mislead; to be con- 
cealed, escape notice. Spes me fallit, I am de- 
ceived or disappointed in my expectations. 

JlLSUs, a, um, part, and adj., fallo, decciv- 
l»1, ruisled, mistaken ; falsa, protonded, untrue, 
unfounded, groundless. 



FALX, cia, f.. a sickle, reaping hook, pruning 
knife, pruning hook ; a hook or bill. JWcw 
murales or falces, hooks used in tearing -down 
walls. 

F,1MA, ae, f., farf, what people say, common 
talk, report; rumor, news, public opinion; rep- 
utation, character, renown. 

FAMES, is, f., hunger, fasting. 

FAMILIA, ae, f., famulus, a slave, the 6lavos 
belonging to one master, a retinue of slaves ; 
the vassals, serfs, dependents or subjects of a 
powerful man; a family. Pater familias and 
Mater familias. See Fat:r and Mater. 

FAMILI^IIIIS, e, adj., familia, of or belong- 
ing to the family, household, domestic, private; 
familiar, intimate, friendly. JRes familiaris, > 
private property, property. Subs, an acquaint- 
ance, friend, intimate friend. 

FAMILIARITAS, atis. f., familiaris, famili- 
arity, acquaintance, familiar friendship, inti- 
macy. 

FAS, n. ind., the will of the gods, divine law ; 
justice, equity, right: right, lawful, proper, 
permitted by divine law. 

FASTKUTUS, a, um, part.'and adj u fastigo, 
narrowed gradually into a sharp point, pointed, 
sloped ; sloping up or down, steep, inclining. 

FASTIGIUM, i, n., fastigo, the top or highest 
part of a building, the point of the roof; the 
highest part of anything, a peak, summit ; 
steepness, sfopo, descent. 

FASTIGO, are, avi,atum,tr., to narrow grad- 
ually into a sharp point, to sharpen. 

F-iTUM, i, n., fari, to speak ; what has been 
said, a prophecy, oracle, prediction ; Site, des- 
tiny. 

FAUX, cis, Gr. §51; tho upper part of the 
throat, the larynx, the top of the gullet. 

FAVEO, fire, favi, fautum, intr., to be well 
disposed to, to favor, countenance, befriend. 

FAX, facis, f.-, a torch, firebrand. 

FA'CI, etc. Sefc Facio. 

FEFELLI. SeeFaHo. 

FELICITAS, atis, f., felix, fruitfulm 
tility; felicity, happiness; good fortune 
cess. 

FELICITER, adv., felix, happily, fortunately, 
auspiciously, luckily. 

FjBLIX, icis, adj., (root fe, whence fetus, fe- 
cundus, femina.) fruitful, fertile ; happy, fortu- 
nate; lucky, prosperous, .auspicious, successful, 
advantageous, favorable. 

FEMEN, inis, n., the thigh. Tlie nominative, 
accusative and vocaiiiM singular are not mad. 
Gr. g51. 

FEMINA, ae, f., (root fe-, whence felix, feenn- 
dus, &c.,) a woman; of animals, the female. 

FEMUR, oris, n., the thigh. 

FERA, ae, f., sc. bestia, a wild beast. 

FERAX, acis, adj., fero, fruitful, fertile, abun- 
dant. 



FERE— FLAGITO. 



231 



FERE or EERME, adv., fero, almost, nearly, 
rell nigh, about, for the most part, generally, 
osually. 

FJERME, adv. Sec Fere. 

FERO, ferre.'tuU, latum, Gr. gill; to beari 
carry. To bear, produce, yield ; I 
submit to, endure. Buffer, sustain, withstand, 
stand. ■■' ste,f rrs, t 

unwillingly ; to gi ict^ or be indignant at, take 
it ill, bo vexed. To carry or take away ; to get, 
receive, require, gain; to say, give out, 

. lo bring with itself, require, de- 
. be constituted. Consuetudo fert, 
•it L-. th is u u: I or cu tomary, 1't 

mca opinio fert, as my opinion is. as J tl 
uppose. Firrt loco 

luminous. Pa tie sense, to 

toTo, i mi. ru h, jo \. iib all 
FKKKAMFXTVM. i. n., ferrum, any Instru- 
ponol iron. 
&RARIUS, a, um, adj., forrum, pertaining 
;,i iron. 
' FERRARI A. :k -..!'., sc. fudina. an Iron-mine. 
FERREM, etc. Si ■■ Fero. 
FERREUS, a, um, i lj.. ferrnm, of iron, made 

. i' iron. 

i instrument of iron, 
word. 
TILIS, e, adj., fero, fertile, productive, 
i rich. 

S, f, rertiUs, fertility, fruit- 
. 
um, adj., wild, rode, uncull 

uel. 
VI,;; ■ vefacio, 

■ ith the 
headd 1 

:. tr., lVrveo- 
makc hot, li 
FEKyTiNS, tie, part, aud adj., fcrvco, hot, 
t, 

fervi, intr., to 

FIBULA, :!■ . !'.. ;. • 

ing bi i 

Bqgo. 

Liable. 
PID1 

■ 

In alll- 

ds anylbin. 



the proi ei . . . cijScre in fulcm, to receive 

into favor ot under one's protection. Perfidt «< 
circumventus— I. ./■'.i- 

cere fulcm, to produce a belli dible; 

one's faith. Pidem habt n 
(o tni-t one; the Same at alien! fidere. 

FIDUI I ! , to /rust ; trust, 

dence, reliant 
ance, sell 

HA, ae, f., (root rta ol 'fingi I,) a 
foi in. shape. 

1 1 1,1 A, ;ii\ !'.. (./'•■;;/. «..f filius.) a daughter. 

FILIUS, i. m., a son* FUiiu fratris, a broth- 
er's Bon, a nephew. 

0, ere, finxi, Qctum, tr., to form, shape, 

■ i. Frame, make : to form or repn 

ipi 

contrive; to represent to others, to invent. 

feign. Pingere vuUinn affrighted,) 

aten mi a, to apj i ar calm 

OT uncull 

FINIO, ire, t*vi, t'tum, u limit, 

bound ; a in t, as- 
sign; to flniah, terminate, end, put an i 

-, is, ni. and f., Qv.$23; a boundary, 
limit; at lusion, a termination.; pi. 

limits, boundaries; at 
country, a territory. Fitiem fac< i . 
end, to end, terminate, finish, pul an <u>l to. 
(Juan ad finem, rs fa: a . far as ; pec- 

toris fine prominentia. 

li \rn.\l I'S, a, inn, adj.. finia, a 
bordering upon, Adjoining. Piniiimi, orum, m. 
b 
FIO, fieri, foi irr. pass, of facie, 

Or. {ill; to be mode, doue or executed ; to be- 

. teemed or valued ; 
cur. happen, fall out, c ime to pae 

/".; ■.'., i . : . . jitbai, 
imp., it i , 

cauta fieri, that it was not without a reason. 
FlU.Ml'i'Ult. adv., firmus, Eirml] 

. f, firmus, ti. 
bility, etl • nicy. 

.ivi, atuin, ti .. fii i ii. 

lirni. 
I'l HMDS, a, um, inij , fin 

i 
lot' . . 

■ 
1 

■ 






FL A!- iMA . -F BUMENTA R ! US . 



demand earnestly, fi ler.tly; to call 

for. 

FLAMMA. ae. f., (fur flagma, roo/ n. \o.)'a 
flame, blaze, flash ; tlie flame of passion, love) 
passion. 

FLECTO, ere. xi, Sum, tr., (akin to plccto,) 
to liend, bow. curve, turn; to bend one's pur-4 I 
pose ; to move, touch, persuade. Fleeter? se, to ' ricli 
turn. bend. 

FLEO, ore. «vi, ctum, intr. and tr., to weep, 
shed tears, lament, bewail. 
• FL.ETUS, us, m.. fleo. weeping, wailing, la- 
menting, tears. 

FLO, are. avi. atura, intr. and tr., to blow. 

FLOREO, ere, ui, intr.. flos, to bloom. 

FLQRENS, tis, part, and adj., flonrisfiing, 
blooming,- blossoming. Fig? prosperous, suc- 
cessful, in great repute. 

FLOSl'floris, m., a flower, blossom. / 

FLUCTUS, us, m., fluo, a wave, surge, billow. 

FLc/MEN, inis, n., fluo, a stream; a river. 
Id '■> J! limine iter facere—c\own or along the 
stream. Secundum naturam fluminis procum- 
bcre, to incline according to the courso- of. the, 
river, i. e. to incline down stream. Secundum 
flitmen, along the river. Adverse* flumine, up 
stream. 

FLUO, ere, xi, xum, intr., to flow. 

FODIO, ere, odi, ossum, tr., to dig, delve, dig 
up, dig out ; to pierce, stab. 

F(EDUS, eris, n., a league, covenant, treaty, 
compact, bargain, agreement. 

FOXS, fontis. m., (akin to fundo,)a fountain, 
spring, well, origin, source. 

FOREM, cs, et, etc., def.. Or. £110, 15: I 
might be, same as esse'm ; inf. fore, same as l'u- 
turUs esse; with a subject acciisative, will or 
would be, or come to pass. ' 

FORIS, adv., (abl. of fbra', whence foras.) 
without, out of doors, out of the city, abroad. 

FORMA, ae, f., form, shape, figure, fashion; 
a fine form, beauty; a mould, model. 

FORS, tis, f., fcro, what brings itself, chance, 
luck, hap, fortune. Abl. forte, by chance, ac- 
cidentally, casually, peradventuro. 

FORTASSE, adv., fors, perhaps. 

FORTISj e, ior, issimus, adj., fero, enduring 
much, strong, steadfast, brave, gallant, valiant, 
courageous. 

FORTITER, fortius, fortissimi, adv., fortis, 
strongly, stoutly, vigorously; bravely, gallant- 
ly, courageously. 

FORTITPBO, iuis.f., fortis, fortitude, fim- 
ndurance, resolution, bravery, courage, 
magnanimity. 

FORTIUS. See Fortiter. 

FORTU1TO, adv.. fors, by chance, casually, 
accidentally. 

FORTt'NA, ae, f., fors, fortune, chance, haz- 
ard, hap, luck, lot. state, condition, circum- 
■s. fate; the goddess Fortune: good tor- 



tune, bad fortune, misfortune; pi. property 
lies, wealth. EU magna f.rr 
tun.r. it is a remarkable chan'ce, a great pica 
of good luck. 

J ' '.ITUXATl S. a, urn. adj., fortuno, to pros- 

per. |)rospeiid. happy, fortunate, lucky, pros- 

in prosperous circumstances, wealthy. 



FOREM, i. n.. (akin to foris and 'jbrxs fron 
fero.) what is out of doors, a market place . 
market; the Forum, a prrblic place in Rome 
where assemblies of the people were held, jus 
tice was administered, and other public business 
was transacted. 

FOSSA, ae, f ,\part. of fodio, sc. terra.) i 
ditch ; a trench, moat. Fossaih ducerc, to make, 
dig — 

FOVEA, ae, 1'., a pit made for catching wile 
beasts, a pitfall. • 

\ FRACTUS, a, nm, part., frango. NaMbu 
fractjs, — Erected. 

FRANGO, ere, fregi, fractum, tr., to break, 
dash in piece-, shiver, crush; to conquer, vai 
quish, subdue, weaken; to dishearten, discou 
age. 

FRATER, tris, m„ a brother; pi. brothers - 
brethren. An honorary title. 

FRATEENUS, a\ urn, adj., frater, of a broth- 
er, brotherly, fraternal. 

FRAUDO, are, avi, at cm, tr., fraus, to commit 
a fraud ; to defraud, cheat, deceive'. 

FRAUS, dis, f., fraud, deceit, guile, cheating, 
treachery, dishonesty; act of fraud, ,a fault, ol 
fence, trespass, crime; a being deceived, an er 
ror, mistake; the result of being deceived, los 
damage. 

FREMITUS, us, m., fremo, to murmur, a low 
roaring noise, humming, roaring, raging, clan 
or. 

FREQUENS, tis, adj., frequent, constant, > 
ten repeated; numerous, many, in great auui 
bers, in crowds. 

FRi'TUS, a, nm, adj., trusting to. relying on. 
supported by. 

FRIGIDUS, a. um,adj.. (frigeo. 
strengthened form oirigco, to be stiff,) cold. 

FRIGES, oris, n., frigco.cold, coolness. Praj 
ter frigcru, on account of the cold. 

FRCXS. tis.f., forepart of the head, the for< 
I id, Lvov,; the front of anything. A front 
or in frentCj in front, on the front side, 
, FR UCTUOSUS, a. nm, adj., fructus, fruitful, 
fertile: profitable, n Ivanfegeous. 

FRUCTUS, us, in., i: eirjoyment, 

that from which enjoyment proceeds, the fruit; 
or produce of tho earth, tlje fruit offices: proi 
it. advantage, product, fruit, income, rent, in 
tercst. 

l'!:UMEXTARIUS, a,' urn, adj., frumentum 
of or belonging to grain. Locq frumrnUiri,- 
P ■ " i producing or. Abounding' m grain, A'&j 



FRUMENTATIO-GENEVA. 






233 



W 



• ntaria, supply of grain, corn. A^tffe 
frumcntaria, a ship loaded with ■ 
frumenlaria, scarcity of] 

FRUMENTATIO, onis, a providing or procur- 
ing of grain ; a foraging. 

FRUMENTOU, ari, atus sum, dtp. intr., fru- 
mentum, to collect grain, to forage. 

FRUMENTUJEgL n„ frnor, means of enjoy- 
ment, corn or gram of all kinds, pur!,, 
wheat and bailey ; rations of grain. 

FRUOR, i, fruitus or fructussumy dep. intr., 
o delij one's self with, deri 
from : I" enjoy, i eap the fi i; 

I'RA, adv., (for, fraustera. all. of old 
lusterp udo.) in vain, to no 

purpose, without effect. 

FUERAM, etc. See Sum. 

I'l G A, ae, Bight ; a 1 unuing a\. 

tfl fuga, to betak 's self by flight, to flee. 

ntere fugani i fugam 

dare, to put t. 

Ft it \Ti ; b i '. 

If UGIO, ere, fugl, fugitum, intr. niid tr., to 
Bee or By, run huu. 

i., lugio, tugltivi 
uing away ; XI 

FUGC to Ben, to 

put •." tiii lit, rout 
FTJI, etc. See Sum. 

' ;i. : 'i i ■. at i. atimi. intr.. lUniUS, to emit 
■ niuke, reek, smoke, ft 
1-V'MUS, i, m., • moki , f i 
FUNDA, ae, f., fundo, an instrument from 
which stones are poured forth, a sling. 

FUNDnsblt, orb, m, funda, one that fights 
with a sling, a slinger. 

FUXDO, ore, ft/di, ft/sum, tr., 'to pour, spill; 
to/fuse, mel i it'n abundantly, to 

perse; to 
\> oir out 

ftJXGOR, f. fun'tus sum, dep. intr*, to busy 
■ Diployi d in. t i disc! 

execute or perform a] 

cute, do. 

m. and f, a rope, cord ; a cable. 
FUNL'Sj eris, i< . (ak i l unit.) literally 
what Is Brawn Aenceafuner- 

ion, funeral 
i IJRi ii';. oris, in . furo, to be mao{ tur; 
nose, rage, distraction. 

I DBTCM, i. d., tb a Ftratagcm, 
ambuscade. 

inn. pail.., f:i 
Fl>ILI£. <*, ,i4j . fundo, that may be 
out. nvrl 

II -II -. 
it l / i ; i • 

i it will ( I DM 

I 



TB 



G 



GABALI, iirnm, in., the Gaball, a people of 
Aquitania : All, 7. 

GABIN'IUS, i, m. Gabinius, a Roman gentile 
name, -t- Qdbiniut Paul us, consul with L. 
Qxlpurnim J'iso, A. U. C. G9G : I, G. lie was 
afterwards proconsul af Syria and zealously es- 
poused the cause* of Ciesar in the civil war. 

i ; BSUM, i. ii.. a heavy dart or juvolin, BBOd 

by the ancient Gauls. 

GALllA. ae, m. Calba, a king of the Bue*> 
siones : 11,4. Servius (ialba. one of Ca^ar' . 
li. luti nants in the Gallic war: III. 1. 

GALE L ae, i'.. a helmet, (usually of leather.) 

,'. head pi 

. GALLIA, ae, f., sc. terra, Gallus, the name 
given to the north of Italy, south of the LIp% 
usually ' dtalptna as OaUia Citer-. 

!nr, and divided by the .I'o into Gallia ' 
ana and Gallia 'i'ranspadana ; and the count ry 
the Alps called Gallia Ulterior ox Tratu- 
nlpina, and subdivided into Relgic, Celt 
A.juitauic Gaul, and the 1 Roman province, 

G \ LLKTS. a, urn. adj., Gallia, of or pertain- 
ing to Gaul, Gallic. 

I I \ l.Ii/NA. ae, 1., (gallus, a cock.) a hon. 

GALLTJS, i, in., a Haul, an inhabitant of (lai.l. 

especially: of Celtic Gaul: 1,1. Also, a Roman 
cognomen. See Trtbius. 

SAiLUS, a, um, adj., Gallic. Gallus homo, a 
Gaul. 

G AR7TES, uim. hi., t in- Garitt s, a pei 
Aquitania: III, 27. 

G ARTJMNA, ae, f., the Garonne, a river ol 
Franco rising in the Pyrenees and flowing int 
I, 1. 

GARU.VNI, orum, m., the Garumni, i j j le 

who lived on the banks of the Caroline: II I, 27. 

GAUDE'i. ere. gavi'nU sum, intr.. to feel joy : 

to rejoice, be glad. Opposed to /.rtor,to exhibit 

Joy. 

GAV/SUS, a, um, part., gaudeo. 
' : i:ili« M. orum, m., the G< duni, ■■< people 
of Belgic Gaul: V. 39. 

GENABBN8IS, e, adj., Genabum, of or be- 
longing to Genabiim. 

YBENSES. iuin. m., Genabum, the la- 
Get m. VI], 11 
sr.i'M. i. n.. a town of the Oarnul 

lianorum City- 
's hi m eit model n n tmi ' h leans • 
R, i i-in-law, dau: 

hinds: 

illy. 

a town ol i 
L . 
eva: I 



234 



I 






abeo: 






■Hi 



**««£■■ . ■ 



GENS, tis, f., {root gen of gign 
mong the Romans containing m 
descended from a common ana 
people, nation, tribe. 

GEN1B, eris, n., (root gen,) a race, birth, ori- 
gin, descent, kind, family, stock, lineage, kin- 
dred, breed ; a kind, sort, class, quality ; nature, 
manner ; a race, tribe, nation, people. 

GERGOVIA, ae, f. Gergovia, a town of the 
Arverni : VII, 4, 34, 50. Also, a town of the 
Boii : VII, 9. 

GERM.4NUS, a, urn, adj., of Germany, Ger- 
man. 

GERMANI, orum, m. Germans, the Ger- 
mans : 1, 1, from 

GERMANIA, ae, f., sc. terra, Germanus, Ger- 
many. Ancient Germany was bounded by the 
German ocean and the Baltic, the Vistula, the 
Danube, and the Rhine: IV, 1. 

GERMANICUS, a, um, adj.. Germanus, Ger- 
manic, German. 

GERO, ere, gessi, gestum, tr., to bear, carry, 
wear, have; to administer, manage ; tp conduct, 
wage; to do, perform, execute, carry on ; gercre 
rem or negotium, to conduct the affair, to fight. 
Res geritur, the affair is carried on, tho battle 
■a, fought. Rem bene gercre, to perform a great 
■ exploit, to engage or fight successfully. Res 
gestss, actions, deeds, exploits, warlike achieve- 
ments. Male re gesta, by bad management, 
tfeilnw 

GEEIUS, a, um, part., gero. 

GLADIUS, i, m., a sword. 

G.LANS, dis, f., an acorn, chestnut or other 
.kind of mast ; a leaden; acorn-shaped bullet 
thrown by the slingcrs. Glans ex argilla, a 
Jball or i bullet of clay. 

GL.EBA, ae, f., a clod vr lump of earth ; land, 
soil, a lump, mass,, piece of any thing. 

GLORIA, ae, f.,.glory, renown, fame. Gloria 
belli atque fortitudinis, renown in war, and re- 
putation for hravery. 

GLORIOR, ari, atus sum, dep. intr., gloria, to 
o-lory, boast, br%g,i.*a,unf„ pride one's self. 

GOBANTf 10, onie, m. Gobanitio, a leader of 
rtfae Arverni : VII, A. 

.GB.MCVS, a. urn, A#.,of Greece, Grecian, 
Greek. 

GR^CI, orum, m., fiia inhabitants of Greece, 
■Grecians, Greeks. 

GRJ3CIA, sc. terra, Graecus. 

GRAIOCEI I, orum, m., the Graiocoli, a peo- 
ple of Citerior Gaul, whoiived among the Alps, 
and whose principal city iras Ocelum : 1, 10. 

GRANDIS,'e, adj., (perhaps akin to '-resco,) 
large, great, plentiful, abundant. 

GRATIA, ae. gratus, favor in which a person 
Kt&ads with others, popularity; influence, in- 
terest, authority ; friendship, concord. Favors 
shown to another, kindness, courtesy. An ac- 
knowledgment oi a kindness, return, requital, 



gratitude, thanks. Refcrre gratiam, to recom- 
pense, remunerate, make a requital. Agere 
gratias, to give thanks, thank. Habere gratiam, 
to feel obliged or indebted; to thank, be grate- 
ful. Gratia, in favor of, for the sake or purpose 
of, on account of. 

GRATULATIO, onis, f., gratulor, a wishing 
one joy, congratulation, a rejoicing, public joy. 
Gratulationcm alicui faccre, . to congratulate 
one. ' 

GRATULOR, ari, atus sum, dep. tr. and intr., 
gratus, to congratulate, wish one joy; to thank, 
return thanks. 

■GR.4TUS, a, um, adj., grateful, pleasing, ac- 
ceptable, agj-eeable ; grateful, thankful.. Gra- 
tum alicui facere, to oblige or do a favor to — . 

GRAVIS, e, adj.. heavy, weighty, ponderous; 
loaded) laden ; important, weighty ; burden- 
some, to the stomach, unwholesome; severe, 
grievous, sore, bitter, oppressive, painful, ca- 
lamitous. Grave helium, a formidable war. 
Omnes gravioris mtatis, — of a more advanced 
age, more advanced in life. Aliquid grave stat- 
■uere, to pass a severe judgment, order a severe 
punishment. 

GRAVITAS, a tis, f., gravis, weight, heaviness: 
weightiness, dignity, importance ; firmness, 
strength, power. 

GRAVITER, gravius. gravissime, adv., gravis 1 , 
heavily, strongly, deeply, greatly, violently, 
much, severely, bitterly, grievously; with, sor- 
row, indignation, chagrin. Grainier j'erre ali- 
quid, to grieve on account of, be indignant at. 

GRAVO, arc avi, atum, tr.. gravis, to burden, 
load, weigh down, oppress. Gravari, pass, to 
be vexed, to grudge, refuse, be loath to. , 

GRUDII, orum, m., the Grudii, a people of 
Belgic Gaul : V, 39. 

GUBERNvtTOR, oris, m., guberno, to steer a 
ship ; a pilot, steersman; a governor, ruler. 

GUSTO, are, avi, atum, tr., to ta-ste. 



H 



HABEO, fire, ui, itum, tr. and intr., to have, 
hold, keep, possess ; to occupy, inhabit; to hold, 
reckon, judge, esteem, think, consider ; to make. 
hold, deliver, pronounce, utter, speak; to hold, 
assemble ; to hold, treat scmo one. 'With the 
perfect participle, habco forms a periphrasis, 
stronger than the indicative present perfect : 
as, Mihi persuaswn habco, I am persuaded, I 
believe. Habco coactum, I have collected. — 
Habeo redemption, I have purchased or farmed. 
Habere in hostiwm numero, to reckon among 
one's enemies; to treat as enemies. Haberc.in 
se, to contain. Habere custra, to pitch a camp, 
encamp. Habere se, to be. Habere iter, to 
travel, journey. Magni habere, to esteem high- 
ly, think highly of. Habere in- aniiuo, to in- 
tend, design, have in mincVMfck of. Habere 



HABITUS— HUMILIS. 



raticntm, to keep an account or reckoning; 
dUoj to liavo regard, pay attention tr«. care for. 
Habere quscstioncm, to malic or carry oa. With 
the subjunctive, non beHbto, quid agam, I know 
not what to do. Xon habeo, quo recipiavi. I 
know not where to go; have no place to re- 
treat to. 

HABITUS, a, ami part., habeo. 

1IABIT0. are. avi, ntnni. tr. and intr. t'r. ■ ;., 
habeo, to huve frequently, hold'; to dwi 11. -a- 
bide, live in, Inhabit. 

HAC, .- 1 ■ 1 % parte or vi'i , 

OU this side. 

II/ESIT.'. are, iivi. atiini. intr. fie, p. 
to stick fast, remain fixed : to hesitate, he at n 
loss, lie perplexed, doubt. 

RAMUS, i. in., a hook. 

HARP AGO, onis, in., n hook, a grappling 
hook. 

IlAltrPKS. am, m., the Harudes, a people of 
Germany, north oi the Danube; 1. 31. 

IIAUD, adv.. nol Generally utcd vit'i< ad- 
Dl rbs. 

HEiVETICCS and HELVETrCS,a,um, adj.. 
of or belonging to Helvetia. Helvetian. 

IIKLVKTII. orum, m., the Helvetians, the 
Bwiss, the inhabitants of Helvetia -r Switser- 
land : 1, 1. 

Ill'.l.vn. orum, m.. the Helvit, n no 

the Gallic Province : VII, 7, 

lll.KCYM ("S.a. inn. adj.. llercj'aian, / 
ia SUva, the Black Forest, an ex.1 
of Germany : VI, 24. 

lli'.in h :.■ : inhci i- 

tance. heirship : an inheritance. 

IIIBJ-'I'NA. oiuni, u. sc. casttu. hlberuus, 
hienis. a winter camp, ".\ inter quarters. 

1I1P.1.KM \. ac, I. ftpland: V. 10. 

BIO, ha.c. hoc, del !:• this. 

he, she, it : that, uch Roc, al '.. r.i thin sic- 

ount. for Hi mpara- 

tives, the. so mm ti ; kbc facilius, the more, 

so niiirh the More easily. 

II l<'. adv.. hie, here, in tlii- i I 
hereupon : on thin oi 

HLEMO, are, avi, at um. intr.. 1 ii uis, to Win- 
er, peas the w inter. 

n I i:ms. emis, f.. winti i 

1II.NC. a,h .. hie. ■ 'arc, on 

hi* side : tie nee, Et»m that place. 

HISPAN] ' ntry of 

he Qispani. Spain : I. 1. 

HI SIMM's, a. adj.. pertaining t •> Spain. 

-'pani-h : \ 

HOC. .'-■"Hie. 

II'iHii;. .:'.\.. h c-die, to-, lay: at thin day, 
t tlii-< time, now-a-dayti. 

HOMO. ii.< 

r « 



1 1 ile, noble, dignified, respectable ; 
deserving honor, virtuous, right, fit, creditable. 

HONOR and H0N0S 
esteem, reverence, regard ■ n mark 
tion, a public ofiice. magistracy, preferment. 
post, dignity, office, .ftonori, -r.out 

of respect to — . for the purpose of hon 

H0NQRIFIC0S, a, dm, adj., hon 
causing fir bringing honor, honorable. 

MORA, ae. f„ ar. hour, the twelfth part of a 
day: tiine. period. Hum quarto, the fourth 
hour. i. e..troin nine ',. ten o'clock in the 

in.-t. flora octavo, from one tot two oVl ok in 
the attorn iou. 

HQRRJBO, ere. ni. intr. and tr., to -land on 
end, bristlt : tot rem bio or quake with fear : to 
shudder- to bo rough, look frigbrful ; u 
to trei ible OT shudder at. 

UIBILK, e. adj.. horroo, Itorvihlu. dread- 
ful, terrible, frightful. 
| HORRTDUS, a. nm, adj., horreo, rough, rug- 
ged; hoi rid, horrible, dreadful, hideous, fright- 
ful. 

HORTATUS, n, nm, part., from 

IIORTOR, ari. atus sum, dep. tr., (fur liori- 
tor, root 9B Of iion. whence orior,) to urge strong- 
ly, exhort, encourage, excite, instigate, prompt, 
move, eiubniden. cheer. 

HORTJM and JIOS. See Ilic. 

PES, itis, -,i. ;.:,.] r., akin I 

who is nt' 1 1 in,, ' r lodgi d m 
one's house, a guest, s trail 
journer, visitor; one .rho treat* another as a 
host. 

i I 'SPITIUM, i. lr.. 1: iSp 

of hospitality <w friend/ship; hospitality*. 
HOSTIS, i-. m.'and 1.. a strung r, foreignei : 
iiy, a public enemy, itiimt 
private enemy. 

ither, to tie ; I •< e : this 
way: to tbis issue or point ; to tl 
to ttii thing. Aovtdebat h uc, there wa 
i i tin-, besides thin, moreover. 
Ill IC ■ HTJtIUS. Si ■ Hie. 
nr.ii.-Mopi. pro. gi u. ol ui 

tliis kiiel or i '. t- uch. 
IM'MA.MTAS. dti-. f. loniMiiii-. Inn 

, kindness; mental cultivation, good 
breedini 

III M. IMS. a. nm, adj.. homo, linmus, bu- 
■r belonging to a man: humane, kjnd, 
gentle, • 
III UKR1 S, i. in., the arm b( Iwecn the.),, U I- 

IIUMI1 

near tbi 

' 



236 



ii u mi l.i'tas— imp:;ditus. 



IIUMILITAS, ati<. f., humi,lia, lowness; mean- 
ness, poverty, weakness; want of power, tfisig- 
hificance ; humility. HumaniU* nuvis, low- 

.i.atness. 



IBI, adv., (pronoraial root i; old Jativo like 
tibi, tibi,) there, in that place; then, on that 
occasion. 

1CCIUS, i, m. Icciuu, a chief of the Eemi, 
sent on an embassy to Csesar : II, 3. 

ICTUS, us, m., ico, to ktrihe; a stroke, a blow, 
" ID. See U. 

■ IDCIKCO, adv., id-cirea, on that, account, 
' therefore, for that reason. 

IDBM,*etuIeyn, idem, pro., is-dem, the saniei 
the same persou or thing. 1 !-v,i qui, /-/, at, 
atque, etc., the same as. 

.D13NT1DEM, adv., idem ct idem, repoatedly, 
several times, now and th<Ml, ever and anon, at 
intervals. 

IDIiO, adv.. id-eo, UiU fur l'ii$. therefore, for 
that cause or reason, on that account. 

IDONI^Uis, a, urn, adj., fit. apt, meet, proper, 
suitable, convenient, capable, sufficient. 

1HUS. ram, f., (root id found in di-vid-o and 
ftndo,) tho ides of a' month, the fifteenth of 
March, May, July, an 1 October, caul the thir- 
teenth of the other months. 

IERAT. etc. See Eo. 

1GITUR, coiij., (pronomial root i with dem. 
suffix it a, iiur,) therefore, then. 

IGNIS, is, m., tire. Inferre i;/nem ulicui rei. 
to s*t lire to. 

IGNOBILIS, e, adj., in-nobilis, unknown, of 
no note, undistinguished, obscure, insignificant, 
mean, ignoble'; of mean extraction, of low birth, 
base-born. 

HJNOMINIA, ae, »'., in negative — iminen, be- 
ing without a good uame, .ignominy, disgrace, 
reproach, dishonor, infamy. 

MJNORATUS, a, nm, part., ignore 

IGNORO. arc, avi, atum, tr. and intr., ign<7- 
rus, ignorant, to be ignorant of, not to know, be 
unacquainted with. Potest ignorari, it can be 
unknown. 

IGNOSCO, ere, ovi, otum, tr. and intr., in- 

gnosco or nosco, not to know a crime, to pardon, 

' excuse, overlook, forgive, i'a.va. imp., igno$eitur, 

pardon is given; ignoscitur milii. I am excused. 

IGNOTUS, a, um, part, and adj., in negative, 
and notus, not known, unknown. 

IGNOVI. etc. See Iguosco. 

II. See Is. 

ILL-ATUS, a, um. part, inicro. 

ILLE, ilia, illud, dem. pro., Gr. j;R2, .'U:he, 
she, that, that man. Illc — Uib, the former — tlie 
latter; sometiiau uisd, the latter— -the former. 

ILL1C, adv., there, in that place. 

ILLIG^TI H, a, um, part, illlgo. 



ILLIGO, are, avi, atum, tr., in-iigo. to bin i ; 
to bind on, tie on, fasten, attach. 

ILLO, adv., (for Man, old ace. of Hie,) to that 
place, thither. Eodem iUo pertinere, to tei 
the same thing, to aim at tho sanws object, pro- 
duce the same result. 

ILEUSTRIS, e, adj., in-lustro, lighted up, 
clear, bright, luminous ; manifest, clear, plain, 
distinct, evident; morally bright, illustrious, 
famous, renowned, noted. 

ILLYRICUM, i,n., the country of the Illyr- 
ians,who inhabited part of tho modern Datmatia 
and Albania : II, 30. 

IMANUENTIUS, i, m. Imanu'ontius, a king 
of the Trinobantes : V, 20. 

IMBI1CILITAS, ntis, f., imbccillis, in-bar.ukis, 
leaning on a staff; weakness, feebleness, imbe- 
cility, helplessness. 

IMBEU, bris, m., a shower of rain. 

IMI'fOR, ari. at us sum, ■ dep. tr., {root lis, 
whence imago, similis, &c.) to imitate, act like, 
seek to resemble, Copy after; counterfeit. 

IMM.4NIS, e, adj., (is and root ma, itficact 
tnagnus,) huge in size, vast, enormous, exceed- 
ing great: monstrous in character; fierce, sav- 
age, cruel. 

IMMINEO, ere, ui, intr.,' in-mineo. to hang 
over; to hang over, impend; to bo at hand, be 
near ; to threaten, be imminent. 

IMMISSUS, a, um, part., immitto. 

IMMITTO, ere, t'si, issum, tr., tn-mitto, to 
send or let in, insert, introduce, admit ; to send 
against, let l'use upon, urge on ; to east, hurl, 
throw. 

IMMOLO, are, avi, atum, tr., in-mola, coarse 
meal sprinkled on tho victim preparatory to 
sacrificing, 'to sacrifice, immolate. 

IMMORTvlLIS, e, adj., in-mortolis, mors, im- 
mortal, everlasting, eternal. 

IMMfNIS, e, adj., in-munus, free or exempt 
from services, to the state : exempt from taxes 
or tribute; not sharing in, free from, devoid of. 

liiiiCMlXAS. cris, f • immiwhis, exemption 
frofii public service or taxes; immunity. 

IMPAR, aris, adj., in-par, uneven, unequal, 
disproportionate, unlike, 

IMPAR^ITUS, a, um, adj., in-paratus, no.t 
ready, .unprepared. 

IMPEDIMENTUM, i, u., impedio, a lundrancc, 
impediment; the baggage and beasts of burden 
belonging to ;ui army, baggage. Impedimenta, 
' pl-, baggage. 

IMPEDIOJ ire, iri, and ii, ituin, tr., in-pes, to 
entangle the feet, hamper; to bind, tie, en- 
circle, clasp, embrace; to hinder, retard, check, 
prevont, stop, obstruct, impede, prevent the free 
use of; to render of difficult passage. 

IMi'ED/TUS, a, um, part and adj., impedio, 
entangled, sbftcklod ; engaged, occupied, em- 
ployed; perplexed, embarrassed, involved; re- 
hindered, impeded, loaded with baggage; 



IMPfiLLO— INCEDO. 



difficnlt, blocked up. Tmpedili in agmine, en- 
cumbered with b igg kg ■ while on their march. 
Omnium . while the attention 

of all was 

IMPELLO, ere, uli, alsum, tr.. in-pello, to 
l>u-il i err Btrike n must, press or drive forward: 
urgo on, propel, Impel; to incite, [t 
move, persuade. 

IMPENDEO, ere, intr., in-pendoo, to hung 
over; to >vi rhang/iiang over, impend, threaten. 

IMPENDO, err, di, Bum, tr., in-pondo, to 
weigh out; hence, to lav ont, expend; to be- 
■jkow^employ, devote, apply. 

IMPEXSUS, a, um, part' and adj., in 
and peusus, pernio, th.it cannot be weighed, 
l.-ir c ; ■ ■ 

! UPER^TUS, 0, um. part., inipero.' 

IMPEll.iTOl!. oris, n»., baipeno, acomi 
'••; chief, leader, gem ral. 

nil'CIJ.I'ri'M. i. li.. in:, 
mini d. ) to do that which i.-> 

ordered, obey an order. .'. m venire, 

to conv ;it i ' i i id, 

IMPERFECT1 S, a, am, adj., in-perfectus, 
Imperfect, unfinished,, 

IMPERJT1 S, i'. um. adj., In-perrtus, unskil- 
ful. Ignorant, unlearned, inexperienced, rude, 
with. 
IMPERII M, i. n.. impero, a command, order, 
p, injunction; the right or powei 
manding, poyver, authority, Bway, control; su- 
prcihc pi >wi r, crapint, dominion, 

government; supreme military power, 

dignity. An empire, realm, BtateV 

IMPERO, arc. avi, alum, tr. and intr.. to 

■ dcr, give directions. Obsi- 

de$ impcr re, to demand hostages. Kquitatum 

dry. 
IMPETB IT1 S, a. i,m. part 
IMPETRO. are, a\i. atum, tr., in-p 

obtain or procure i or entreaty);. 

■ 

lit • i;it, ku.- 

cecd in i 
IMPETUS, n i. in., Im] ■ 

nit. oiim'I : Q or ex- 

■ 
' 

IMPI1 S, a. inn. adj.. in- ; 

. w icked. 
Withi lutiful. 

Withoi 

IMP1 rl IMP] II II i 

Jinrt ., in . 

I M I'l.i- 
iiv-plico, 1 ■■■■!■/; t<i inf. Id, inv I 

■ 
Inttmati ly, unite, join. 
IMP] • 



implore, invoke, i n treat with 

IMPONp, ere, posn!, positirai, tr.. in- 
lay into, in or upon . to set 
over : to lay upon, impose, throw or inflict upon. 

[MP0RTATITI1 S, a. um. adj.. import... im- 
ported from f i] 

IMlMl'.T.tTl'S, a, um. part., import... 

IMPORTO, are, avi, atum, tr.. in-porto, to 
bring or carry in. Import) introduce. 

IMPOSm S; a, mn. part., Impi 

1 M PROBUS, a, um, adj.. in-] 
wickodj dishonesty knavish, scoundrelly, bad, 

vile, fie ious. 

IMPROVISO, adv., til'l. of Improvisna 
poctedPj ..suddenly. 

IMPROV7SDS, a, am, adj., tn-provii 
i, unlooked for, nnthougbl of, nn 
ed. Jmjiroviso or de improviso, sc. Iocn, unex- 
pectedly, sudd. lily, on a Midden. 

IMPRPDENS, tisj adj., in-prudensy./br prov- 
no| foreseeing, nol knowing, ignorant, ' 
wing, unawares, noi expecting, off one's 
giiard, careless, inadvertent, Imprudent. 

IMPRUDENTIA, ae, f., imprwdens, 
knowledge pr foresight, ignorance, thou: 
ness, imprudence. 
LMPPBES, <-ri.r, adj., in-puhes not of mar- 
riageable age; continent, chaste. 

IMPUQNO, are. avi. alum, tr., in-pugno, to 

attack. ,; agaii -i. i ppose. 

IMPULSES, ns, li.. 
an impulse, outward 
i nfluence, incitement. 

IMPUL8US, a, um, part., Impello, 
LMPJ7KE, adv., impunis, unpunished, Ln-poe- 
na; with, ut punibhmutil ; with Impunity, safely. 

1 MPTJN1TAS, atis, t.. ii 
in-pcena; impunity, fieedom from puuishment, 
- arity. 
I Ml :u.. 

1 N. i<r'i>. J. With the uccusative, int 
unto; towards; upon ; .on : over; among; un- 
til : I.. i 
latitudinem, in breadth. |j j n 

'lum, after thie um 
ablative, In, within ; in ti ; upon. 

i n ; among, amidst ; at ; o> r ; 
concerning, ras] 

■ 
man fjj-.pi.- v 
1 \ INIS, e\ adj., empty, . 
■ 
I ' TI'. 

' Tt .v 

'. 



▲ .* 



238 



IN C BNDlJfa WNfc U LG EO. 



INCENDIUM, i, n.. incendo, a fire,'conflagra- 
tion ; a. burning, setting fir. to 

INCENDO, ere, ili. sum, tr., ^n-candco< to 
glow; to kindle, set fire to, burn ; to illumine. 
brighten ; to inflame, stir up, en 
mate, excite. 

INCENSUS, a, tun, part., incendo. 

J$CEPTUS?a, urn, part., incipio. 

I-NCERTUS, a, um, adj., in-ccrtus, uncertain, 
doubtful, dubious, at a loss, undecided; scatter- 
ed, disordered. 

INCIDO, ere, idi, casum, tr.. in-cadd, to fall 
into or upon ; to come upon unexpectedly ; to 
fall out, happen, occur. In aliqticm incidere, to 
foil in with, meet with, come upon. 

INC/DO, ere, idi, /sum, tr., iu-ca?do. cut into, 
cut open; to carve, engrave. 

INCIPIO, ere, rpi, eptum, tr. and intr., in- 
capio, to seize upon, to commence, begin ; to at- 
tempt, undertake. Inception, an attempt, un- 
dertaking, 

INC/SUS, a, um, part., incido. 

INCITMTUS, a, mo, part., iheito. 

INCITO, are, avi. atum, tr. freq_., i;i-cico, to 
call; to set in rapid or violent motion ; fcoincite, 
hasten or put forward ; to stir up, arouse, ex- 
cite; toirrifcte; to encourage, stimulate, spur 
on; to increase, augment. Incitare se, to rush 
in. Equo ineil lio, bavin-- spurred his horse to 
full speed. 

INCLCDO, ere, Br,' sum, tr., in-claudo, to shut- 
up, confine, inclose, keep in, include ; to block 
up, stop, hinder ; to finish, end. 

INCIiJTSUS, a. um, part., includo. 

INCO^NITUS, a, urn, adj., in-cognitus, un- 
known. 

INCOLO, ere. colui, tr. ami intr., in-colo, to 
inhabit; to abide, dwell r.r live in a place. 

INCOLUMIS, e, adj., in-columis, sufc ; unin- 
jured, unhurt, without loss, safe, sound, whole, 
entire, » 

INCOMMODE, adv., incommodus, inconveni- 
ently, unsuitably, troublesorn^ly, unseasonably, 
unluckily, unfortunately. 

INCOMMODUS, a, um, adj., in-commodHfl, 
inconvenient, unseasonable, unsuitable, unfav- 
orable, troublesome, hurtful, disadvantage! tfs. 

INCOMM.ODUM, i. n.. inconvenience, disad- 
vantage, detriment, damage, loss, harm, disaster. 

INCONSULTE, adv., in-consultus, consulP, 
forethought, inconsiderately, impru- 
dently, unadvisedly, rashly, injudiciously, in- 
discreetly . 

LNCREDIBILIS, e, adj., in-credibilis, credo, 
incapable of being believed, not to b,o believed, 
incredible, extraordinary, unparalleled. 

INCRBPITO, are, avi, atum, and ui 
tar., iu-crepo, to sound; to make a noise, re- 
sound ; to exclaim loudly against; to chide, re-, 
prove, upbraid, censure, assail, 
crepitant vociuii.t. to speak reproaehfuJly ofi 



'CUMBO, ere, cubui, cnbitum, tr., in-smbo, 
■ lay one's self upon ; to lean or recline 
uponjMto apply or devoto one's self to, i 
one's wtention to, take pains with. 

1NCUKSI0, onis, f.. incurro. to ran upon, a 
running upon or against, an attack ; an incur- 
sion, inroad, irruption. 

ENTCURSUS, us, m., incurro, to run v% 
running against, assault, attack, inroad, incur- 
sion'. 

INCDtBOj are. avi, atum, tr., in-causa 
cuse of something, blame, find fault, with, i 
piain of. censure, 

fNDE, adv., (in, aid. of pronomial root i, and 
(?".) thence^ from that place; from that time. 
then, next, afterwards. 

INDICIUM, i, n., index, in-dico, a discovery, 
notice, information, disclosure, testimony; a 
sign, indication, symptom, mark, token. ; 

- '• >. ere, si, ctum, tr., in-dico, to declare 
public!;,-, proclaim, publish; to appoint, sum- 
mon: to impose, enjoin. 

INI) ICO, are, avi, atum, tr., index, t. > be an 
itidcx; to show, indicate, discover, disclose, in- I 
form, tell, give evidence or information, betray. 

INDICTUS, a, um, adj., in negative — dictus, 
not said. Indicia causa, without being tried or 
hear.]. Part, iri&ico, ere, appointed, proclaimed. 

1NDIGEO, ere, ui, intr., in or indu and egoo, 
to want, need, stand in need of, require. 

INDICjNE, adv.. indignus, iu.s, issime, unwor- 
thily, undeservedly; shamefully, i - 
honorably. 

INDIGNITAS, atis, f., indigmTs, unworthi- 
ness ; meanness, baseness; indignity, tin,, 
treatment. 

INDIGNQIl, ari, atus sum, dep. tr., indignus, 
to consider improper, scorn, disdain, be wry an- 
gry or displeased with, be indignant. 

INDIGNUS; a, um, adj., in-dignus, unwoi ti.y. 
undeserving; shameful, unbecoming, un 1 
ed, cruel, harsh, severe. 

LG ,"..\;'. tin, adj., in-diligens, di!', 
negligent, careless, hcedfess. - ' 

INDILIGilNTi::: civ., indiligen ;, m igl 
ly, carelessly. 

LNDILTGENTIA,ae, f : indaigcns,nc'gli 
carelessness, 

IXDl'CI.E or' INDUTIiE, arum, f., i 
btium, quiet in the middle of war, a true 
cessation of hostilities. 

INDt'CO, ere, xi, ctum, tr., in— < 
or bring in, lead into, introduce; to put on, 
draw on : to overlay, put over, cuvur over, cov- 
er. Fig. to induce, persuade, incite, lead. 

INDt'CTUS, a, um, part., indued. 

INDUEGENTIA, ae, f., indulgens, iirfty 
HJd^ilgenc ,Javor, courtesy, con lescension; 

INDULGEOj ere, si, turn, intr., in-dulci 



1 1\ DUO— IMTl'S. 



230 



in ncp. and urgoo, to indulge, gratify, humor; 
to make much of, favor. 

INDUO, ere. ui, tttum, tr., to put on, ■ 

i fall into or upon, bo entafrgled 
in. impale one's self bpon. 
INDUSTRIE, adv., industrius, iHdustruo, in- 

i : ualy, diligently. 
INDUTIOIMRUS, i. m. Indntiomiu-us, a 
chief of the Trcviii : V. 3. 

[NEO, tie, ii. ituin. intr. and tr. irr., in-eo, to 
£<> into, enter; to continence, b 
i i o,number,i 

Twin consilium, to form a 
i ■ plot; also, to ilefib- 
orate, con rait. Into 'i im, to get inl i fav- 
or with, gain favor. Tnir< 
devise, form a to male* a reckoning 

or calculation. 

INERMIS, e, and INERMUS, a. am, adj., in- 
nnn.i, without arm 

i'S. tie, adj., are, without a trade or 
occupation; Blothful, indolent, inactive lazy, 
dull, Bluggieh. 

INFAM1 A. ae. f. inf-mi I f;ma. 

ill farm .. dishon- 

or, ignominy. Habere infamiam, 
inded « ith. 
INFAN8, tis, adj., |n— fari, totjpeak; that oan- 
ung, little, infant; tubs* an in- 
fant. , 
INFECIUS, a, urn, adj., in-factus, not done, 

• lishing 

[NFE1 nferus. 

INI i EfWli, illatum, tr. irr.. in- 

• hring 
upon: to infli :: to interpose. In ig\ 

to throw, cast, tnfi 
forward the - 
advance agaii 

i make war npon. 
moram. to interpose ■ delay. Jnfcrre vutnjis, 

und. Ivfirrr t- r: -. , , m, , 

i n. Tnftxre causam, to offer, ad- 
i reason. Inferre 
hope, Ji./irr- in equum, to j I 

account, 
p. infimux or imut, lowest; last; 

I ■ 

IM 1> n> a, urn, adj., in nrj . 

■Il-ili: 

■ . turn, tr., il 
. t'i infort. taint, coi I 



INFIDSTilS, o, adj.,in-fldelis, fidus, unfaith- 
ful, faithless, trefceherous, perfidious, 
sum, tr., in-fi 
k in. 
rNFIMUS, etc. See In:' 
TXKIN/TI'S. a, am, adj.. in-finitus, finio, 
bpundless, endless, without limits, immense, in- 
finite. 

ENFIRMITAS, atis, f. infirmm, want of 
strength, weakness, feebleness; w,e&kn< 
character, fickleness, Inconstancy, levity. 
tNFlRMUS, a, urn, adj-i In-firm 

i Lfirm, 
INFIXU ; . a, am, part., Inftgo. • 

INFLECTO, ore, xL, sum', tr., in--th- t<>. to 
b ind, era k, curve. id ii^elf, 

/. r. to b ■ ■ l or be bent. 
* INFLEXUS, a, uin. part.. Inflect >. 

lXl'Lt',). ere. :;i. wan, intr., in-tlui. to flow 
or run into, discharge, empty. Quo Rhenus in- 
Jluit, Into which the Rhine empties. 

i.\r . os3om, tr.. it-fodio, I 

in, dig; bury in the groan I. 
INFRA, prep, and adv., (fdT infeira sc. parte.) 
Ibw, under, beneath, un- 
. i; below, lower, il i . inferi- 

maller than. 

.".i 1 yen*,) 
es beyond its kind ; henos \.i*'. 
big, 

T.-itun.) 
■ - 
ungrateful, unthankful. 

REDIOR, i. issus sum, dep, intr. 
in-gradior, to go; to step into, ent 
enter upon, engage in a th imence, 

a thing: to walk, ivanco. 

• 
IN/ BAT, ete. See Ineo. 
INIMIOITIA, ae, f., in inl 
■ 

N INIMICUS, a, nni, adj . in-amt'eus, unl 
ile, unkind ; adverse, hurtful, I 
iurious. 
INIM7CUS, i, m.. a priv ite enomy, an 
my. //• >ttis, a public enemy. 

. i.. im'quus, inequality 
evenm 

disadvantaged] lice, unfairm 

rum iniquitat, difficr 
IN/QUUS, a, urn, adj, in-seqous, ui 

able, di He, ad- 

I \ 111 I M. •. 

. 

ginning. 



240 



INJEOTUS- 



iniia, an estimate having been made. 

INJECTUS, a, um, part., injicio. 

INJICIO, ere, eci, ectum, tr., in--jacio, to 
throw or cast into or in ; to lay or put on ; to' 
put into, infuse, inspire, cause, occasion. ' 

IXJUXGO, ere, xi, ctum, tr., in--jungo, to 
join or fasten into : to fix upon.' inflict, occa- 
sion, bring upon, impose upon. 

INJURIA, ae, f., injurius, in-jus, what is con- 
trary tO justice, injury, wrong, injustice ; dim- 
age, harm, violence. .Injuria, abl., unjustly, 
without cause or reason. 

IXJUjSSU, abl., Gr. §51, in-jussii, without 
orders.'* 

IXXASCOR, i, natus sum, dep. intr., in-nas- 
cor, to be born in, to grow in ; to arise Or spring 
up in ; to exist in nature. 

I-XX^ITUS, a, um, part, and adj., innasettr, 
born in, inbred, natural to, inborn, innate. 

IXX/TOR. i, nixus sum, rarely m'eus, dep. 
intr>, in-iii'tor, to lean or rest upon, recline up- 
on, support one's self on. 

IX NIXUS, a, um, par,t., innt'tor. 

IXXOCENS, tis, adj., in-nocens, harmless, 
guiltless, faultless, blameless, innocent. 

IXNOCEXTIA, ae, f., innocens, hatrmlessness, 
innocence; uprightness, integrity, disinterest- 
edness, freedom from rapacity or avarics'. 

IXOPIA, ae, f., (inops, in neg. and ops.) want, 
lack, need, scarcity, dearth ; indigence, poverty. 

IXOr/XAXS, tis, adj., in-op/nans, opinor, to 
think : not thinking, not expecting, unexpected, 
unawares. 

INQUAT.I, def. verb, Gr. §113: to say. 

INSGffiXS, tis. adj., in-sciens, scio, not know- 
ing, ignorant. Insciente aliquo, without one's 
knowledge; without one's knowing. 

IXSC1US, a, um, adj., in--scio, ignorant of a 
thing, not knowing, unaware. 

INSECi/TUS, a, um, part., insequor. • 

IXSEQUOR, i, ciitus sum, dep. tf., in-.sequor, 
to follow close after, come after,, follow, pursue ; 
to persecute, harass; to pursue with words, 
censure. 

IXSERO, ere, erui, ertum, tr., in-sero, to 
connect; to put or introduce into, insert. 

INSERTUS, a, um, part., insero. 

IXS1DIJE, arum, f., iusideo, in-sedeo, lying 
in wait, ambush, ambuscade, snares, treachery, 
trick. Ex insidiis capias collocare — for the pur- 
pose of an ambuscade. 

INSIDIOR, ari, atus sum, dep. intr., insidise, 
to lie in wait, lie in ambush, lay snares or am- 
buscades for. 1 

INSIGX1S, e, adj., in-signum, distinguished 
by a mark, marked ; remarkable, extraordinary, 
distinguished, noted, notorious, famous, promi- 
nent. 

INSIGNE, n.,, a badge, distinction mark, sign: 
PI. the badges of office, insignia; badges or or- 
naments worn on the helmets and shields. , 



INSTRUMENTU.M. 

IXSILIO, ire, silui, tr. and intr.. in-salio, to 
leap; to leap into or upon. 

IXSIMULATUS, a,'um, part., insimulo. 

IXSIMULO, are. avi, atum, tr., in-.-simulv 
similis, to blame, charge or tax with, accuse. 

IXSIXUO, aro, avi, atum, tr:, in-stnuo, sinu 
to put into one's bosom, introduce, insinuat ■. 
make one's way into. 

INSISTO, ere, stiti, stitum, intr., in-sisto. 
reduplicated from sto, to stand upon, tread or 
step upon ; to stop, halt, pause ; to press upon ; 
to proceed ; to commence, begin, enter upoi 
to pursue, adopt, apply one's self to; to perse- 
vere in, persist in. Firmitcr insistere, to stand 
firm. 

IXSOLEXTER, adv., insolens, unusual, in- 
soleo, contrary to custom, unusually, excessive- 
ly, immoderately; insolently, proudly, arn 
gantly, haughtily, presumptuously. 

IXSOLITUS, a, um, adj., in-solitus, unaccus- 
tomed to, unacquainted with, not inured to: 
unusual, strange, uncommon. 

IXSPECTO, are, avi, atum, tr. freq., inspicio, 
to look at, behold, observe, view attentively. 

IXSTABILIS, e, adj., in-stabilis, not standing 
fast, unsteady, tottering, not firm, unsolid, un- 
stable, inconstant, uncertain, fickle, wavering, 
changeable. 

INSTAR, n. ind., Gr. §51, image, likeness, re- 
semblance, form, figure, appearance. Iristar 
muri, like a wall. 

IXST/GO, are, avi, atum, tr., '(£» and root 
stig, whence stimulus, and the English verb 
stick; or, perhaps, insto-ago, like castigo from 
castum-ago, fatigo from faiis-ago) ; to urge, 
incite, stimulate, instigate; to rouse, animate, 
encourage. 

v INSTITUO, ere, ui, atum, tr., in-statuo, to 
put or place into, appoint; to purpose, deter- 
mine, resolve upon ; to collect, got together, as- 
semble, form, make, construct, build, arrange : 
to establish, introduce, ordain, institute, appoint; 
to obtain, procure; to undertake;, to adopt; to 
begin, commence ; to teach, instruct, educate. 
With inf. to make it a rule, to.be accustomed 
or wont; 

IXSTITJTTUM, i, n„ instituo, a thing estab- 
lished, a regulation, custom, institution ; a rule, 
plan, practice, manner : a design, purpose, in- 
tention. Instituto suo, abl., according to his de- 
sign or custom. 

INSTITJ7TUS, a, um, part., instituo. 

INSTO, are, iti, intr., in-sto, to stand in, over 
or upon any thing; to be near or at hand, draw 
nigh, impend, approach, threaten ; to push or 
press upon, assail, harass, pursue; advance, 
press forward. 

INSTRUCTUS, a, um, part., instruo. 

INSTRUMEXTUM, i, n., instruo, an utensil, 
instrument, implement ; means, assistance, fur- 
therance ; baggage, furniture, apparatus. 



INsTlirO— BJTERPONO. 



ctuni, tr.. i ; 
p : to bnil i in Of into-; : . Imilil. 

| | ' M 1 I | | || 

draw up in buttle array, fo prepare, furnish, 
roi idi > egnip out, rig : to insl root, teach. 
[TfSUEB'ACIO, we, f : ci, factum^n 
I i 'i ii -t im, U:il lit hi 1 1 ■. (ruin. 
INSUEFACT1 S, n i up, p«Ert„ in 
'. SSU ETUS, a, urn, adj., in-sui tus. 

ii J bo, unacqu tint "1 with; 
uuiisn il. unv u' ■(] 

ins; ;.u wa- 

INST3 p.ouTi 

m i n-taiiRO, un- 

l. unhurt, an ' ■ 
ntire; sound in health, • 
i. fresh, tin i 

INTEGO, ere, si, ctuni, I r., in— to ;o, !.• corcr, 

. , ELI ECT 
.INTELLIGO, ei , xi. < lum, tr.. inter- 
1, onderstau : 

ras dis- 
•overed. 
1 STKXli \. ere. .Ii. lum and sum, tr., i.n-ten* 
.... 

tend. 

■villi, tnrneil nr directed tt> 
earnest, 
! Villi!. ^ 
twixt ; anion 

in the • lh : i . with, 

her. 
I \ ' i ' 

. 'come 

with- 
; iin-t, in t < i 
kinder, pr< \ 

part., int. n | 

i, tr., inter- 
- 

■ ■ 

bhul in. 

INTER! I 

ivrr.i;i»/< ii. .... . xi, < turn, tr. 

put one's word l.i>t v. 
hid judii iaJIj | - 

• 

I' 



241 



ciall; i 

I the ose of fire and \ 
to banish. Tat rdicitur, imp,, a prohibition is 
. 
i vrr.!:inrn>-. a, nm, part., interdico. * 
r.vratoir. adv., inter-din, in th 
CNTERDtjM, adv., inter-dam, sometimes. 

) : meanwhile, in th 
'me. 

i in the mos 
meanwhile. 
INXBRBS8J ■ am. 

BRfiO, (re, ii. itam, intr. irr., inter 
the midst oi oiii. r things - 
, 
be annihilated, be dcstiojed, bo slain. 
l v . ri'in-'i.r.i'i 8, ;,. ,-,,. ',,;,,•!. , intorfli 
INTERJTCIO .um.ir.. mtei 

to kill, slay, murder, put to death, desl 
[NTERFUI. etc Sec fntershm. 
INTERIM, adv., [inter tutd im from 
tfae mean time, meanwhile. 

INTERITUS, us, '•■.. i i . t ■ re .. de ti 
death. 
[NTERIL 

.INTERIOR, oris, adj., inter, Qi 
within, more Inward, farther in, inner. interior. 
[NTERJECtfoS, a. urn, 
INTERJIQIO, ere, jeci jectum, t r.. 
i i sio, to ill row or place between, intermix, in- 

•ii>. add to 
short time after. 

. itermitto. 
INTERMIT!! tr.inter-mitto, 

itweeu, interrupt; i 

over for a time, lew tr. intermit, discontinue; 

elude from participal ilumen inter 

it flow, 
ixpiration of thn ■■ 

: thr 1 1.\ . .1/. passuum ihi 

I the distance ofi ./»?- ,• 

■ 

linate. 
turn, intr.. 



242 



INTERPOSLTU^i-IN VITUS. 



Mtspieionem, to causo, occasion, excite suspicion. 
Jnte.rpoiie.rc decretum, to make a decree between 
two parties. 
INTERPOSITUS, a, nm, part., interpsno. 
INTERPRKS, etis. m. and f., intor-pretium, 
aa intermediate agent; a translator, interpre- 
ter, explainer. 

INTERPRETOR, ari, atna sum, dop. tT., in- 
terpres, to interpret, expound, explain ; to un- 
derstand, comprehend ; to conclude, decide. 
INTERROGATES, a, urn, part., from 
INTERROGO, are, avi, atom, tr., inter-rogo. 
to ask, question, inquire, interrogate, oxamino; 
to accuse, charge. 

INTERRUMPO, ere, «pi, upturn, tr., inter- 
runipo, to break ; to break iu the middle, to 
break down, break off or asunder; to disturb, 
interrupt". 
INTERRUPTUS, a, nm, part., ihtorrumpo. 
INTERSCINDO, ere, Mi, issum, tr., inter- 
»cindo, to cut asunder or in the midst, cut-down ; 
tweak down. 

INTERSUM, esse, fui, intr. irr., inter-sum, to 
be in the midst, come or lie between; to differ, 
be different ; to be present at ; to take part in ; 
to engage in, be employed in, have the charge 
of. Interest, imp., it concerns or imports, is the 
interest of, is of importance. Magni interest, 
it is of great importance: Gr. §135, (e) Rem. 4. 
INTERVALLTJM, i, u., inter-vallus, the space 
between the stakes of a rampart of a. camp ; a 
•pace, interval, distance. Jntervallo pedum du- 
orum, with an interval, — or at the distance of 
fewo feet. 

1NTERVENIO, ire, veni, ventuni, intr., in- 
tor-venio, to come between, to come upon, come 
in while anything is doing, intervene ; to hin- 
der, disturb, interrupt; to be present, inter- 
meddle, interfere ; to fall out, happen, occur. 

INTERVENTUS, us, m., intervenio, a coming 
io, intervention ; an interruption, interference 
INTEX1, etc. Seolntcgo. 
INTEXO, ere, xui, xtum, tr., in-toxo, to 
weave into, interweave, inweave; to weave, 
plait ; to interlace, surround, cover. 
INTEXTUS, a, urn, part., intexo. 
INTOLERANTER, adv., intoleraus, in-tolero, 
iutolerab'y, immoderately, excessively. Intol- 
m-ant<:r insequi, hotly, furiously, eagorly. 

INTRA, adv. and prep, with ace., (for intera, 
so. parte, from interns, obs.,) within, in. 

INTRiTUS, a, urn, adj., in-tritua, tero, not 
rubbed or worn. Jntritus ab labora, not weak- 
«nod or fatigued by labor, fresh. 

INTRO, are, avi, atum, tr., (for intero, from 
inter,') to go into, enter, penetrate. 

INTRODi/CO, ore, xi, ctum, tr., intro-dweo, 

to bring or lead in, conduct within, introduce. 

INTROEO, t're, ii, itum, intr. irr, Gr. §111, 

intro-eo, to enter, go into, come in. 

INTROITOS, us, m., introeo, a going or com- 



ing in, entrance; an avenue, place of entrance, 
passage. 

INTR0MISSU3, a, um, part., intromitto. 

INTROMITTO, ere, isi, issum, tr. intro-mitte, 
to send in, let in, introdnco; to admit, allow to 
enter, receive into one's house. 

INTRORSUS. adv., for introversus, intro- 
ve'rto, toward the inside, inward, inwardly. 
within, internally, i ito the interior. 

•NTRORUMPO. ere, wpi, upturn, intr., intro- 
rumpo, to break ; to break or burst into? break x 
in, rush in, enter by force. 

INTUEOR, eri, itus sum, dep. tr., in-tueor, to 
look at, gaze upon, behold ; to observe, consid- 
er, contemplate ; to look up to with regard <r 
admiration. 

INTO LI, etc. Seolnfero. 

INTUS, adv., in, within, on the inside. 

INUSIT^TUS, a, um, adj., in-usitatus, un- 
usual, uncommon, etrango, extraordinary, nu- 
wontod. 

INDTILIS, c, adj., in-utilis, not useful, use- 
less, unserviceable, unprofitable ; hurtful, in- 
jurious. Ad pugnam inutilis, unable to figh;, 
unfit for fighting'. 

INV^IDO, ere, ti, sum, intr. and tr.. in-vedo. 
to make ono'u way into, enter ; to fall upon, in- 
vade, attack, assail ; to seize, lay hold of, bcfal 
a person. 

INVENIO, ire, veni, ventum, tf., in-venio, to 
come upon, to find, find out, meet with, discov- 
er, ascertain; to contrive, devise, invent; t» 
gain, acquire. 

INVENTOR, oris, in., invenio. an author, in- 
ventor, contriver. • 

INVENTUS. a, um.'part.. invenio. 

INVETERASCO; cro, avi, intr. inc., invetero, 
in-vetuB, to grow old, become fixed or establish^ 
ed; to prevail, gii'her strength by age or time. 

INVICEM, adv., iu-vicis. by turns, one after 
another, alternately; mutually. 

INVICTUS, a, um, adj., in-victus, unconquer 
ed, uusubdued ; unconquerable, invincible. 

INVIDEO, ere, idi, issurh, intr. and tr., iD- a 
video, to look spitefully at; to envy, grudge {« 
to be loath, be unwilling. 

INVIDIA, ae, f., invidus, invideo, envy, ha- 
tred, spite, malice, ill-will, dislike. J'ass. odiuin. 
unpopularity. 

INVIOLJTUS, aj,«m, adj., in-violatus, violo, 
unhurt, uninjured; inviolate, uucorrupted; 
pure, inviolable. , 

INVJSUS, a, um, adj., in-visus, not seen, un- 
seen, invisible. Part, of invideo, odious, hate- 
ful, hated, offensive, disliked, detested. 

INVnMTUS, a, urn*, part., invito. 

INVITO, are, avi, atum, in-vito-voco, to in- 
vite, ask, bid ; to allure, incite, induce ; to sum- 
mon, challenge. 

INViTUS, a, um. adj., (ia neg. and vito, not 
called or induced: hence) unwilling, reluctant, 






ipsk— j as. 



•248 



invuluntary. against one's will. & I 
gainst hi-i will, without his consent. - 

IPSK, a, urn, intensive pro.. Or. J85; self; 
oimsclf, horse!!, itself; he, she. it ; with 
of Ctnfird or second persons, I, myself, thon, 
thyself. 

/It A, ae, f , anger, wrath, rage, pas: ion, ire, 
resentment. 

• IRACUNDTA. ae, f., iracundus, hastiness ol 
temper, irascibility; anger, wrath, :.-. 

-ion. 

[RACUN'nUS, a, um. adj., ira, full of rage, 
irascible, passionate* ; angry, raging. 

IRl. Rem. 2. 

IKE. See Eo. 

(RR/DEO, <re, Bi, sum. intr. and tr., iu-rideo, 
i<> laugh : to laugh at : to m >ck, ridicule. 

IRRIDICULB, adv.; (in neg. and rldiculus, 
laughable,) unwittingly, without humor or 
pleasantry. jWmi irridicule, wittily, pleasantly. 

IRRUMl'O. ere. upi, upturn, i:;tr., in-rumpo, 
to break, to break in violently; to enter by 
force, burst into, break or rush in. 

IRRUPTIO, onis, f., irrumpo, a breaking or 
bursting in ; an irruption, inroad, incursion. 

IS, ea. id, d( in. pr >., Qr. £82, 83; that or * lii. : 
he, she, or il : such. Eo, n. abl,, by that or this: 
ori that nr this account, for this reason, by tliis 

means; , so much, by bo much, 

the, the more ; Gt. J188. bl it\ sometimes fol- 
lowed by a g 134, Rem. 1. 

thus; in this man- 
ner, in such a manner; accordingly; bo much, 
t.) 9uel • as, as, so that. Ita 

acriter ut,. as bravely as. Jt is soro'timm used 
- r liy xv ■ y if rpposition, I 
a manner similar to id. Xnnitamog- 
nm, not very great. 

ITALl A. a. . i. Italy, Bometimoa including 
Gallia Gisalpina : I. LO. 

ITAQ1 I i-iiue, there- 

fore ; and so. and thus. 

I'l'ICM. adv. ;i ml conj , als in like 

. ner. 
' ITER. 
may, march, route, mad, pal passage; 

* marching. In or ex ilintre, on the I 

.-. ni y or in ircb in j it 
- oct/Hrnoui'iii' . — by night. lUr 

■ ribut, by forced 

ITERUM. :i iv . ■•, i i mi . 

Ill I .-. i. . • port among 

the M V. •_'. 

I'llDI. lee Ko. 



JACl 
i-eclino, to be n.l u.itNl ; to lie , 
dead. Jactulu, the {alien, tic 



JACIO, crc, jeel, jactum, tr„ to throw, cart, 
fling, hurl; to throw or cast up, raise, erect, 
place. 

JACTO, are, avi, atum, tr. frco.., jacio, to tow 
about, to throw, oast, dischnrgo; to weigh, con- 
sider, discuss, talk about, agitate. 

JACTITRA, ae, f.. Jacio, the throwing of goods 
overboard in a storm: a loss, damage, defri- 
me it, expense, cost. 

•T ACTUS, a. um, part., jacio. 

JAODLUM. i, n., jacio. a javelin, dart. 

JAM. adv., now, Immediately, presently 
even, already. Jam ante or anle.a, long ago. 
some time a^ >. already. 

JOVIS, etc. See Jupiter. 

JUBX, ar, 1'., the mane of a horse or othor 
■ beast. 

Juj&bO, ere, Jussi, jussum, tr, to order, bid. 
command, enj iin, charge, enjoin* wi-li. request,. 

JUDICIUM, i, n., judiro, the art of judging, 
judgment, a trial, sentence, decision, opinion : 
a court of justice ; the power of judging! sMs- 
c rnment, ch li ic, discretion, Ricsri judicium, 
to judge, give an opinion. Jinlicic, abl, duH- 
berately, on purposi . designedly. 

JUDK'i. are. avi. atum, tr.. judex, jus-dico. 
I ijuflgi mtenco, deter- 

mine, form an opinion, decidfl; to judge, think, 
deem, BUppose, believe; to declare, pronounce; 
if, imp., a judgment 
or conclusion may be f rmed. 

JUQTJM, i. -i.. a yoke: a frame for supporting 
vinos; the summit or top o| a mountain; the 
ridge. In military language n frame consisting 
i if (wo spears silicic into the ground, with a 

third laid horizontally on t >p of them, under 
which vanqnii l were sometimes 

compelled to march without their aims, ad a 
mark «.f disgrace. 
JUMENTUM, 1, n.. (/or jugumentuiii 

it ni burden, pad 

horse; a ' 
JUNCTf/RA, ae, ... toting. 

junctun . joint. 

i U8, a. um. ; 

\i elnm. tr., to join, o.npt* 

yoke; to unite gr join ; ig ther, • nneot. * 

.ii *> 1 1 s, i, 1 1 . .-entile nam 

Junius, a Spaniard in the ■ 
Gaul; V. •:-. 

.11 r'TI'.R. .lov,-. • Q Jupiter, Jove; 

/ I otrd 
\ I. 17. 
.' 

. KtondJ 

IS, U> 

> 
privileges. Ju< tutqni, to 1 . thor. 



Hi 



JUSJUi 



)\\j.<. 



' :/ suojurc. in one's own light, in ■ 
i rcise of one's own right. » 

JUSJURANDtfM, i, n.j Gr. ;.!>: jus-juran- 
n oath. Dare ju.'jurand, 
swear, prad one - self to oath! 

JUSSI, etc. See Jiibe'o. 

.TUJsS'iT, abl., Gr. gol ; jubeo, by command 
order. 

JUSist s, a, inn. part., jubeo. 

.il'STITIA. ae, f, Justus, justice, impartiality, 
(with the additional idea of clemency or mercyi) 

JUSTUS, a, urn, ftdj., jlis, just; upright, 1 r, - 
ful. right; suitable merited, due, propel 
cierit, full, complete, satisfactory. J 
uuple or suitable funeral rites. 

JUYEN1S, is, adj., (Jr. g~4, 3 ;■ younj 
ful. Jtfniorns, the young men. those of military 
age. 

J1JVENTUS, trtis, f.g'uvenis, the ago of youth, 
from about twenty to forty year,- ; via 
youth, the young men. 

•JUVO, are,J«vi, jtttum, juvaturus, ti\. to aid, 
help, assist, succor, profit, benefit. 

JUXTA, prep, with, ace., {root jug of, 
and jugum,) nigh, near toj by, har 



1 ' . :. to attack. 
LACKIM.f r an.l LACRYMA 
LACI1I»AX! 



KALENPJE. SecCalenda 



L 



L, aa abbreviation of tliOj 
In Roman notation, fifty. 

LABERIUS, i, m. (Quimtiis, Laberius Varus.) 
t tribune of the soldiers in Caesar's army : V, 15. 

LABLEXUS, i, in. (Titus.) Labierius,' one of 
the most favored and trusted of Caesar's lieu- 
tenants in the Gallic war. In the civil war he 
took the side of Pompey, 

LABOR, i, lapsus sum, dep. intr., in glide 
down, slip down, descend, fall ; to run. 

lip away, escape ; commit a fault 
■ crime; t, i mistake, err; to perish. Eke p 
lapsus, having fallen from ibis- bone, being dis- 
appointed in this. 

LABOR, oris, m., labor, toil, fatigue, exertion. 
distress, hardship, trouble, misfortune. 

LABGRO, arc, avi, atuui. intr and tr., labor, 
to labor, strive, struggle, take pains; to labor 
or, endeavor to obtain, strive to accomplish; to 
Labor under, suffer with, be opj n sed or afilict- 
• 1 with; to be hard pressed ; to be in trouble, 
difficulty, danger, distress"; to be concerned, so- 
licitous, anxious. Animo Utborare, to be ex- 
'remcly anxious or concerned. 

LABRUM, i, n., lamb®, a lip : the extremity, 
; im, brink, margin. 

J.AC, lis, <!., milk. 

LAC: '. /turn, tr., intenfc lacioi 

.<-, challenge,. irritat 



1 ' . :. to attack. 

f,, a tear- 

BACRIMOaud LACR1 MO, are-, 

' intr., laciima, to weep, shed 
LACUS, us, in., a lake. 
L.Efi.). ere, si, sum, tr., to dash violenl 
to hurt, harm injure, offend. 

on | omise, violate 
wi rd. 

?US, a. inn. part., I redo. 
MBTATIO, onis, :'.. but or, lajtiy, demohstrs- 
tioii of joy, exultation, n.j.iieiug. 

LiKT/ITIA. ae, f.*lietus, rejoicing, unrestrain- 
ed or uproarious joy, gladness exultation. 
LJ3TUS, a, nra, adj.. glad. joyful, cheerful; 
i . illing, pleased, sati In d ; pleasing, n< - 
ceptabl , as, luck] I ful, fertile. 

LANGUIDE. adv.. languidus, faintly, feebly. 
blowlyj lauguidly, remissly, carelessly. 

LANGUIDUS, a. urn, adj., languoo, faint, 
languid, weak, feeble, dull, sluggish, listless. 
LANGUOR, oris, m., langueo, to languish.; 
1 faintnei weakness, languor* li 

ness, sluggishness. 
. LAPIS, idis, in., a st ae 
LAPSUS, a, urn, part., labor. 
LA'Ql'Kl'S. i. m.. a noose, th< ug, rope, 
snare, 1 trap, gin. 

LAEGIOR, id, itus sum, dep. tr. and intr, 
largus, large, to give in abundance, supply a- 
bundantly, give &rgr oil liberally, bestow ; 
ly, dispense, impart, lavish ; to make pi 
to bribe. 

!/ AEG ITER, adv.. largus, large, ' 
binelaiice, plentiful!^, much. Latrjil r posse, 
to have great weight or influi ace, 

LARGlH.10, onis, f., largior, a giving freely. 
. \ ing liberally, bounjifulne - 

bribery; corruptiofc prorasion, prodigality. 
LASs-ITi'DO, inis. !'., lassus. weary, iveari- 

igue, * situtie. 

L.4TE, adv., Ictus, widely, extensively, far; 
and wide. Longc lat,:que, fn every- 

where. 
•LATEBRA, ae, i.. ialeo, a luil,;i. 

..Iter. co\ert, den 
L.ATEO, ere, ui, intr., to lui !,. fl 
out of : : it, 1 illi Ulled, sKtjlk. 

■ 
LATITDD;), inis, !.. fetus, breadth, v 
In I ititudinem, in broajfol. 

1B11IGI, oriiui^jjfi., lb 
| ' n deriug upoD the Helvetii ; !. 5. 

L VTRO, wiis, ni., a mercenary soldiei 
dit, highwaj una. rubber. 

i.'JCIXIU'M. i, n., hrl 
^.'y robber'}', 

,. I'cro. 



LATU; 



ample, large Id i xtpnsive. 

LATUS, erifl, the sidei 110k. Ab la! 

. avj, atum, *r.. \9u*. to ; 

■ . 






ilj., 6oft, smooth, mild, g< 



Li i 

calnx, 

LKX1TAS, atia, f., I 
tendern 

mooth- 
lly, gradually ; quietly, calmly, romies- 



honor. fa ' ",v in war. , , to at- 



LAV (i i, lautum, lotu 

■ I ive. 
LAXO, aro, avi, ainul. tr...laxm. , 
stretch - te, expand : tO 

fooi ( -i. 

.anafi 

'iant ; lienl i 



deputed Waul : \, 40. 



tack with less \ iiror or spirit. 

:. adv., lentils, tong l'-uis. 

slowly, gently, calmly, digpas lionatbly, leisure- 
ly : e.'irelessly, imlitleienth . 

'.Tl I, 01 urn, m.. the Lcppi 
inhabiting the Alps near the source of the 
Rhine: IV, 10. 

m.. a hare. 

! Uel- 



Vey. Iifciiili'ii' 

... 

, VII, 

V. 21. — L. 

V 1 . 1 . 

body ofstAi A /<- 

•ion v>hn 

■ 



u,\ ,',ri, .num. m . the I pie of 

LEVIS, e, adj., light, small, slight: trifling, 
. d i ere lit or esteem, iuconstdi 

fickle, incotistantj capricious, 
iless, unreliable. 
1'AS, etis. (.. 
i i action, agility, niinblenogs, swift- 
. 
bil 

ivi, atum, tr., leVis, to I 
: to excite, r i 

■ . tighten : to free, 
titer; to le?6en, diminish, 
impajr. 
LEX, legls, f., written law; a law, statute, 

to enj iy ..lie's own 

independent 

LEXOVII, oram 
CelticOanl: 1 1 1, 0. 

. odv ; Uben , , wil- 

; . ; I : : 

man ; a 
noble, kind, u friendly di-, 



, LIBEJB 

I '•:; 

I. ii.:.. 



246 



LIBERTAS-JMACHINATIO 



r. 
ideate. 

LIBERTAS, Otis, f., h'ber, freedom, liberty. 

LIBR/LIS, e, adj., libra. apoundjof a pound; 
lil/rilia, sc. saxu, stones weighing a pound. 

L1CEXS, tis, part., licoor. 

LICENTIA. ao. f., licena, free, licet, tho pow- 
er of doing OBrfa pleasure, license, liberty, , per- 
mission, leave ; presumption, contempt oi' right- 
ful authority ; licentiousness, insubordination. 

LTCEOH, cri.licitus sum. dep. into, and tor., to 
hid for, offer a priee for, bid. Contra liccri, to 
bid against. 

. LICET, imp., it is lawful, it is permitted or 
allowed ; one may. Licet viilii, ill}, etc., I may, 
he may, etc. Idea voluntate lied, I permit or 
nllow. 

LICET, conj.. Gr.§200, Rem. ft; though, al- 
though. 

LIGER, eris, and LIGERIS, is, m.. the Loire, 
, Aixo largest river of Gaul: III, 9. Abl. Ligcri, 
"(.Jr. $33, Rem. 1. 

•LIGNATIO, cuis, f., lignor, lignum, getting 

wood. 

L1GN-4TOR, oris, in., lignor, one sent to get 
wood; a hewer of wood, a wood cutter. 

LILIUM, i, n., a lily ; a lino of funnel-shaped 
pits, with asharpstako planted in the middle 
* reach: VII, 73. 

LINEA, ae, f., li'inira, flax, a linen thread, a 
card, String, line. 

LINEUS, a, um, adj., linum, made of linl or 
flax, llaxen, linen. 

LINGC-NES, um, in., the Lingones, a people 
of Belgic Gaul : I, 26- 

LINGUA, ao, f., the tongue ; language ; dia- 
lect, speech. 

LINGULA, ae, f., dim., lingua, a little tongue; 
a tongue or narrow neck of land, narrow pen- 
insula. 

LIN'JCER. tris, £, a boat, skiff, wherry, canoe. 

LiNUM, i, n., flax, lint; a thread, string, 
tinning line ; linen, a linen garment. 

LISCUS, i, ni. Liscus, the chief magistrate 
•f the jEdui : 1, 1G. 

LITAVICUS, i, m. Litayicus,'an iEduiiu of 
noble family : VII, 37. 

LIS, litis, f., a strife, dispute, quarrel, con- 
troversy, lawsuit ; the matter which is the sub- 
ject of a lawsuit, the thing injured, tho right 
violated. Hence, litem xstimare, to estimate the 
damages. 

" LITTER A <>:• LITERA, ae, f, lino, to smear, 
aiettor of the alphabet ; pi, letters, characters* 
a writing, a letter, an epistle ; a document, pa- 
per; literature, letters, learning. 

LITUS, oris, n., tho shore, sea-side. Rtronfl, 
(oast. 

LOCUS, i, m.,pl, loci, m. and loca, n., Or. J54; 
a place, situation, spot, locality, part ; station, 
post, position. Fiff^ place, room, occasion, cause, 



opportunity; rj 

ing, state, family, rank, station, dignity, stand- 
ing; a subject. BAftcf, point, part, particular; 
Principcm locum obtiwn, to occu] 
place ; to lead, be chief. Loco or in 

in the glace or stead of, for, as, ioca ' 
op&niground. Omnibus in locis. in all 
places, everywhere. 

LOCt^US, a, um, pari., loquor, 

LONGE, ius, issime, adv., lougus, far, far cfi. 
a great way from, at a distance : very much, by 
fir; of time, long, far, much. Longing, far- 
ther; longer; too far, somewhat remote 
tant, quite far. 7V • 

ice ( f three miles, t iree miles off. Lon- 
gissime. farthes o 

remote, farthest distal 

LOKGINQUUS, a, um, i ir. issimus, adj., Ion 
gus, far off, remote, distant ; living far o I 
. of long duration. 

LONGISJ3IME. SeoLonge. 

LOJNuITi --1)0, iiiis, f., longua, length. m 
inem, in length, to the length. 

LONGIUS. See Longo. 

LONGURIUS, i, m., longua, a long pole. 

LO.JGUS, a, um, adj., long; remote, i 
Longum cxt. it is tedious, it takes up too m'nclf 
time. 

LOQUOR, Rci/tus, sum, dep. tr., to 
talk, discourse, utter, say, tell, declare- 

LOR/CA, ae* £, lorium, a leather, si: 
leather cuirass, a corslet made of leather thongs, 
a coat of mail, breast-plate, cuirass, corslet; 
breast-work ; a parapet. 
. LUCANIUS, i. m. (Q.) Luemius, a c 
on : V, 3j>. 

LUCIUS, i, m. Lucius, n Roman ftmnoiu-n. 

LUCTEItlUS, i, m. Lucterlus, a Cadurci.m, 
one of the- officers of "\ i'ix.:VlI, 5; 

LUGOTOaiX, igis, to. Lugoteri.it, a leader 
io.ciN : i . 23. 

L(7lN"A, ao, f., tiio moon. Lima plena, th« 
full moon. ^ 

LUTETIA,Vke- '■'■■ »' '■"' "■'■> L "" 

tetia of the Parisii. now Paris : VI, 3. 

LUTUM, i, n.', clay, mire, mud, dirt. . 

LUX, cis*, f.," light, day-light, day. 
luce, at 'day-break, at dawn of day. OHa luce., 
day-light having appeared, when it was day- 
light. 

LUXURIA, ae : f., aud luxuries, ei, f., iuxus, 
luxo, toput out of joint, luxury, excess, profu- 
sion, extravagance, riotous living. 



M 



JUL, an abbreviation ot theprxiwmr n Mciretu. 

MACKltIA, ae, f , an enclosure, a wall. 

MACillNATIO, onis, f., niachinor, to contrive, 
machina. a contrivance, device, artifice, machi- 
nation : a machine, engine 






:roiiMA- m \ 



217 



MAGETOBRJ ' . .-. . .'. Ha 
Saul whose sit< ;•; unoi tata : 

MAO is ' I V£l\ 3, i. no 

at; bo much I' " Ither. V. 20. 



MA(i 1 ' - US, ii-. la., (uiagisl 

r»of MA'I of Ol 
a magistral-. ; a maj 
iatrate. 

• MAGNIFICIiS, a, urn. adj., . 
nus-fu iio, great, nol tiigH-soul 



MA" I i.i. intr. ami i ... 

t.ta.y. tarry, abide, remain, 4 

firm or 



■jUM^bnggtagikoaBtrUl, ostentatious; mi 
sent, Bploi di 1 1 'anmptuou i, rich, ■ 

MAG N if wait for. 

bulk, ma ■' ; weight, Hani 

tanco; in 

i' fori inipuTar. 

do wind 



puniahn 
MAG 

•j ■■■• I ' • xcced- 

UAi mp. major, 

•ilj.. grei • 

nt. im- 
lld voire. 



MANIPULUS, . 

liiu.ill'nl. armful, bundle; a band of • 
company, maniple . the third pai I 

bundle of hay curled on the t 

M.\> ■ ,. ii.. manua, 

sueo, facio, pass., Mansuefi 
tame. I 

• 



KAJESTA ■ 

i band ; a !> >d, 



MA ; iic, niiihis. ' 

ly, cnioj 

■ M AL1 . 

a bad a in, a •.. Innn, m 

» 

BfALUS, a, am, a 

ItJ 

KALUS, i. in., i.. i applr 

tro»; i 

t.) \.n i I FUM, i. ii. . inando, wli 
vmI to 

MA' udo. 

firo in; • 

MA.\ Hi .;! I, v.i ii 



with the id to 1 

my: I. ." ! 

- 

■» ' 

■ 
- 

Ultll S] Hi ' 

i 
i 
■ 



243 



MATELtlOR— MF.TIOU 



aber, (opposed 
i 'in. futft.) 
; 

■ : I : , 

jBiul : \ 
MAT! mi thei lood, 

Dare alicui 
fiUam ' S' vc in marriage, 

to marry. 
U ATlto?s A , ae, f., the Marno, a river of Fran.ce 
w hich i' ies, little abova Paris: 

. 
\[\ t rius, matarime and matur- 

■ b time, si i 
porfcunely; hi peedily. 

;,[\' ; , nrui.ii in-ns, to 

ton turity. 
-,; Vi' " and intr.. matu 

allien ripe, bring to maturity ; to 
ite, quicken, hasten, despatcli ; with in/ 
(■) make haste, hapten. 

'j , a urn, adj., ripe, mature; of tin; 
proper age fit, seasonable timely, opportune; 
early, spee.dy, quick. 

iv.. (sap. otmdgis,) in the high- 
i ist of all. very, above all, 
very much, particularly, chiefly, espi i illy, prin 
cipally. -v. 

a. inn, adj., (sup. of 

I !,i.i,-l. chi< f, lafj i 

■ rery greal 
quantity of ba 

Hiii ■ ■ ' ■' i " ' i to ■ i hei 1, re ie- 

dj ; tfl i : e, correct, p) 

.'...■■ .' Idling, mod- 

erate, t.lerablc, ordinary. - 

amor) . ancom- 

ihon. extraordinary. 

MEDIOCRITER, adv.,medi< 
tolerabl; i ly, slightly, ordia i 

iter, not moderately, (. e. 
orately, greatly, exceedingly. 

MEDIOMAXlUGIjOium, imatrici, 

a. people of lielgic Gaul: IV, 10. 

MEMTERRANEUS, a, umj adj.-, medius-ter- 
ra, inland, intoi ior. 

MEDIUS, a. cm, adj., Gr. gl! 
middle, in the r.iiddle or midst. Xocus 
utriu: ■('.:'. a place hall way between them; Or. 
jjl3-l. mid lie of this 

passage. 

MELDT, orum, ni. li, a people of 

Qallia ( ■: ica between the Marne and Seine: 
V,5. 

MEL1 comp. of bonus,) better, pref- 

erable, su] i; r. more excellent. 

MUL uuum, a town of 

the Seuones on an island in the. Seine : TIT, OS. 

MEMERl Ji. i ; i:.. -. niember, limb. 



1. tr. and intr., 
. . . 
bear in mind, 

udful, 

rcmembi 

MKMORIA, ae, f., meinor, memory, remora- 

retinere 

. be ir in mind. Time 

of renii ml I oi recollection. Wea 

. moriq, within my memory, in my time. 

MENAPII, orum, m., the Menapii, a i.coplo 
of Belgic Gaul: 11,4. 

MEXDACICM, i, n . e.tior, 

a lie) falsehood. 

mind, disposition, heart, 
h • intellectual facu! iiea, up 
M lib , t ,<,. , re, vvilh 

heart and soul. 
MENSJBi i; - :l -.. '••' of time 

r e ! by the revolution of the moon, a. 
month. 

MENSJfRA, ae. :., metier, a measuring; a 
measure. Mi nsi dra or 

water-glass, a kind of holif-gluss in which water 
was osed instead of sand. 
MENTIO, ouis, ..... calling to mind, 
king mention • of. . 

mercor, to trade*, raerx, 
a merchant, a trader. 

'AT ; /KA, ae, f., mercor, the trade of a 
merchant, buying and soiling, tni I 
common u trad- 

ing. • 

"ages, pay ; 

i ce ; income, rcvenu ii 

. lUElUS, i,"m, jury, the son of 

Jupiter and Maia. an§ the i - of the 

.1, 17. 

MEREO, ere, ui, itum, tr. and intr.,' and 

.... ,!■■; ■.. Do a : ve, merit, 'be 

.; To 

j iin, gct.acquin fei ■ ■ . 

i ■ i ■ 
MERii)I-4NliS,'a, mu, adj ■ of nfid- 

: ■ aidi 

. . at mid da'y or noon. 
AIKUIIMES, ei, m':, medii ud-dajr, 

noon; the south. 

ME.RXTO, (adv. ofoieriiiumj •'■■■. ei ■. e.:i.y with 
reason: 

JIERITUM, i, n. : mere,), merit, doscrt (either 
ofrowa uncut;) a kindness, favor 

St; demerit, fault, blame. 
MERJIlfSi ■■•■ nm, ; arl . s ui i haY- 

r desej ie,l ; d serving'; P< 
earned - fit- 

MESS .-I LA, ae. nu Messala, a lloman family 

name. M; fffteriu '• & Rouian 

consul, A. U. C. G83, A. C. (il : i, - and 35. 

METIOR, .'ri, saehsus sunt. dep. tr., to mcaa- 

ure of (lands, corn, <S.c.,) to 



MET ■ MTESIA. 



UM!) 



measuri 

by anothet, t -iuo. 

MKTl (•■:'/■- DUM, i. n. Me 
(ianl near Paris : > ' I. >'il. 

icssi 
gather, i foe 

mi.ti . 

1)038.7 to A.i.n istUfi : 

M ETI ! M-. in.. 
-i.m : rear, di i ad. 

WEUS, a, urn. udj. 
ing t 

MIDI. 

M/I.i. 
gion di 

I 

i, war. 
U ! LIT] i., fieo; war. 

inillia, 

i mile. 
I 
If I, 17. ' 

. 
. very little. 
U I \ 

of. -ill, i 

lli'- yolll 

I 
- 



. ■Iiiiiiiililc. Mt'i 

P 

i I'm. 

mi 

A 

by a da1 

word; 

hurl, 

.: ixible, 
ta>it, variable 

■ 

■ 
i 









360 



MtfiSTOiStf-NANCISCOR. 



HCESTUS. a, urn, adj.. nicereo, sad. sorrowful, 
ko.u1, Afflicted. 

MOLES, in, f.. a huge, shapeless 'mass, aheap, 
uugobulk; a huge pilo or fabric; a mound, 
dike ; a difficulty. 
' MOLESTE, adv., molestus, tro;ihli'some,awlcs. 



MOVEO, ere, i, tum, tr. and intr., to move, 
stir, sot in motion ; to remove, drive away. — 
Slovere castra, to remove one's camp, decamp. 
Fig. to make an impression upon, move, affect. 
influence. ' 

MULIi: oris, f., (perhaps from mollis,) a 



offensively, troublesomcly. Molesle fart, to woman 
bike ill or unkindly, botlispleased at. 

M0L1MENTUM, i. n., molior. to strive, great 
offort. endeavor, exertion, struggle, pains, troub' 
le, labur. 

MOL1TUS, a, um, part., molo. 

.V10LL10, ire, ivi or ii, itum, tr., mollis, to 
uiako soft or pliant ; to render less difficult or 
disagreeable. BHvuni mollire, to make the as- 
e.ent. of a bill easier. 

MOLLIS, e, adj., for movilia, jnoveo, pliant, 
flexible; soft, stipple, yielding, tender, delicate; 
gentle, mild, placid, temperate, calm ; weak, 
■oft, unmanly, (Agminate, voluptuous, irreso- 
lute. MoJleUtiQ a gently ^loping beach. 

MOLL1TIES, <i, t, mollis, soltness; weakness, 
want of firmness, irresolution, effeminacy. 

MOLO, ere, ui, ituni, tr., to grind. 

MOMENTUM, i, n., for movimentum, movco, 
a Biotion or impulse : anything that causes mo- 
tion, force, power ; value, weight, influence, 
consequence, importance; a moment of time. 

MON'A, ae, f., the Isle of Man, in St. George's 
Channel between England and Ireland : V, 13. 

MONEO, ere, ui, itum, tr., (root men, whence 
mens, mcinini, &C.,) to cause tc remember, to 
put in mind, advise, admonish, warn; to in- 
struct, inform, tell, announce. 

MONS, tis, m., a mountain; high hill. 

MORA', ae, f., delay, hindrance. 

MOKATUS, a, um, part., nioror. 



MULIO, oais, m., nvdus, a mule-driver, mule- 
teer. 

MULT ATUS, a, um, part , multo. 

MULTITCDO, iuis, f., raultus, a multitude, 
great number or quantity, number, the multi- 
tude, rabble, populace. Pro muUitudine homi-,- 
nuni, considering the number of people, consid- 
ering (their) population. 

MULTO or MULCTO, ate, avi, atum.tr., mul- 
ta, a fine, to punish, deprive of, fiuo. 

MULTUS, a, um, adj., for moltus, molitus. 
p:irt. of molo, to increase, Gr. £72,5; many, 
much. Multi^ many, many persons. Malta. 
many things. Multo, n. abl., Gr. £103, much, 
by much, far, by far, a great deal. Ad multam 
noctem, fill late at night, multo die; when th» 
day was lar advanced. 

MDXUS, i, m., a mule. 

MU N ATIUS, i, m. See Plancus. 

MUNDUS, i. m., order, the universe; the 
heavens ; the world ; beauty arising from or- 
der, ornament. 

MUN1MEXTUM, i, n.. munio, a fortification, 
defence, bulwark, protection. 

MUNIO, ire, ivi or ii, itum, tr., to iuclos« 
with walls, fortify, secure, defend, strengthen. 
Iter munire, to open, make "passable. 

MUN1TIO, onis, f., nmuio, a fortifying, de- 
fending, strengthening ; a fortification, defence 

MUN/TUS, a, um, part, and adj., nmnio, for- 



MOUliUS, i, m., a disease, distemper, ailruonv, , tiiieil ; guarded, defended, secured, protected. 



malady, sickness. Gravi morbo ulfici, to be 
very ill or sick. 
4 MORINI, orum, m , the Morini, a people of 

llolgic Gaul : II, -!. 
ft MORIOR, iri and i, mortuus sum, moritt-'fus, 
dep'. intr., mors, to die, expire. 

MOK1TASGUS, i, m. Moritasgus, a king of 
the Senones : V, 54. 

MOROR, ari, atus sum, dcp. intr. and tr., mora, 
to deiay, tarry, sta>, linger, loiter ;"to cause de- 
lay ; to retard, detain, hinder, impede, delay, 
stop, prevent, huld in check. 

MORS, tis, f., death. 

MOKTUUS, a, um, part, and adj., morior, 
load. 

MOS, merit, m., a manner, custom, way, us- 
ago, practice. More or ex more', according to 
custom, after the manner, according to the us- 
age or practice So morions aliquorum. 

MOSA. ae, f., ihe Meuse, a river of Bolglc 
Gaul : IV, l J. 

. MC/i'US, us, m., a motion, moving, movement; 
4 t»aimotion, tumult, sedition, rebellion. 



Mt'MJS, eris. n., service, function, duty, em- 
ployment; a service, a favor; a gift, present, 
reward, fivor. 

MURALIS, e, adj.. minus, of a wall, mural. 
Murale pilum, a heavy javelin used by tho»e 
wlio fought on the walls of a besieged place, a 
mural dart or javelin. Falccs muralet, hook* 
for pulling down walls; wall-hooks. 

MtfRUS, i, in., a wall of a city etc. 

MUSCULUS, i, m. dim, mus, a mouse, a littlw 
mouse ; a shed used in besieging towns. 
. MUTILUS, a, um, adj., maimed, mutilated. 
Mulilus vornibus, having the horns broken 6f& 
without horns. 

N 

NACTUS, a, um, part., nanciscor. 
NAM or XXyUll.ii, conj.. Gr. gl2:.:, 4, i7 ; lor. 
NAME1US, i. ril. -N'ameius, a ehiefHf the 
Ilelvetii, senL as an ambassador to Ca-sar : I, 7. 
NAIlQCEi conj., nam-quo. See Warn. . 
NANCiSOOK, i, nacfus and nanctus sum 






\. -J 



NANNETES- 

fcr., to get, obtain, receive ; to moot with, find, 
find by chance, fall nr light on. 

NANN/i'TES, urn! m.. (lie Xannotcs. a people 
of Celtic Gaul, whose country was oil tho north 
Of the Loire, and from whom the town of 
Nantes takes its name: III. '■'• 

NANTTMTES, urn, mi, the Nanraatcs, u peo- 
ple of Celtic Gaul who resided at the foot of tho 

Alps: III 1. 

NABBO, onis, m.. the Narbonne, a colony and 
<?itj of the Gallic Province : III. 'J '. 
XASCOB, i. n (til-; sum. dep. intr.. to I 

arise, tako its begiunin ;, grow ; to be 
' found or produo d ; to rise, 

N iSl'A. re-, in. Nasua. the brother of Cim- 

of the Snevi : I. : 7. 

N AT ILIS, e. adj.. u I us, of a man's birth or 

nativity, natal, native. /'■■ s n Ualis, a birth-day. 

NATU), onis. f.. nasc ir, a being bom, birth: 

, race, breed, kind ; n i 

rii>.'. nation, peopli u itimes more 

restricted in its mi ' BomO- 

•imes identical with it. 

NAT/VUS a, am, .-.'If.. natus,tbat haaariscn 
>Y birth, that is I) »rn, baring an i 
[Inning; tmparti d by birth, inn ' 
boral, not artificial. 

NATTJ, in. abl., Gi { 51, irth. in 

age. Major nutu. older. ••. the 

>lder persons, old men. ciders, 

NATi'KA. ao, f, nascor, nature; the nature, 
latural liimtion, bent, 

aocoi d- 

ii:; i a the natural ( ur I the river, — down 

stream. Triqwtra nktnra, miturally triangular. 

X.lTI.'S. a. ii n. pi • b ru, sprung, 

(risen: prodi 'at., fil', born to, 

ori.Kil or i; ti - '' I for, lit for, suited to. 

NATTTA. ae, m., '* •■ lavita, navis, a sailor, 
mariner; Beanian. 

NAUTICUS. a. urn. adj.. of or belonging to 
uat iners nr .•■hips, nautii il. m ral. 

NAV.1MS. e. srij 
■faipa, naval. 

NAYH UP \. ne. f. ,l:in.. mvi-. a little fkifl". 

jkiff, b >a( 

NAVIGATIOjOi navigat- 

ing navigation ; a \ 
NAVKillM. I, n., uaviga I. boat. 

NAVIGO, are, avi, atum. tr. and iutr., navi- - 
i steer or navigate iship;1 sail, navi- 
tail in nr up- n, - i i over. Navigator, im- 
u igation is carri I on tin y sail. 
N„1YIS. is. f . a -' 
hip of war. .VatJi - transport. 

NvlVo, are. avi, atum. tr. navns 
form rigorously or diligently. Cjpenun - 

stly or 
•eiiloniily. 

If K. ronj.. Qr. {183, Rein. 2; tl • 
4fT not, )e ? t. AfUr tvrbt of hindering, from. 



HBG0T1UM. S5l 

with the participial noun ; as. l^rt'rrrrr n- /rv- 
minium can/rrant, to deter from collecting. 

NE*— QriDEM. a h-.. not even. 

NE. ni-'.-fi- .y.,,;., Or. (JS1, '2 ; g21C, 3 : i 
reel f/wfti^ii-- il is ammnnly oiniited in :, 
tnp into finglish; in in!': Whclfir 

•i? or w. — )', whether — or. 

NEC or NEQUE, conj., no-quo, awl n 

•thcr. nor. bat nol I . noither — nor. 

Nitqtte — owit, neither— nor. Njfiuc tamen, utk) 
yet not, but yet not. 

NMCITT.;. a, um. part,, neco. 

NBCBSSARIUS, a, um, aa] iiocesm^ 

ry, needfu'.. unavoidable, urgent, pressing, >•- 
friendly, favorable. A • virtus. 
)', ai. , a nneotion, intimate 

friend. ttbl. ». adv.. by l. 

imjmu, a critical tim< ; 
a time of need. 

NECESSE, n. ind.uidj.. nc-ccdo, whal 

ble, nocc nary, of n tnl \ -•> 

est, it is necessary, n 

ble. 

NECESSITAS. utis, f., necesse, unaj idable- 
iii'.-. ii 
tale ; pl„ .<■ -i : . wants. 

NECESSITTfDO, iiii-'. f. • 
need; relationship, friendship, connection, se- 
at ii 

NECNE or NEC NE, nee— no, conj! oi 
or no, (used in the second part ol a double ques- 
tion.) 

NECO, are, avi, or ni, atum, rnrrh.. ncctnm, 
tr., to put to death, blay, kill, destn y. 
witJiout a weapon, by hunger, poison, ir. 

NECTJBI, adv., tfo-alicobi, soinowhen 
anywhere, that nowhere. 

KEFARIUS, a, urn, adj., nofas, wicked, im- 
pious, base, villainous, execrable nefarious, 
abominable.' 

NEFA3, n. iud. adj., ne-fbfi, oontcarj todlrin*. 
law: n it lawful, unlawful, oxecrablu ; mbs. »» 
unlawful thing or action ; an i: 
wicked deed, impiet] .villainy. 

NEGLECTC8, a. Dm, part., i gllgo. 

NEG1 IGO, ero. \-i. ctni 

]lick Up ; -hn rr. to 11 

slight, make light ol 
l.ok. pa 

ivi. atom. t!'. and in'r . | 

t'ir. infin 

■ [I I 

■ 
•i ii"M. I, n.. i 

■.it of nee '/" ■* 



25 2. 

.. the Xe 

lam, in no jfese, by n i means, n it at all. 
c 
. . ; ll'i;i"A.M. adv., nc^quidqi 
i ■ - . ] . ■ ■ ii, not without 

on, 1 ■■ itTi >i t n iequ i ' 

tgdl&lS, 'oe NE' QUIS,' qua, qtiod or quid, 
NEfl i 

t.hio X".' i !'-!:!■ ' pi iplo ■ 

. I . Vi . EHUS- 

I 

''\:\ ':'. .mm:, coilj . :; .:-vi , and that 

I 

leithci I ithcr — or. 

NEUTER, tra, trum, adj., no— titer, neither of 
a two,' .« 

N EX laugh- 

i: r. Vila i ' ■ 

nited power. 
NIHIL, n. i [ILUfl,i,n.ne-hilum, 

the eye o] a pea, nothing nought, not a whit, 
nothing at all. Acs., §155, in no respect, in 
eg, not at all. With, a genitive, no, mine. 
F tliosi 
jv-hi not i 
i. A .'..■ <lo miii.uk or xecitts. no le 

i lore 
NIL. i 

Ii, I much, i'x- 

. . cru y, exe ■ r. tmyoira men a ■■■ 
NLMIU8, a. uiu, adj., nimius, too much, too 

imod i ■ 
• 

I t, UMlCSS, BXCe] 

p"pt that, .Y. : . i, unless, if not. 

'.. the Xitibbrij 
count! ii uated up- 

oti the Garonm : . . :. 7. 

md nixus sum. dep. intr. 
' om genu, 

pport ou toe 1. upon, r< - 1 up- 

a, depend upon, 1 1 

Xi.'lil LIS, ■• 




\. by higl 



{, dUtingn 
m mi ; pi. nob 

: ibilis, fan 

. noble- 

. 
OCEXS, tis, flart. and adj., noceo, hurtful, 
sobs, I, wicked, criminal. 

-, m. pi., the g-uil I : the criminal. 
10, ere, ui, itum, intr.. to hurt, injure, 
Ii triu. . Ut. §114. 5, an i 

jury U done, da i 
is hurt. 

NOCTU, f. abl., Gr.|57, i 
night-time. 

NOCTURNUS, a, urn, adj., nun 
uoi tnrnal. Nbctwnumtempus, the night-time, 
night. 
NODTF3, i, oi nob; 

NOLO, nolle, nil;;:, irr. non-volo, (Jr. §111; 
Co be iKiu iIIm. it to ... Si noIU nt in- 

i, if flicy did not \ ; h theuiselv 
Nolite hos spolidre. do n it deprive I 

NOMEN, iui.s. a., uosco, that by which oh<J 
in known, :t name, appellation. Sua nomine, <;n 
biis own account. Niiinin obsidiUTtt, in the 
name of, as hostages. Slaves among the Unmans 
had but oue'ti.. 

wore i!i , rale ; the 

or n tine of their g ns or el >■> : tin 
: i m of their /.tmili.i or family, and the pru- 

i . r name of the individual. To thi 
s inn limes added the ;t{ a mart, given on acwuiit 
of some exploit or peculiar characteristic! 

XOMiX.n. . 

[iri : .■■ rally: 

NOMiNO, are, a\a ,i iiw in, io name, 

call by name, speak of; to nominate for an office, 
neg. adv., not, no. 
•VONiE} arum, f., nonus, the nones or niutli 
. . fore the ides. The nones fell on the sCv< 
enth day.of March, May, July and October, and 
the fifth of tli" other months; Gr. 'i->±- 
NONAGINTA, ind. num. adj., novem, ninety. 
NOND 
NONNIIIIL or NO 

o ■■ ■ . . 
NONNULLUS, a, urn, adj., .Hon-nulhi; 
XOXXt..\i;iJ.\lI, alv.. nohvimnquam, 

j . i, .. o ionally. 
XoXUS, it, ni ;n. the ninth 

NOTIELA, a'i, f. Noreia, tiie principal 
tin.- Xu Jiany : 7. 5. 

-. . : . 

rut, of 0:r /win;/ ; X-.i i . 
See EgOj 

, novi, urrtum. ii'., to get kuo«l- 

m ., tain I d with, learn ; to ax- 

r. X.,r'. 1 i ave Learned 1 am 



' 



XO«MET— fjB 



J|Ql KNTIJi 






acquainted with, I know, under.--: -.-id, <M 
Rem. 5. 

NOSMET. See Egomct. 

NOSTEll, Ira, trum, adj. pro., rigour, ourB 
our own. X>st.-i. />.'.. our men. fellow -country, 
men, soldiers, troops, etc. 

NOTITIA, ae, f. iMns, knowledge, acquaii 
tance; sexual intercourse; a notion, concert 
Hon, ide;). 

NOTTS, n, inn, part, and adj., nosco, kno 
well-known, ascertained, manifest, notorious 

NOV EM, num. adj. ind.. i 

HOVI, etc. See Nosco. 

NOVIOIH'NUM, i. n„ a town .>f the .Edui, 
now Nevers: VII, .">.">. \1>., a town of the 
Biturigcs, now Noann-lc Fuzela VII, 12. Also 
a town of the Suessioncs. now Soisaons: 11. 12, 

NOYITAS, utis. f., novus, newness, novelty, 
strangeness, unusual 

NOYTJS, a, urn. .nij., new, fresh, rei -m ; nov- 
el, unusual, uncommon, strange, ..Re* nova, 
change of government, a revolution. So novum 
wmptrium: 11. 1. Nbvistimut, a. m, sup., 
last, extreme, hindm t. in the i 
muma^nt«ti,'the rear-guard, rear. 

NOX, ctis. f.. night, night-time, the night. 
Midta nod . lati at night, at a late hour in the 
night. 

N'OXA, ao, t.. noceo, t» Aart'.hurt, harm, dam 
injury; an offence, fault, crime. 

NUBO. ere, nupsi and nup'.a sum, nuptum, 
intr.. to cover with a veil, veil. Hence, as brides 
in ancientlfmes were accustomed to put on a 
veil, l'i man;/, be married, spoken of the bride 
only. Nuptum COllocarc, t > give in marriage, 
Gr.jm. 

NUD.4TCS, a. uin, part., nudo. 

Ni1>'», arc, avi. atum, tr., nudue, to make 
1, plun- 
_ dor, deprive: to lay bare. ■ lofence- 

less or 

N (7DTJ8, a, inn. adj., naked) b u •-. ui 

. .indefended. ' -,, with 

the body unprotected, without a shield. 

NULI.L'S. a, mil. adj., ne-ulln-. n. i any, none, 
v 

HUM, jnterrog. >u not 

translated; in indirect question*, whether, 

whether or not, Gr. §81, 3; 21«, 3. 

HtrMEN,inis, n.. (nuo, obs.,) a nod ; the will 
(as expressed l>y nodding the head ;J tlie divine 
will, rule er power of the gods; adeity, divinity, 
god. 

HUMERUS, i, m., number, quantity ; rank, 
ion. In Hitmen hmUum, among 
•ne- enemies. Ad numn-um, to the full or 
bed number. 

M Ml" 1m arum, in., the Numidian*. 
tants ol' Nuinidin, Also, adj, Numidian: II. 7 

HUXMUB or H7MUS, I, m., apioo* , I 
rf, a coin ; money. 



F" 4MBy^ c Xunqiiam. 

NT. adv., now. ;it, this i,,,,,., ^ prcHitit. 

NCTATtTS, a, u:„. part., from 
st vein .a.,-, yi, atum, tr., nuncio* to an 
'unce. bring news, bear tidings, tell, report 
make Known, relate; iuTotm, advise^ 
'uioialur, imp., it is announced, int. J, 
i- given, word is brought. 
NU.VC1CS, i, m. iiovum-cio, a bringer ot 

Wi news, tiding*; intelligence;' 
a message, command, order. 

HI VN'ro.ai-eavi, atum, tr.. nome„-, ; « pio . 
to name, call by name, express, name. pro . 
nou nee. 

NUXQUAM, adv. ne- u „quumv at no tim( . 

never. 

M'vrroifeNU.VTius. As rTaacio, etc. 

PER, adv. /or n , viper from novus. not 

""•e. lately, recently, ot 
late. 

M I'Trs.a, urn. part., nubo. 

CI s.-iu, ui. ..,,,,.;, lwJ . anodw «*«, 
pr '' <s '" 1 "S '"". c """•and, pleasure, consent 
ASnttfwivathtonod, according to his wilier 
whim. 



o 



Oil. pre;,, with ace., at, about, before; for, o„ 
'' " :l " "'■ ta«tead of J n composition, around. 
against, towards, before, over 

OH.E.'l.riT.s a. ,„„, adj., Jb-ses, involved in 
debt; cufo., one sold for debt, a debtor. 

0BD6'O, ere, id, ctum, tr., ob-duco, to lead 
or conduct before, draw before, bring rforward: 
to bri ug or draw over or round. OOJucere fos- 
lOm, to extend a ditch. 

011K0, ire, ii, ituni, intr. and irr., ol- 
go to,,,, st, g ■ ag im-i j to go to and fro, run up 
■".g> round, go too,- visit; to an 
-. perl mil , tecute, do. direct; sc 

(0 die. 

OBIT US, us, m., ob-eo, death. 

0BJ1 '. to throw or pui 

"now in the way. throw to, hold out. 

" n "'- |,; ' . o,.p OW , 

P ,a " ' .-,,,. ,,,,|.. 

site to. lying i 

OBLriTUg, a, uin. pa] l.. ■ 

OBUi 
obliquely. 

OBLyyCDi, a, urn, adj., ob-liquus,*) 
. slanting. 

" I!l M BOOB ■ ■ , U and ,m. 

ob and root uv, to t- 

. obsacio, •*■ 
Cram, to ait f„r <i»dt lake, to entreat, be* MB, 
implore, , g| | ayurr. 

«-ae»i . 
compliance, o tnj laisanco, itidul, 

. 



z&4 




0B3ERVATUS, a, um, part, observe 
OBSERVO,, are, avi, atumjitr., ob-serv 
observe, watch, note, pay attention to ; t 
*orve, regard, obey, comply with, submit to. 

OBSES, idi.-j. iu. and f.. ob-sedeo, a hostage, a 
pledge. 

OBSES.SIO, onis, f. ; obsideo, a besieging, a 
■Hege. 
OBSESSUS, a, urn, part., obsideo. 
OBSIDEO, <rrc, scdi, sessum, tr., ob-sodeo, to 
*it down against, sit around, boset ; to lay siege 
to, invest, besiege. Intr., to remain, abide. 

OBSIDIO, onis, f., obsideo, a siege, blockade. 
Obsidionem relinquere, to raise a siege. 

OBSIGNO, are, avi. atum, ob-signo, signum, 
to seal, seal up. Obsignare. testamsntam, to' 
make one's will. 

OBSISTO, ere, stiti, stituni, intr., ob-sislo, 
reduplicated from sto, to place one's self before, 
stand in the way of, oppose, obstruct, withstand, 
resist. 

OBSTINATE, adv., obstinatus, resolved, ob- 
itino, lengthened form of obsto, resolutely, 
ilrmly, steadily, inflexibly, pertinaciously. 
OBSTRICTUS, a, urn, part., obstringo. 
OBSTRINGO, ere, nxi, ctum, tr., ob-stringo, 
to draw tight, to bind fast, tie to or about ; to 
•blige greatly, bind, engage, unite, put under 
obligation. 
OBSTRUCT!!*, a, um, part., obstruo." 
OBSTRUO, ere, xi, ctum, tr., ob-struo, to pile 
up, to build up before or against, to block or 
-hut up, stop up by building against, barricade, 
obstruct, render impassable. 

OBTEMPERO, are, avi, atum, intr., ob-tem- 
pero, to obey, comply with, submit to, conform 
to. 
OBTENTCRUS, a, um, part., obtineo. 
OBTESTOR ari, atus sum, dep. tr., ob-testor, 
testis, to call one to witness, protest by a per- 
ron ; to conjurs by calling God to witness, sup- 
plicate, entreat, beseech, implore. 

OBTINEO, eru, ui, entum, tr., ob-toneo, to 
hold, have, possess; 'to keep, maintain, retain, 
preserve ; to occupy ; to obtain, get, require, 
procure, gain, accomplish, effect; to prove, 
*how, demonstrate. Hem obtinere, to effect 
•roe's object, carry one's point, be victorious. 
Intr., to last, stand, prevail, olkain. 
OBTULI, etc. See Offero. 
OBVENIO, iro, veni, ventum, intr., ob-venio, 
come in the way b y chance, come before ; to 
meit; to fall to oio'b lot, fall to; to fall out, 
happen, occur. 

OBVIAM, adv., ob-viam, in the way, towards, 
against, to meet. Obviam prqficisci, <£c., to go 
to meet, advance to meet. 

OCCASIO, onis, f., occido.a Billing out, hap- 
pening; htnee^ an occasion, opportunity, fit or 
«<ravenient Reason, favorable circumstances. 
OCC.4SUS, us, m, occido, a falling, going 

1; 

V- 



-^OCELUM. 

oiug down or sotting of the heav- 
the west. Solis occasus, the set- 
W^^Hpfie ?nn, sunset, the west. A fall, ruin. 
dcsOEtion. 

OCCIDENS, tis, pari., occido, falling, setting. 

Sol Occident, the setting sun, sunset, the west. 

OCC/DO, atfe, cidi, ci'sum, tr., ob-csedo, to 

I strike down ; to beat, strike, crush ; to kill, 

] slay, slaughter, destroy, cut off, especially in 

I open fight. 

OCCIDO, ere, idi, casum, intr., ob-cado, to 
• fall, fall down; to go down, set ; to fall, perish. 
die. 
OCCiBUS, a lira, part, and adj., occido. 
OCCULTATIO. onis, f., occulto, a hiding, con- 
cealing; 
OCCULTE, adv., occultus, secretly, privately. 
OCCULTUS, a, um, adj., part, of occulo, to 
hide, ob-colo, hidden, secret, concealed, obscure . 
Occultwm, i, n., a secret thing or place. In or 
ex occulto, sc. loco, in a secret place, in conceal- 
ment, in secret, secretly. 

OCCULTO, are, avi, atum, tr. Ireq., occulo, to 
hide, cover, conceal, secrete. 

OCCUPATIO, onis, f., occupo, a taking pos- 
session, seizing violently, seizure, occupying ; 
an occupation, business, employment, engage- 
ment. Tantularuriirerunioccupationcs, engag- 
ing in such trivial affairs, business of such small 
importance. 

0CCUP.4TUS, a, um, part., occupo, soizctl, fa- 
ken possession of; occupied, busy, employed, 
engaged. 

OCCUPO, are, avi, atum, tr., ob-capio, to lay 
hold of, lay hands on, seize, occupy, take pos- 
session of, get the start of; to prevent, antici- 
pate; to take up entirely, engross; to engage, 
employ. Regnum occvpare, to get possession of 
the sovereignty. 

OCCURRO, ere, curri and cucurri, cursum. 
intr., ob-curro, to go, come or run to meet, 
meet, come up to ; to encounter, charge, rush 
upon, attack; to chance or light upon; to fall 
in with, hit upon, meet with, be involved in; to 
hasten, run up quickly; to suggest itself, occur ; 
to oppose, resist; to provide against, obviate, 
counteract. Occurritar, imp., they run to meet 
also, counteracting measures are taken. 

OCCCRSO, are, avi, atum, intr. freq., occur- 
ro, to run to meet, rush against, attack, charge, 
oppose. 

OCIUS, adv., sup. ocissimc; more swiftly, 
more quickly. The comparative ocius is often 
used for the positive. 

OCEANUS, i, m., the ocofcn; in Ciesar, the 
Atlantic Ocean: II. 34. Marc oceanv.m, the 
ocean. 

OCEI.UM, i, n., Ocelum, a town In the Alps, 
on the frontiers of Gallia Cisalpina, perhaps tb* 
modern Usselio: I. 10. 



OCtlNG 




OCTINGEXTI, », a, num. adj., oca 
eight hundred. 

OCTO, ind. num. adj.. eight. 

OCTODECIM, ind. num. adj.. octo-c 
eighteen. 

OCTOD£/RUt\ i. m., a town of the Veragri in 
Gallia Narboaensis, near tbo Uhono. tho mod- 
ern Martigny : III. 1. 

OCTOGINTA, ind. num. adj., octo, eighty. 

OCT OX I, ob, a, num. adj.,ooto, eight bj 
sight each ; eight. 

OCULUS, i, m.. the eye; the eyorsight, > ision. 

ODI or OSUSSUM, def., Gr. gll3; I hate. 
dotest, abhor; dislike, am displeased with. 

CSHDM, i, n., hatred, hair, grudge, ill-will, 
malioo, animosity, dislike, enmity. 

OFPENDO, ere. di, mini, intr. and tr.. 9b and 
against, hit, Btrike or run 
against, run into: to hurt by Btriking ■• 
to shock, offeni. give off< nee, displease, annoy ; 
to err, blander, commit a fault. <lo Mniss; to 
[ail, meet with ill-success, be unforttinato, suffer 
a defeat ; to be offended. 2 . imp., a 

disaster may occur. 

OFFENSIO, onis, f., offendo, a striking a- 
gainst, trij ping, ambling; a stumbling block, 
reion, dislike, hatred, 
offence. Sine offentione animi. without ■ ■ 
ing the feelis 

OFFEllO, ferre, obluli, oblatum, tr. irr., ob- 
1, to bring or put before, present, hold forth, 
offer, giw^-to bring forward, adduce; to shew, 
exhibit : to oppose, 

OFFICIO!, i, u.. ob-facio, what one d 
another, a service ; a duty; an official duty, a 

, trust, engagement, bu-.. 
(ration; an office or public employment, an eb- 
igation, part, duty; attention, 1 
(.■fence, ' duty ; subjection, obedience. Esse or 
permanerc in officio, to be or remain 1 I 
continue il 

OLL<>\ [CO , a king of the 

Nlttobrigasi vii. 81. 

OMIS-TS. a, urn, part., OtnittO. 

OMITTil, en um, tr., ob-mitto. to 

let go, let fall 1 . leave off, or.. 

by or over, let alone; to give 01 
neglect, make no use "i : !■• pass oyer in silence, 
•'ay notbl 
oM.N/NO. :i 'U.. omnia, wholly) entirely, alto 
: at all, iuall.onh 
vlly. 
OMNItv . . :, ]|.. \idually. the 

Omnia, all : 
OHM LRU ,.. onus, of burden. 

Oncrar ibip , : |,uri 

<-hij>, tr- 
ON'Elt'i. are, avi, atam, .. mum, bo load, 
lade, fill, ti. 



m. 



: shir' 
of so great burden. 
STUS, 11. urn, adj., onus, laded, loaded, 
burdened, freighted ; full of, filled with. 
OPERA, a?, f., opus, pains, exertion, 
labor, service ; care, attention; help, assistance, 
aid. Men opera, by my means, agency, assist- 
ance. Dare operant, to take pains, take care, 
see toll .use. 

OPERA, urn, See opus. 
OPES. Sit ops. 

opinio, onis, f., qpinor, to think, opinton, 
supp isition, belief, conjecture, expectation; m 

teom, Credit, good Opinion, repute, reputation. 
fame; rumor, report. Opinionem rirtulis hab- 
tre, to hay a reputation f>r valor. Ofrinii/tnm 
timoris prJtbere, to occasion the baJUef thai one 

is afraid. 

OPORTET, ere, nit, imp., opus.it is meet, lit 
or proper, necessary, needful, requisite ; it 
ought, it behooTes; the law requin 

OPPIIUXI IS, a. urn, adj., eppidum. of or bo- 
longing to 1 to^ a. Sf'i:.. 1 ppidant, townsmen, 
inhabitants of a tow n 

OPPIDUM, i, n., op^-do, a wailed town, town. 
Among the G.iuh,a. tract of dense woods en- 
clo ed by a rampart and ditch : V. -1. 

OPPONO, ' re. suv -itutn. tr.. Qb-pOnO, to 
place against, sot opp ' hold be- 

fore. 

OPPORTTNE, ad\ fitly, see a 

ably, conveniently, opportunely. Satit oppor- 
tune, quite opportunely. 

OPl'ORTUNiTAS.ot;-. f.,i pporttiaaM 
convenience, saitab] inei advantagoousn 
favorable circumstance 0/ opportunity, a lack] 
chauce; an ad\anta;r\ OpporttmitaUt loci. 
local advantages. 

. OPPORTVNt's. a, no., idj., ob partae, at the 
port; hena , lit. convenient, lalteble, proper, 
advantageous, seasonable, opportum . 

0PP09ITUS, a, Um, part, and alj., opp-.n... 
tgeJast, opposed, lying aver against, op- 
posite. 

0PPRE881 Si a. u . imo. 

0PPR1 MO, 1 

1 u h. 'uj.press; to 
fall on suddenly, surprise, can l. \ t* ovarpow< t. 

ine, overthrow, root, 
bury, hid", cot. 

0PP1 . a fightiDj. 

n town by brae : an 1 
1 of assault. 
OPPUG 

'I'pi 
fight a( 





well, ex 



power, might, 
means. 

OPT/1TUS, n, um,*(ior, issimii 
adj., (opto, to wish.) wished, desire* 
pleasing, acceptable, pleasant. 

OPTIME, nilv., (sup. of bone,) vi 
• dlently. best of all, best. 

(M'TTMCS. a. nm, adj., (.wp. nf bonus, rent 
'-JP')/' optn.) very good, best, best of all, excel- 
lent, choice. Optimum judicium tie aliquo, the 
highest, most favorablo opinion. Optimum est, 
it is best, most cxpediont. Optimum facia esse 
diixerunt, they thought it best. 

OPUS, oris, n., work, toil, labor; performance, 
task ;. military works, fortifications, engines. 
Nagnnfypere, or magnnpere, greatly. 

OPUS, inch subs, anil adj.. (Jr. gl60, Rem. 1, 
need, necessity; a>tj., necessary. Opus est, it is 
needful, useful, necessary. 0})us est mihi, I 
need, have need of. Facto opus est, there is 
i need of action, 

ORA, 88, f, os, the extremity of a thing, edge, 
margin nr border of a thing; the coast, sea- 
coast, shore. Ora maritima, the country on the 
coast. 

ORATIO, onis, f., oro, speech, discourse, lan- 
guage; a speaking; a set speech, oration, har- 
angue. 

OR.4T0R, oris, m., oro, a speaker, an orator; 
an ambassador. 

ORBIS. is, m., a circle, ring; a body of troops 
drawn up in circular form. 

ORCUXIA, a;, f., Oieynia, a 'name of tho 
Black Forest in Germany: VI. 24. 

ORDO, inis, m., order, arrangement, method; 
au order, rank, degree; a rank, row; a series, 
course; a rank or line of soldiers; a band, cen- 
tury, company. Primus nrdo, tho first century 
in a legion. Also, the first centurion of the 
legion. Ordints servarc. to keep ranks, remain 
in line. * 

ORUETORIX, igis, m.. Orgetorix, a chief of 
tho Helvetians: 1.2 — 5. 
ORIENS, tis, part., orior. 
ORIOR, iri, ortus sum, oritarus, sub. imp. ore- 
retur, dep. intr., to rise, arise, grow up, spring; 
to commence, begin, appear. Orient sol, the 
rising sun, the east. 

ORN'AME.NTUM, i. n., orno, apparatus, equip- 
ment, trappings; an ornament, embellishment, 
decoration, jewel; an honor, distinction. 

ORN./1TUS, a, urn, part, and adj., orno, fur- 
ttished, provided, equipped; splendidly furnished, 
ornamented. 

i >RNO. are, avi, atum, tr., to lit out, furnish, 
••quip; to adorn, ornament* deck, embellish 
garnish ; to honor. 

ORO, are, avi, atum, tat?, and tr., os, to speak, 
utter; to beg, ask, crave, entreat. 

OKTUS v a, nm', part., orior, risen, born, de- 
scended, sprung. 



STKK. 

oris, n„ tho mouth; the face. 

II, orum. m., the Osismih a people ii* 
crn part of Celtic Gaul : II. 34. 
NDO. ore, di, sum and turn, tr., ob-*.n- 
• retch before one, to show, expose nr piv- 
sent to view, exhibit, display; toindicate, make 
known, signify, declare: to dlscloso, manifest, 
discover, tell, inform. 

OSTEXTATIO, onis. I., a showing, exhibition, 
display; vain show, exhibiting of one's self, 
pomp, vanity, vain glory, ostentation; a false 
show, pretense, deception. 

OSTENTO, are, avi, atum, tr. freq., osteudo, 
to show, present to view, point out, exhibit, dis- 
play vainly or ostentatiously; to make show of, 
to offer, promise. 

OTIUM, i, n., ease, leisure, freedom from bu- 
siness, idleness; retirement from public busi- 
ness, private life; .rest, quiet, n pose, tranquilli- 
ty, [leaee. 

OVUM, i, n., an egg. 



P 



P., an abbreviation of tbbprsenomen PubHus. 

PABULATIO, onis, f., pabulor, a collecting 
forage, foraging. 

PABUL^TOR, oris y m., pabulor, a forager. 

PABULOR, ari, atus sum, dep. intr., to feed, 
graze ; ire military language, always to forage. 

PABULUM, i, n., irnot pa of pasco,) food for . 
cattle nr horses, grass, pasture, fodder, forage. 

PAC-1TUS, a, um, part, and adj., p:ico, paci- 
fied, reduced to a state of obedience, conquered, 
subdued; peaceable, quiet, tranquil, friendly. 

P.'1Ct), are, avi, atum, tr., pax, to bring into a. 
state of peace, pacify, tranquillize; to subdue, 
conquer, bring into subjection. 

.PACTUM, i, n., (paciscor, to bargain, root 
i>ac, whence paco, pax.) a bargain, agreement,- 
contract. Paclo, abl., a way, mariner, method, 
means. 

PADUS, i, m., the Po, the largest river of 
Italy: V. 24. 

P^EM^INI. orum, m., the Pasmani, a people 
ot BelgicGaul: II. 4. 

PiENK or Pi'.N'K. adv., almost, nearly. 

P.tGUS, i, m„ (perhaps akin to pasco) a can- 
ton, district. Fig., the inhabitants of a canton 
or district. 

PALAM, adv. and prep, with abl., openly, 
publicly, in open view; before, in the .presence 

nf. 

PALMA, a), 1., tlld palm of the hand, the 
hand ; the palm-tree; ja palm branch as a toketf-,. 
of victory. 

PALUS, adis, f., a swamp, marsh, mon 

bag, lell, pool 

1", LUbTJSR, tris, tre, adj., palus, marshy, 
fenny, boggy, swampy, growing in marshy 

place*. 



Ken 

i 

ass, 



PANE 

i* 

PANDO. ere, panBum and possum,, 

open; to spread out, stretch. Crines i>«< 
capillus pisstti, disheveled hair. 

1' A It. pads, adj.. equal, uvon with, ^katch 
lor. Whin J'nU'iw d by ct, aland a^Bk thv. 
BUD6 as. 

1'AR.ITl'S. a, inn. part, and adj., paro, pro- 
pared, ready, [>rovided, furnished, fitti 'I, equip- 
ped. 

PARCH, adv., (parcm, paring,) sparingly, 
frugally, thriftily, peiruriously ; moderately, in 
(mall quantities, 

PARCOj ere, peperci and parsi, parcitum and 
Dorsum, intr., (parous, /<• rtia^ . for paricus, akin 
topaium parvus,) to be , to Bpare, ab- 

ately : to ci itain, forbeaij 

omit. 

I'.\ Kl'.NS. li-. i.i. ami C, pario,a parenl 
•r mother. 

PARENT >. are. avi, atnin. intr.. pal 
perform : of parents, to offer 

sacrifices in theii h> nor*; I 
k sacrifice, satisfj . 

PARBO, <>re, ui, Hum, bit parte,) 

Co como forth, appear, be - it or at 

band; toappi order, to obey, 

lubmit ti>; comply with, 

PARIES, . tie, i.i.. the wall of a house or other 
buildingj a wall 

VA UM. ere, peperi, pari turn a; o partum, tr.. 
i.i bear 01 bi ing f rtfc yoi 
Jui e. asion, i ause, ma k real ; to 

I 

I 1 Al.i.- I !. 01 urn, m., thi Parisii, a ,-■ 
Gaul Inhabiting both banl 
principal city « as Lutetia, n no V 

PAKlTKi:. adv.. par. equally, in like n 
ulilic: time. 

l'Al; 

. to buy. 
(lUlilii 
•c] . 

TAK?. tis, f.. a part, portion. 
«h:in fry, region, quartet 

4li<im in pai tern, in anot ho quarter, in anothei 

which direction. * b 

ildc. AlOr.i a parti, i hand 

Jl> in) 

ramqur 
part'.m lata, m citherevi it, cith< 

SLixiwie 

rlic in ist pal ■ 
PAB 

or , ; ' , a share in, pi 

v2 




tri'o 



26T 

associate, accom- 

adv., (n . irtly, in part, 

ire, t'vi, itum, tr., and PAl'.TIOR, 
i. dop. tr., pais, to part, bhare, dis- 




I'Al: T/TUS. a, nin, part., partio and partlor, 
being divided] having divided. 
I" VRTUS, a, am, part., pario. 
i'AiU'1. etc 8tt Pared. 

PARtJM, a lv„ parvus, (Jr. gUO, Hem. 2; not 
enough, a little, but a little, too little , not. 
PARVULTJ8, a, urn, adj. dun., parvus, very 
l small, very little, petty, tiny, puny. A 
from infancy or childhood. 
PARVUS, a, am, adj., comp. minors nip, min- 

inall. Blight, petty, puny. 
PASOtl ere, pavi, pastum, tr., to paetnre, 
drive to pasture, feed; to graze, browse upon, 
eat. 

I' l£ JIM, adv, pando, Bpread about, here and 

Up and down. -loosely, without order, in- 
discriminately, promiscuously, at random; all 
■ cry where, every wav. 

I S, us, 111.. pando. the stretch of the leg 
in walking, a pace, consisting of five, human 
feet. Milk pautt, ;i mile. 

: 8, a, um. 1 ;i. t., patter. 

PA33US, a. 11111. part., pando. 
VAI i.I'ALlO, eie, ffci, factum, p04$. 1 ..'flu 
pateo-t'acio, to lay open, open ; to 
disclose, bring to light. 
PATRFACT08, a, um. pari., pufefacto. 
PATENS, part, and adj., pateo, Open, lying 
ted, a I, witb- 

e; extended, wide. 
I'A rjSO, cic. ui, intr., t.. !»• e|ien, lie 1 
extend, tretch; to ix , to l* 

to be 1 lear, pi Uo, ei . idlest. 

be known. 

PATER, tris, m., a father, sire. J'jlrr famil- 
ies orfamilti . the lather or maetei of a family, 
fir.gtt. 

t] AMILI.V.. .-., , 
I'A 1 'I ENTER, ad* \ 
1 huly. 

PAT1 ' patlens, the quality oi 

bearing, luAriBg, •ndnriug; cap bilitj 

- 1,1 ing. path 1. 
I.. 11. line, lenity. 

I'A I ! ,r; un- 

' , ■ 
■ 

I'ATI • • I 
• r, patl u< <■«.) 

I'ATI ' 

• 




268 

PAUCI, »3, a, adj. pi., few, a fow^ " 
pondere to answer briefly or iu a ft" 

PAUCITA8, nti«. f„ fewm ss, scarcity, paucity, 
i-mallness of Dumber. 

PAUti^TIM,adv.,paurus, by little and little. 
by degrees, gradually. 

PAULISPER. adv.. paulus, «b'r a litii ■ wbife, 
i.t little while. 

fAULULUM, adv., (ace. o/paululus, paulus,) 
little, a little, somewhat. 

PAULUM, adv., [ace. of paulus,) Utile, a lit- 
tle, Bomewliat. 

PAULUS, a, um, adj., little, small; paulo, 
abl„ Gr. § : i6S ; by a little, a little, somewhat. 
post orpnst paulum, soon after. 

PAX, pnefe, f., peace, quiet, tranquillity. 

PECCO, are, avi, atum, intr. and tr., to do 
f rong or amiss, commit a fault, err, mistake. 
transgress, offend, sin ; to sin against, injure, 
hurt. 

PECTUS, oris, n., the breast. 

PECUNIA, ae, f., (pecus, because money origin- 
illy consisted of cattle,) a sum of money, 
money. 

PECUS, oris, n., cattle, including oxen, 
horses, swiae, sheep, goats, &c. Pccorc vivcrc. 
ii]"m the flesh of cattle. 

PED.i LIS, e, adj., pes, of a foot, a foot long 
rr broad. 

PEDES, itis, m., pes, on foot; a foot soldier; 
collectively, the foot or foot soldiers, the in- 
fantry. 

PEDES. See Pes. 

PEDESTEK, tris, tre, adj., pes, foot, going 
hi foot, pedestrian ; as opposed to naval or by 
noa, it signifies on land. Pedestres copix, infan- 
try, foot soldiers. 

PEDITM TUS. ns, m., pedes, the infantry or 
"oot soldiers of an army. 

PEDIUS, i, m., a Roman gentile name. Pg- 
•lius, (Q,) one of Caesar's lieutenants in the Gal- 
lic war, and consul, A. U. C. 714; II. 2. 

PEJOR, jus, adj., (comp. of mains,) worse. 

PEJUS, adv., (comp. of male,) worse. 

PELLIS, is, f., the skin or hide of a beast. 
.Sub peUibus, in tents, us the tents of liomai) 
soldiers were made of leatker. 

PEhLO, ere, pepuli, pulsum, tr., to .beat, 
wtrike. knock ; to drrvo back or away, disc mfit, 
rout; to drive out, to remove forcibly, expel, 
dispossess. 

PENDO, ere, pependi, pensum, tr., to cause to 
bang up, to hang; to weigh; to weigh or poun- 
der in one's mind, think of, deliberate, consider ; 
to esteem, value, regard; as money wjs an- 
ciently weighed, to pay, liquidate, discharge. 
Pendere pcenas, to suffer punishment. 

PENES, prep, with ace, (root pen,) with, in 
the power of, in one's hands or possession. 

PENITUS, adv., (root pkn, wliencc penes, pe- 



getro,) inwardly, within, on the inside, .fir 
within, deeply; thoroughly, totally, wholly, 
ijfirely. quite, altogether. 

PEPENDI, etc. See Pernio. 

PEPERCI, etc. Set l'arco. 

PER. pr(i[>. with ace. Of space, through, 
through the midst "f. throughout, over, along. 
Of time, during, through. Of medns, through, 
on account of, by reason. of, by, by means of, 
Gr. §169, Rem. 5. Per me, se, t£c, of myself, 
<fcc, without assittance; also, as 'far as depends 
on me, as far as I am concerned, 

PER AC F US, a, um. put., perago. 

PER AGO, ere, <gi, actum, tr., per-ago, to 
drive through, go through, carry thiols 
complish, perfect, finish, end. perform, dispatch, 
execute. 

I'ERANGUSTUS. a, um, adj., per-ang 
very strait or narrow. 

PERCEbLO, ere, cull, culsum. tr., perHJello, 
o'is., to beat down, cast down, strike through, 
overthrow; to dispirit, discourage; to amaze, 
astonish. 

PERCEPTUS, a, um, part., pen 

PERCIPIO, ere, cj-pi, ceptiun. tr., per-capio, 
to take no wholly; to seize entirely, po 
occupy. to take to one's self f assume, gi 
tain, enj >y, acquire, gain, receive; to pi 
feel; to understand, comprehend, one. ive, 
learn, know. 

PERCONTATIO-, onis, f., fpeteontor or por- 
cunctor. to inquire, per-cunctus.) an asking, 
questioning, inquiry, interrogation. 

PERCULSUS, a. um, part., percello. 

1'ERCURRO. ere, cnrri and cucurri, cui? 
tr., p r-curro, ta run through ttr over, ha., ■ > 
through, traverse survey.' 

PERCUSSUS, a, um. part., percutio. ' 

1'ERCUTIO. ere. ussi. nssum, tr.. per-quatio, 
to shake,' In strike, hit. pierce, thru;! through. 

PERDISCO, ere. di.liei.tr., per-diso, to learn 
thoroughly or perfectly. 

PEUDITUS. a. um, part, and adj.. lost, ruin- 
ed, desperate, abandoned. 

PERDO, ere, dill, ditum, tr„ per-do, I 
by carelessness, squander ; to destroy, ruin. 

PERD6 r C0. ere. xi, ctum. tr, per-d«co, to 
bring through or all the way. conduct, lead, 
bring, convey ; to draw out, extend, lengthen, 
prolong, protract ; to bring. or draw over, per- 
suade. I'l-rdaccre fissam, inn rum, etc, to ex- 
tend, make — 

PERDUCTUS. a, um. part., perduco. 

PEKENDINUS, a, um, adj., (perendie, day 
after to-litorroWJ the day after to-morrow, the 
third day hence. 

PEREO, ire, ii, itrtm, intr., per-eo, to go 
through, come to an end, perish, he .lost or 
ruined, be destroyed ; to die. 

PERI QUITO, are, avi, atum, intr., por-equi- 
to, eques, equus, to ride through, round or all 




259 

I OUt, ! 

E >. ere iscui, latum andixtum, fr.. 

to throw into ( coi 
PERM ISTUSi a, uiu, port., pqrmi 
PERMISS1 8, a, inn. part., pormitto. 
PERM it rn. in.-. misi, mi.-- um,tr., pcr-mitto, 
ad av 
throw, Uurl, Ring. ra-t. . I i - - : 

ipoi mi;, j^tani . ill low 
to concede; to commit, intrusl with, iu- 
t:u-t. give up. Biirrender. Itrmii 

■ rend atd retion. 
PEUMOTOS, ;•. inn. nai^t perm 
PERMOVEO, ere, n»<vi, m.tu:n, tr., ; 
> ■ ■. t" mow (■/■ -Mi- up thoroughly , 

Indi ' rail upon, poi 
torn rv« to anger, terror, tr.; to alarm, I 

■ LI ..: tiiul I mulc- 

d'l> . I turn, tr,, to rub geu the, ap- 

PBRFRIM light. 

• ■ , ehat- " a, urn, part,, porntalceo. 

•■ itrmount, overcome; to infringe, rio- PERNICIR8, ei co, death, 

Me destruction, ruin, cxtcrminatioi 

T'. R erter. calaii 

.. per-fugio, to flee PE1! 



over, per unities r 

ronn'i in every direction; 

PtfRKXTCKIOS, a, nm, adj., (per int«-nsiv^' 
and exigtros 1 v t\ r'a ill, very little. 

PtRKACIUS, e, adj., (;)<•;■ intensive an I f, 
oilis.) very easy I'erfaciU facta, very 1 

PER PECTUS, .'. i:ni. part., perficio. 

PKRTERO ferrc. inli.rtiiin.in.il-., per-fcro, 
to bear »r carry tli oflgh ; i<> beai 
convey : to endure to theend, unci: 
port, Riifler. bear patiently, bearorpittnp with, 

ence. feel ; to ran; 
announce, report, spread abroad. 

PHI! I'it I 1. ■ D; c:ct. 1 ctum, tr., per-i 
finish, i- implete. a ■•! ■ ip.i.li'i;, etTi ct. malt 
form, • , 1 >ri 11 jr to an, 

PKRP1D1A, . 



'. 
PER 

tor. a-\ lam. 

I'r.i: 
! 
I : 



tivjly. 

PERI • (j., por-pau< i. i nv few. a 

PERPENDICULI M. i. „.. perpi ado, pet 
plummet. 

PEB i' 



CI i.i'M peri 

■ 

leilileil « .th (I 

. PERU,< ' 

P.. . . I ' -.a. nm, adj., 
kilful, well 

u'nted with, familiar with. 

PK I 1. part., )•■ , ' 

Phi 

l'f.lil.l ' ei ■ lli. utuni 



PEB1CL11 ':.. art, tue am, d< ■: :: . tior, to suffer with 1. 

pariculam, to trj 

•V>tf)nl ol 1 i»; to ! ■:• in Uangt'i PEEPETI I ■ - p . itinually, 

* risk. Ily, always, . 

Pi UK 

. 

piWri, quUil 

! ' 
itly. 

PKH '''■■' 1 mil .. 

I 

impo. 
Phil 

il , 1 > 

1 



' 



% 



2C0 



PERSOLVO—I'LACIDE. 



118 >L,VO, ere. solvi, - I /turn, lr. | 
to, to discharge cotni>lot^l v, r»> pay ofT. 7'< im* 
■vr- paintf*. t i infler punishment. 

i::::.". irt., perepicio. 

PER? . :tum, fr., per-specio, 

tn see, 'igh. look through; to see 

plainly i -• distinctly, discern, understand 
certain fullj . to see,; to perceive,! bseivo, note, 
t-. :i-r.Tt:ti n ; observe carefully, 
examine, inspect. Persgistus, evident, certain, 

PERSTO. .t«. ili. (/turn, intr., per-sto. to 
stand firmly, to persist, continue, persevere, 
hold out; t 1 '-t. e i lure. 

FK1: e, si. sum, intr. with dat. of 

c. of .filing} per-suadeo, to 
advise to persuade, advise successfully, induce, 
prevail upon. Alicui illiquid persnadere, to 
make bid • beHOve a thing; persuadfe ofiie. Ptr- 
■.'. I am persuaded, induced. Ac; I 
believe. Mitti non potest persuaderi, I cannot 
be persuaded. Mihi persuasion liabeo, 1 be- 
lieve.' 

PERSU A II ' '. a, um, part, and adj., per- 
ftjddeo. ♦ 

' PERTEI'IIEO, ore. ui. item, tr ,• per-terreo, 
to frighten gi'o:itly. terrify. 

Pfi.'-.Tv.i.i;. i US a. um, part., perterreo. 

PERT1MESC0, ere, mui, tr. and intr., per- 
tinie-co. timeo, to fear greatly, become greatly 
afraid of. 

PERTINACIA, re, f., (pertifi&x, obstinate, pcr- 
tineo.) obstinacy, stubbornness, pertinacity.- 

PERTINEO, ere, uui. intr., .per-teneo, to 
reach,. extend, Bt etch; to have a tendency ; to 
tend, aim; to relate to, concern, regard, pertain, 
bel mg to a; ply to. 

tTULI. Set f.-rfero. 

PERT p URBATIO, ouis, f., perturbo, confusion, 
dlsturban . disorder, disquiet, trouble, pertur- 

PEilTUftBj4 TUS, a. um:, part., pcrturbo. 

PEJtfTORBO are, avi, atum. tr., por-turbo, 
to disturb, to disturb greatly, throw iuto confu- 
sion, disorder, confuse. Puss., to bo thrown 
into c infusion ; to be perplexed, at a lo-s. 

P -'.;\\ IGOR, ai i at us sum, dep.tr. and intr., 
per-vagnr, to wander throuji, wander or go 
over, rove about, spread over, overrun, range. 

PERVEH9. ore. xi, ctuin, tr.. per-veho, to 
carry through, carry along, convey, conduct. 

PERVENIO .10 veni, ventum, ^ntr., per- 
Tonio, "... come thri ugh, arrive at. come, arrive; 
to fall to, J,' ad puueitatem defensoram pn-- 
vencrat, thi re bad come to be but few defenders. 
'■'arr-niii <;<[. to reach. 

PKRVEXTIIS, a. uui. part., pervouio. 

PUS, pedis, m., the foot of a man or animal; 
s foot as a measure of length. Pdibus, on foot, 
by land. Hi to draw back, retire, 

retreat serally with the face to the 

KOOIIIV.) 



rET'TUS, a. um, part., peto. ' 
PETO, ere, t'vi, /turn, tr., to fall upon. In a 
ns,;, to ruslj at, attack ; with afrlend/) 
i drill, to go to. repair to, seek ; to ask for, beg, 
entreat, require, demand, seek ; to strive after, 
pursue; to desire. Pdere db'aliquo, to ask of 
une, ask, beg'pr request one, petition. Pctcrc 
fagam, to flee. 

'PETIIEIUS, i, m., I'etreius, a Roman gentile 
name, J\r. J'etriiua, a centurion in Civsar's ar- 
my;: VII. SO. 

PETROCORII, omm, m, a people of Celtic 
Gaul: VII. 75. 

PETROdlDIlia, i. in., ; L.) Pctrosidim, a stan- 
dard bearer of the Roman army: V. J7. 

PHALANX, gis, f., a large body of met) drawn 
up in close order ; a phalanx, or Rectangular 
parallelogram of men with their shield* locked 
over their head I. 

PICTJNES. urn, m., the lactones, a people of 
Celtic Gaul: III. 11. 

P1ETAS, atis ■'., (pius. dutiful.) dutifulncss 
to one's parents; veneration for the- god-, piety;; 
devotion to on..'.- country, patriotism, loyalty. 

PIGNUS, oris, n., a pawn, pledge, gage, secu- 
rity, mortgage; a stake, wager, bet; a token 
mark, proof, testimony, assurance. 

Pi LUM, i, n., a pestle or pounder; the heavy 
Javelin or dart of the Roman infantry, live feet 
and a half fn length, pointed with a triangular 
head of steel nine inches long. 

P/L.US, i, m., a company of soldiers armed 
with the pt'lum, a comp uiy of t'ir. triaiii or 
third tine if /Ionian soldiers, the first line c* 
siding of l lie hastati, andt'ir. s-i»nd if Wcpiin- 
cipes. Primus pilus. the first company of the 
triarii c/)- the. centurion of "the first c ■ iinpauy : 



See Liijia and Primipilu-S. 

PINNA or PENNA, «, f„ a feather; a wing; 
a pinnacle, battlement. 

PIRU'STJB arum, m., the Pirustas, a people 
of Illyricuui: VI. 

PISsOIS, is. in., a fish. 

PI SO, ottis, in., a Roman surname of the gens 
C'a parnia. M. Pupius Pi/q, a Roman consul, 
wit/i M. Valerius Measala, A. U. O l JS; I. 2 and 
35. t. Cupurnius J'iso, the Mjher-in law ot 
Caisar, and consul with A. Gabjuius, A. U..C, 
G9U; I. 6 and 12. L. J'iso, the grand-lather of 
L. Calpurnius Piso, and a lieutenant of L. Ca»- 
sius l.ongiuus. was slain in a battle with the 
liiUvtii, A. U. C, C47; I. 12. Piso AquituntU, 
a distinguished Aquitanian, killed in the war 
against the Usipites: IV. 12. 

1'IX. picis, f., pitch. 

PLACEO, to. ui, itum. intr., to please, be 
pleasing Hgreeable, welcome, acceptable; to 
satisfy PJuert milii. it seems good to me, I de- 
cide, determine, resolve. 

P1.ACID& adv., p'acidus. quiit, phi ceo, softly, 
gently, mildly, quietly, peaceably, calmly. 



PLACO— !•(!.■ 



261 



PL. 100. -an, avi, atom, tr., (causative form of 
. to appease, pacify, reconcile, make mild 
■r gentle, soften, calm, quiet, mitigate, as- 
suage. 

PLANCU3. i. m., (L. Munaliu-.) Plancws, one 
of Osssar's lieutenants: V. 2 '. 

PLAN";;. adv., plums, openly, manifestly, 
■ Icarly. plainly . evidently : wholly, totally, en- 
tli ely, i 
fi.AM ri i:s. ci. i'.. pi/mis, a piano, 
r oven surface; a plain, level ground. 
PL.tNUS. a. am, uilj., flat, en a 

: plain, manif i leaf. 

Pii'UKS, <-i or is, i f., tho 

ulus is 
uluce. 
PLENE, id... pknuM, fully, cotnplotoly, en- 
tirely, quite, ill roughly. 
PLANUS, a am, rtj., pleo, full, replete, tilled. 

I idea. 
IM.EK CTMQUE, adv . pli I 
part, commonly, . morally, often. 
PLERUSQUE, aque, unique, adj., 

pleo, and que,) most, the greatest part ; 
tin the plural; a great part, the 
greater part, most, most persons or tliiu 

!'LKi:.M .»xil. orutn, m., the Ptoutn i 

people ml : V. 39. 

PLUMBUM, i. u.. lead. Plumbum ■ 
tin. 

PLUR1MUS, a, nm, adj., (sup. of muttus,) 
very many or much, D atesl part. 

PLCKIMU M, adv., most 
dally, very inneli. exceedingly, ray. Qmtm 
plurimnm. as much as possible 
PLUS, pluris, adj., (eomp. 

I many! 
Plus p nore powerful or efficient. 

y.jr i/> n. 

PLUTKUS. i. m.. and PLI TKUM, i; n.. ■ 
pentaoti telct, made of hurdles 

with raw bides, o 

r iiiiii the Ri man • • walls 

■ ")i m ii tr ill. it- . 

r i I'M, i. ii.. 

ip, drinking pot or bowl, goblet, 
I'flJN A. as, f., satisfaci u, punishment, 

• 

. 
..'■•nian 1 

J'd.N ill I, ■ ire. 'ui, t.- . 
pent. I 

; 

POLLK ' OR,eri, itu- iu 
• 

i 



•. 
1 complimentary infinitive. 

PJLLTCITATIO. onis, f.. (pallMtor, to piom- 
) a free or Voluntary prom 

Ise, a promise. 

POLI ICITUS, a, nm. part., aoU* 

P0MPE1US i, n, Cn., Pompey, the rival of 
Csesar: IV. 1. Cn. Pompey, an interpreter In 
the ( mp the lieutenant I'll 

V.3C. 

P0ND08, eri-, n., : .t. heaviness, 

a weight, load. Land' I ; authority, weight, BOW 

urn, tr . (po/or pete 
.) to put, place, set. lay . to bcI uj . 

to lay aside, lay down; 1 :i ; to 

USe a tl depend 

1 on, to depend «n. 

/" .'".'/"• '" fiusl t . 

flight for safety, place safety in flight. 

• p pitch a camp. Pi to set 

. pi lci I i itui 
PONS, tis, ],i., ■ bi 
POPOSCI. 
POPI ■ 

plunder! 
POPDLOR. ari, OtuaTnim, 

y the figure of mlate, 

j ravage, lay \va- • 
troj . spoil, plunder, | 

Pi ITU'S, i. i:i., a poople, nation. 
tOU RECTUS, a, inn. part.and adj., porrigo. 
urn, tr., pori'o-rego>, 

I !i ■•/ -pi r id 

out. extend ; to hold out or 

^. (strengthened from pro.) on- 
v\ n d. forward, fartln 
ovc r, i" sides, als >. i 
\. 

■ 

I' h\>. n»um. tr.. 'to ran v, bear, 

convey. 
P0R1 

| - 

PORTUS, 01, m.. porto, th 

.. poi t. hai b 

< 

POSH ; 

- 
: [)K«i 

to poa>e- 



POST— PR^CIPUUS. 



Or. §111; to be able, havo'power ; lean. PI] 
rimym. posse, Gr. $140, Rraar. 3; to have th 
greatest power, be most powerful, be very pow- 
erful, have very great influence. Plus posse. 
• Jr. §150, Rem. 3; to be more powerful. Nvr 
mero or multitudinc posse, to be powerful in 
numbers. JVihil posse . equitatu, to have no 
power in cavalry, not to be strong in cavalry. 

POST, prep, with ace. and adv., poue-est, af- 
ter; since; behind, in the rear of, inferior to; 
next in order, afterwards, subsequent to. Post 
diem, quartam, on the fourth day after. 

POSTEA, adv., post-ea, ace. pi. of is, after- 
wards, after that or this, thereafter, subsequent- 
ly , besides. Postca quam. See Posteaquam. 

POSTEAQUAM, or .POSTEA QUAM. conj., 
postea— quam. , 

• POSTERUS, a, um, adj., post, Gr. §72, 4; 
coming after, following, next, ensuing, future. 
!n posteruin, sc. diem or tcmpus, till the next 
day, or for the future. Posteri, orum, m., pos 
terity, future or after ages. 

POSTHABEO, ere, ui, itum, ir., post -habeo, 
to postpone, esteem less, set less by, lay aside, 
i:oglect. 

POSTPONO, ere, sui, sitiun, tr., post-pono, to 
place after, value or esteem less, throw or lay 
-side, postpone, neglect; disregard. 

POSTPOSITUS, a, um, part., post-pono, post- 
poned, laid aside. 

POSTQUAM, or POST QUAM, conj., after, 
ivhen, as soon as, since. 

POSTR.EMO. adv., ahl.of postremus, sc. loco, 
lastly, ultimately, finally, at last, in a word. 

POSTRjBMUS, sup. of posterns, last,' hind- 
most. 

FOSTRIDIE, adv., for po3tero-die, the day 
after, the day following. Postridie ejus diet, 
subjective gan. that day's successor, i. e. the day 
after that day, the day after, the following 
day. 

POSTUL.4TUM, i. n., postulo, . a tliin.c de- 
manded, demand, request, desiro. 

POSTUL.4TUM, supine of postulo. 

POSTULO, are, avi, atum, tr., strengthened 
(tomposca, to demand, ask, crave, desire, re- 
quire, claim. 

POSUI. See Pono. 

POTENS, tis, adj., possum, able, having power 
over, powerful, capable, strong; potent, power- 
ful, mighty, strong, efficacious, rich, having 
great weight or influence, influential. Polen- 
iiores, (he more powerful. 

POTEN'lUTUS, us, m., potens, power, do- 
minion, rule, command, empire. 

POTENT! A, te, f„ potens, might, power, force; 
authority, influence; dominion, rule, empire; 
virtue, efficacy. 

POTESTAS, Otis, f., possum, ability, possibll- 
ly, power, right to do a thing, leave, license, 
liberty, opportunity, force, efficacy, •■fleet, vir- 



tue ; control, command, political power, rule, 

dominion, sovereignty, empire, authority. Esse 
in potcstatc alicujus, to be subject to, — be in or 
under one's power. Potcstatem sui facere, to 
give an opportunity of attacking him. Puy- 
nandi potcstatem facere, to give an opportunity 
of lighting, to offer battle. Est mihi pntestau 
I have it in my power, I am able. Facere po- 
testalcm, to permit, allow. 

POTIOR, iri, itus, sum, dep. intr., potis, able, 
Gr. §159, Rem. Cj to make one's self powerful 
by means of anything, to be or become master 
of, acquire, get, obtain, gain possession of, cap- 
ture, take. Potiundus, a, um, Gr. §177, Rem. 4. 

POT7TUS, a, um, part., potior. 

POTIUS, adv., potis, better, preferable. 
' POTUI, etc. See Possum. 

PRiE, r)rep. with abl. [per or prus, whenc: 
pro, prior, primus,] before ; in comparison with, 
with respect to, by reason of, on account of. 

PRiEACUO, ere, — , tttum, [prse-acuo, root 
ac,] to sharpen at the end, bring to a point. 

PRiEACCTUS, a, um, part, and adj., praj- 
acuo, sharpened at the end; sharpened pointed. 

PRiEBEO, ere, ui, itum, tr., prae-habeo, to 
hold forth, offer, proffer, to give, supply, afford, 
minister, furnish, provide; to exhibit, show, 
present. Prtebcre sptciem atque opinionem pwf- 
nantis, to wear the appearance and produce the 
impression that one is fighting. 

PRiECAVEO, 'ere, avi, autum, tr. and intr., 
pi.T-caveo, to provide or guard against, before- 
hand, to take care beforehand, be on the watch. 
be on one's guard, use precaution. 
i PRJEC.EDO, ere, cesai, ccssum, tr. and intr., 
pra3-ecdo, to go before, precede, outgo ; to out- 
strip, surpass, excel, outdo, be superior to. 

PRiECEPS, cipitis, adj., prse-caput, headlong, 
with the head foremost; rash, hasty, precipi- 
tate, sudden; downhill, steep, precipitous. Ag- 
ere precipilem, to drive headlong, to put to 
rout. 

PR.ECEPTUM, i, n., precipio, something or- 
dered or enj»ined, a precept, rule, maxim ; ad- 
monition, advice, counsel, instruction ; a com- 
mand, injunction, order, direction. 

PR/ECEPTUS, part., prweipio. 
' PRJECIPIO, ere, cepi, ceptum, tr., pra»-ca- 
pio, to take or seize beforehand, take in ad- 
vance, anticipate, prevont,' forestall, preoccupy- 
to give directions, to instruct, teach, direct, 
charge, enjoin. Prxcipere opinionem, to con- 
jecture beforehand, anticipate : prmceptum est 
mihi. it is enjoined upon me, I am commanded, 
directed or instructed. 

l'K.ECIPITO, are, avi, atum, tr , prteceps, to 
throw or tumble down headlong, plunge, throw ' 
headlong, precipitate ; to hasten. 

PRJECIPUE, adv., pnecipuus, particularly, 
BSfieciaUy, chiefly, peculiarly, principally. 

PRiECIPUUS, a, um, adj., prtecipio, takeu 






PRJECI-VDtVP&ESTO 



268 



"there, particular, peculiar, especial ; raj 
aafkabie, noted, singular, principal, >'i-!iti- 
lialied. excellent, extraordinary. 
PR JECL/7D0, ere, si, sum, tr., pr:> -rlaudo, 
i aliut up in one's face, close, shut against, 
ilt, bar ; to forbid access to, Mock i 
tpedo. 

rii.V.CLPSUS, a, um, part., prteeludo. 
PRJ3CO, onis, m., a public crii-r. herald. pro- 
aimer, publish) r. 

PRiECOX/NUS. i. m., [L. Valerius,] P 
mnus, a Roman lieutenant, defeated and 
Caul: Til. 20. 

PRiECtTRRO, ere, cucnrri and curri, onnum, 
r. and intr.,' pne-curro, to run before, go bc- 
■ re, precede, anticipate; {o outrun, outstrip, 
oirpass, excel. 
PR T.PA. r\ t.. [prses, a si i y ; (he ,. reperty 
' a sin- in taken to pay a debt;'] prey.. I 

U, pillage; gain, profit. Ayrrc j 
:. to drive off captured cattle and cap- i 
rea as booty, to collect booty, plunder Phc* 
pfaiam. Bee F-.icio. 
PR&DIOO, are, avi, atum, ;r.. proe-d 
make known, to spread abroad, proclaim, re- 

Dblish, declare; to say. tell, l 
-nt, State, affirm ; to praise, command, extol: 
to boast. 

RDOR, ari, atus sum, dep. tr. and intr., 
i, to rob, Blunder, pillage, spoil, ravage. 
PRJSDZ7CO, ere, xi. ctum, tr. prae-dt 
aw, make or put beforo or in front of. 
PRIEST, etc. See Praesum. 
PlUBFECnrS, i, m., praeficio, obo puf over 
r placed in command, a superintendent, ovor- 
cr, director, preridenf, commander, prefect. ' 
I'K.KKi:';). l'erre, tuli, latum, irr. tr., pfte- ! 
ro, to bear i rry beforo or iu front, carry 
or publicly; to show, indii 

pr< fer,l 
Ive the preference to, choose ratli< • . 
PRJEFIOIO, er •. fed, t stum, U . ■ 

111 in autln.rity over, appoint tO J 
umand of, place in command of. 
I ' i ; . 1 : 1 . ■ : »,ero, ixi. ixnm, tr. pra^-l 

ifli or fasten before, set np beforo; to fix 
n the end of. to tip, head. 
]'i: BFfiCUS, a, um, part., pra> 
PB : -um. 

IT. 1 M BT1 t.and adj., , ■■ 

tuo, fearing beforehand, am 
PRiKMKTTJO, ere, tr. and intr., pra«-n"-tu' .. 
- 1 beforehand, be anxious. 

-, a, um, part., praemltto. 
PR.EMlTTn. ere, isi, issum, tr., prae— mitto, 
I for ward or despatch befon With qui 
Ind thr tubj. denoting a jmrpotr. Or. J 210. 

PRSMTUM, i,n.,prae, profit derive* from 
booty, profit, advantage; ar< ward, recompense, 
premium. 
" PR/EOCCVPO. sre. nvi. atnm. tr.. pr»' 



•forehand, surprise, preoccupy:- 
sto anticipate, prctent. 

PR.EOrTO, nre,avi, atum, tr.. prae-opt 
wish, to with rather, desire more, choose rather, 
prefer. 

PR .TlPAR.lTl >. a, um, part., praeparo 

PR J'.PAKO. are, avi, atum, tr., pn 
prepare, get or make ready, provide 

PR EPONO, ere. posul, positum. tr.'. | 
pono, to put or Bet before, place Brat; to set 
over, i ntru'-t with the charge or command of. 
place at the head of. put in command of, 

PR EPOSlTl S, ft, um. part., prat 

PRjERUMPO, ere, ri/pi, ruptum, tr., pr 
rumpo. ( ' reak off in fi 

aaundor, cut in 1 

PR/FbTTTl S) ft, um, part, and adj., | 

rumpo, broken off; broken, steep, craggy, 

hard to climb, difficult of ascent. 

PB B8CR/BO, ere, psi, ptum, tr., prae-t 

to write before, prefix in writing; to] 

limit ,■ > direct, com i 

dictate. 

PR ESCRIPT1 
I direction. 

PRESENS, tis, . j , 

of Bum,] present, at haifd. Inpretcntia, te. 
pnrct. nt p the present 

loai ait lime, 
at that time. . 

PRESENT! \ 
presence : presenHa (•■>iini, pre 
courage, resolution. 

PR.ESEXTb aensom, tr., ] 

• ntio. to feel cr perceive beforehand, li 
presentiment, i \ 
preconceive, foreknow. 

PRTESEi'Io. ,i, tr., ptae- 

. 
Dade. 

IT. ^SEPTUS, a. am, i art., praei 

Pfi ESERTTJ 
chiefly, principally, particularly. 

PRESIDIUM, I, n.. praeots, prae-eed 
presiding oyer : 

pecially of $oldiert acting as a guard, garrison : 

a Station 

security. 

I um and atum. tr. and 
intr.. pfM-StO, to stand before; to be am, 
to or better than, excl, <irpa- / 

strip: to cause Pi sta nd forward, to give, for 
nish, over, afford, ll 

one's »• - 

imp., it i» better, i! il BOTI 

tlarr riium trt. it n; | I able 

PRjcn 

bund ; pnUtO • - - 

Unce. waif opon. 



264 



PItiESUM— PRISTIN'US. 



PRJiSUM, esse, fui, irr. intr., piae-snin, tti 
V'o before; to preside over, liavo tb© charge or- 
command of be Bet over comnmnd, rule fiver, 
superintend, Migistratui prseesse, to hold the 
vilice of magistrate. 

PR.ETKI!. prep, with ace with 

demonstrative suffix ter, like i«/<;r, swMer, <£c., 

beyond before, past by; against, contrary to, 

tx ^ Rave, except, in addition to. In compo- 

md, besides. 



PREHENDO, w PRENDO, ore, di, ltUB,tr, 

to take bold of, catch, seize, grasp. 

PREMO, ere. pressi, pressnm, tr., tr> prees. 
press upon; to burden, load, weigh down: u. 
press, olo-e. squeeze; to pursue closely, charge, 
bear down upon, press upon, harass, crowd, op- 
press, incommode, overwhelm; to constrain. 
compel, force, straighten, press, urge. He. fru- 
meiitaria preihi, to suffer for want of provisions, 
be reduced t» short rations. Obsidionc premi. 



i praeter-ea. besides, more- ] to be closely besieged. 



n. i>n one elsA 

. ii, itum, irr. intr. and tr. 
pass by or over, go past or 
; to pass over- in silence. 

PK ETEKEUNDUS, a, urn, part,, practer-eo, 
to be past over or omitted. 

PR^TERITUS, part, and adj., praetereo, 
past, pine by : pruterita. orum, v., things past; 
the past. 

PR.ETERM1TT0. ere, rm'si, missum, tr., prae- 
terr-mitto, to pass lover, let slip, omit, neglect, 
overlook ; to pass over in silence, make r.o men- 
lion of. «* 

J'RiETERfJUAM or rR /ETER QUAM, adv.. 
save, except, beyond, beside. 

PRiETERVElIO, ere. xi, ctum, fr., praeter- 
■veho^to carry by: prat rvrlmr. pass., to be car- 
ried by «r past, be wafted by or over, ride or 
*ail past. 

PRyl'TOR. oris in., fur pAeitor, from prae- 
eo, a chief, leader, head, president, commander 
c,r magistrate, a general ; a praetor or Roman' 
magistrate charged' with the administration of 
justice Tke.office was'injstitutcd A. C. <7., 3S7, 
and after the first Punic war there were two 
prxtors, praetor urbauus. for Roman citizens, 
and praetor peregrtnusj for foreigners. 

PRiETORTUS, a, nm, adj., praetor, of or be- 
longing to a pretor, pretorian: prmtoria cohors, 
the pretorian cohort or general's guard. 

fliJEURO, ere. r.ssi, ustum, tr., prao-wro, to 
burn before or at the end. 

1'KiEUSTUS. a, um, part,, praeuro, burnt be- 
fore, burnt at tlie end or point. 

PRjEVERTO. ere, ti. sum. tr., prae-verto, to 
prefer; be before, outstrip outrun, to despatch 
first, do in preference to anything else, do be- 
forehand; anticipate, prevent; preoccupy, pre- 
possess. 

' PR.4VU3. a, rm, adj , crooked, misshapen, 
deformedJflhtorted, opposed to probus. Fiy., 
wrong, m&ffftlird vicious, depraved. 

PRECOR, ari, atus 3um, dep. intr. and tr., 
prex, to | ray, entreat, supplicate, beg, desire, 
request. 

PRECIBUS. See Prex. 

PRKCI^NI, orum, m.. the Preciani, a people 
of Gaul living in Aquitauia, on the borders of 
Spain : ill. 27. 



* 



PRENDO. Sie Prehendo. 

PRET1UM, i, n., the price of anything that 
is to be sold, value, price, woi th ; a reward, pay, 
wages; rf wrong doing, a punishment: parvo 
prctio, at a low price, at a low rate. 

PREX, dat. preci, Qr. §51; a prayer, suppli- 
cation, entreaty; a curse, imprecation. 

PRIDIK, adv., pri, all. if per or pris. and 
die, on the day before : pridie ejus diet, on th» 
day before, on that day's predecessor, subjective 
genitive. 

PRIMIP7LDS, i, m., primus-ptlus, the first 
company of the triarii; also, the centurion oi 
the first company of the triarii, the centurion 
of the first rank. 

PR/MO, adv., abl. of primus, sc. tempore or 
loco, at first, in the first place, in the beginning. 

PRIMOP/LUS, i, m., the same as primipilm, 
which see. 

PR/MUS, a, um, adj., sup. of prior, Gr. 
(S 128. Rem. 8, first, the first part, foremost; 
principal, chief, excellent; in front, in the van ; 
prim.umagme.ncr acies prima, the van. In pri- 
mis or imprimis, abovo all, especially, particu- 
larly, first, among the first, in the first place: 
p>-( mi, the first men, tho principal or most dis- 
tinguished men: primum, adv., Gr. §150, Rem_ 
3 ; the first time, in the first place, first of all, 
first. Qitam primunl, as soon as possible, tfum 
or ubi primum, as soon aB. Tain primum, thes 
for the first time. 

PRINCEPS, ipis, adj. in. and f., pn'mus-ca- 
pio, first in order of time, foremost, most dis- 
tinguished. Subs., an adviser, leader, head, 
chief, principal, prince: princeps belli inferc::- 
di, first in commencing hostilities. 

PRINCIlMi'US, us, m., princeps, the first or 
chief place, pro-eminence, supremacy ; tho im- 
perial power, dignity or government; the 
highest power, sovereignty, rulo, dominion. 
Factionix principalum te.ntre.. to be at the head 
of a faction or party. 

PRIOR, us, gen. oris, adj., Gr. §76, pris (•• 
prus previous, prior, former, in the van, ante- 
cedent, sooner. 

PRISTiNUS, a. um, adj., pris, former, ear 
pristine, accustomed, wonted: pristini die\ paj 
fidia, the treachery of yesterday, of tho 'da: 
belore. , 



m 



I 



PRIUS— 1 

FRIUS, jj-.Iv., prior, before, sooner, earlier) 
:u<im, conj., before. 
. PR1V.-1TIM. adv.. priratas, privately, in pri- 
vate; as an individual or individuals, in a 
private capacity: 

rRIVJTUS, a, urn, a.lj. and part., privo, to 
deprive, apart from the state, private, one's own, 
belonging to an individual or to individuals, 
personal. Subs., a private person, one 
public office. 

PRO. prep, with abl., per or pros, before, in 
ftonl of; before for defense or protection, for, in 
behalf of, in favor of; before at taking theplaa 
. instead of; before for lite purpose of 
comparison, in proportion to, according to, in 
comparison With, considering! i" r > on account 
■f. Pro se quitque, each according to his abili- 
ty,' or for himself. Pro tempore ct pro re, ac- 
cording to time and circunuTl 

PROBATUS, a, um, part, and adj.. probo, 
proved, tried, approved. 

PBOBQ, arc avi, Mum, tr., probus, 
Lsfled with, approve, approve df| 
pi<css satisfaction with, to , 
«ent or agree to ; to prove, shew, demonstrate, 
make g satisfy; to recommend. 

Pliui ' ' ' -um inn., pi 

to pro,-. me forth; go fonrai 

vance; to go forth or out. 

1 ll.Uf. i. in., a Roman family name. 

. the chief man in the pro- 
vince of 'iiiul : 1. 19, 47. and ■">.".. 

PROCLIXATT?. a. um. pari, procli'no. 
PB001 ivi, aini.i. tr., pro-clino, ft) 

forward, incline. Adjmn 

nroclintit'Ott. U) increase the tcndenC] 

thing, t rone, 

PRO ■•■•.. pro-consul, a proconsul. 

■'I, am/ 
.try command. 
<consuli: had gtntrt 
near before they became prorontult. 

[■mil i i„ a&y . pnoeUO) for, 
from b diatan 

ratal, eubitnm. In) 
eobo, i rd, faH forwacd, l 

wards, lie dowu er along, full down, pa 
one's sc If. 

PROCURATOR, ..inae/T. 

■dmlnlsfoator, agi at, tnpi rlntei 

Procurator regni, a vioeroy, gov- 
ernor, n 

J-TRO, are, ari, otum. ti 

■ after, man- 
age, Idmiiiist'-r. 

PROCrRRO. ere. . -urri ami rn 
intf., j : run forward, run fortb 

forth. 

rilODKO. .re. ii. Hum. ,-■ 
or come forth, go or come oat ; to go f 
adv.-mr%ji'rk'c< 1 ; to spring np, appear. 



tqtUfiio 



2C5 



I } 



I'KoDiTM. otiK. f. 1 1- Io, a 1 overing, bi 
(raving; treasnefy, tn 

PROMTOR, oris, in., prodo, 
traitor. 

PRODITTJS, a. am, part, prodo. 

I'll olio. , i, . ijj, [turn, tr., "pro-do, to ( 
bring forth, t» to declare, disclose, 

m a nifest , show, pronounce, publish; to 

• it, hand clown; to 

betray, desert, surrender, give up, abandoi 
ceive. Prodtturmem iaudoddov bj 

tradition, it i- reported. . t ,, 

D writing, describe, relate. Tid pro- 
denda manor. 
scribed or related, 
PBODi ' ri, ctuni, tr., pro-.].- 

bring forth, to draw out in lengl 
ontinue, prolong. Product* M&io* 
having reviewed, the i 
PRODUCTUS, a, urn, part, and adj, pro-da- 

PRQSLIOR, ari, :itn- mm, di p. i Jit r., pi . 
to fight, engage, join battle. 
PRCELrOM; i, n.. , 

a hat 1 1- | ■ , 

. or post 
prwUum factum, after the battle bad been 
fonglit. 

PROFRCTIO, anis, C, proflciacor, a gi 
setting out, departure, journey, march. 

TROFECTO. adv.. pro-mcto, in fact, cortainlj . 
lUrely, truly, in t.utli. 

PR0FECTU8, a, um, part,,profi( 

: CTUS, a. run, part., proficio. 
PEOFERO. ferre. tuli, latum, irr. tr, | I 
to carry or bring out or forth ; to utt 

carry forward, put off, defer, pretract. 
PROFICIO, ere, ted, feetam, tr. and infi . 
pro-fa. 

contril 

lapro 

tat sum, in; 

, mak<- 

• ly , I. 

I ■ r. ' • i ' 

■cm. 

i 

. 
■ • 



2S6 



PROFUI— PHOPULSO. 



to fleo, fly, run away, escape ; to flee. from. 
avoid. 
PROFUI, etc. See Prosum. 
PROFUNDO, ere, fitdi, f«sum, tr., pro-fundo, 
to shed copiously, pour forth or out, cause to 
«„,.• tv..<- s<^ to sally forth, rush out. 

i um, part., pro arnd uatusor 
or sprung from. 
, essus sum, dop. intr., pro- 
line or g» forth, go on or for- 
ced. 

,, um, part., progredior. 
ui, itum, tr., pro-habeo, to 
)re, to .keep or ward off, de- 
, stop, prevent, cut off, pro- 
i away, keep in check ; to 
1th an infinitive, to prevent,' 
kinder, keep from doing a thing. Prohibcre 
ingrcdi, to prohibit from entering. 

PROHIBITUS, a, um, prohibeo, kept off, hin- 
dered, prevented, protected. 

PROINDE. adv., pro-inde, therefore, for that 
reason, on that account. 

PROJECTUS. a, um, part, and adj... projicio, 
thrown or cast forth, cast away. 

PROJICIO, ere, jeci, jectum, tr., pro-jacio, to 
row forth or before, to throw or fling away ; 
to throw, cast, fling; to throw down; to give 
T»p. yield; resign, renounce, reject, disdain, 
, *eglect. Projicerc p.rma, to throw away, lay 
down one's arms. Projicerc sc, to cast one's 
self, prostrate one's self. Projicerc se ex navi, 
to leap from the ship. 

PROMINEO. ere, ui, intr., pro-mi neo, to hang 
titer, to project, hang over, to lean forward, be 
prominent. 

PROMISCUE, ad., promiscuus, mired, con- 
s' osedly, promiscuously, indiscriminately, with 
•ut order or distinction. 

PROMISSUS, a, um, part, and adj., promitto, 
suffered to grow long, growing long, hanging 
down, long.' 

PROMITTO, ere, misi, missum, tr., pro-mitto, 
to send forth, let go out, let grow; to give out 
orae's word, promise. 

PROMO, ere, psi, ptum, tr., pro-em o, to bring 
orth, produce, bring to light, utter, disclose, 
Ml. 

PROM0NT0RIUM T i, n., pro-mons, n moun- 
tainous cape, promontory, headland. 
PROMOTUS. a, .um, part., promoveo. 
PROMOVEO, ere, ovi, otum, tr., pro-moveo, 
to move forwards, canBe to advance, impel, push 
er move onward, advance. 

PROMPTUS, a, um, adj., part of promo, 
brought to light, set forth, clear, manifest; 
ready, prepared, at hand : ready to do. active, 
fcold, prompt, ardent. 
PRONUNCI.ATUS, a, um, part., prouuncio. 
PRONUNCIO or PRONUNTIO, are, avi, 
atam, tr., pro-nuncio, to make publicly known, 



to pronounce, speak, utter, to declare, announc.-. 
proclaim,; to say, tell, relate, narrate, report. 
Pronunciatur, imp., proclamation is made. 

PRONUS, a, um, adj., pro, inclined or- bend- 
ing forward, stooping, benifing down, headlong, 
prone, inclined, disposed. 

PROPS, prep, with ace. and adv. propius. 
proximo, (ncut. of pr m.is, obs. whence propior. 
proximus:) near, hard by, next, beside; almost, 
within a little, nearly. 

PROPELLO. ere, puli, pulsum, tr., pro-pello. 
to drive before one's self, to drive or push for- 
wards, push on, drive, hurl, propel; to drive 
out or away, repel, repulse, keep or ward off. 

PROPERO, are, avi, atum, tr. and intr., pro- 
perus, quid; to quicken, accelerate, prepare or 
do with haste, to make haste, hasten, make 
■speed. 

PROPINQUITAS. atis, f., propinquns, nigh- 
ness, nearness, vicinity, proximity, neighbor- 
hood; nearness of kin, relationship, consan- 
guinity. Sx propinquitctte jpugnare, to fighr 
close at hand, in the very neighborhood. Con- 
junct!'? pr.opinquitate, allied or united by 
blood. 

PROPINQWS, a, um, adj., propc, neighbor- 
ing, near at hand. Subs., a kinsman, relative 
relatiota, intimate friend. 

PROPIOR, sup. proximus, adj., propis, obs.. 
nearer. Propius, adv., comp. of propc,, more 
nearly, nearer, nearer to. It is sometimes fol- 
lowed by tfie accusative, Gr. g 1-1'2, Rom. i-. 

PROPfrNO, ere, posui, pooitmn,tr., pro-pouo. 
to set out or expose to view, set forth or display, 
offer, present: to publish, make known; to tell, 
show, declare, explain, relate, report; to prom- 
ise; to purpose, determine, appoint, fix, pro- 
pose. 

PROPOSITUS, i, n.. propono, a purpose, in? 
tention, resolution, design. 

PROPOSITUS, a. um, part, and adj., propono. 
set before, placed in view, set out or exposed to 
view, shown 'openly, exposed; proposed, pur- 
posed, intended ; offered. 

PROPRIUS, a, um, adj., one's own, peculiar 
particular, special, private. Proprium, i, »;. 
a property, peculiar quality, peculiarity, distin 
guishing feature, characteristic. 

PROPTER, adv. and prop, with ace, (fo> 
propiter, from propc.) near by, close to; for, ot 
account of, by reason of, owing to, becauso of. 

PROPTEREA, adv., propter-ea, therefore 
for this or that cause or reason ; on that ac 
count. Propterea quod, because, because that 

PROPUGJSMTOR, oris, m., propugno, a de 
fender, maintainor, champion. 

PROPUGNO, are, avi, atum, tr., pro-pugno 
to fight in defence of, fight or contend for, do 
fend ; to rush out to fight, sally forth. 
^ PROPULI, etc. Seo Propello. 

PROPULSO. are. avi, atum, tr. feq., propello 




PRORA— PUDOR. 



267 



. i drive ftiway or back, repel, keep or wa 
.PROltA, a?, f., (he prow or fore-part of a ship, 

a in puppis. 
PRORIPIO, ere, ipui, eptum, tr.. pi 
i drag or hurry forth, take away by forcej 
hurry away, snatob away. Proripere se, to 
hurry away, rush out. escape quickly. 
PROKUO, en', ui, hi vim. tr. and intr., pi"- 

run. to rush, to pud 'ill Of one. to 

beat down violently, overthrow, over- 
turn, throw down; ie. rush forth, tumble 
down. 
PRORUTUS, m um.part., proruo. 
PROSECETUS, a, urn, part., prosequer. 
PROSEQUOR, i. cmIi • sum, dep. tr., | 
quor, to follow after in a friendly or hostile 
r ; follow, iiuil inpany, 

. 'to ad- 
Iress, Bp'i i K to. 

PROSPECTUS, us, ui., prospicio, a looking 
■ rward; Ifpros] ct, view, sight. 

be in sight, 

PROSPICIO, err. exi, actum, intr. an.; tr.. 
pro-specia to .■■■■ . in look for? ard in) - I 
tance, loov ou hand,' bo 

on oiii*.- guard, watch; t.> oreseo. 

to piw 
providi ■ ■, ply. 

PROSTERNO, en um ir„ pro- 

sterno. n front Of or 

■vn. throw or dash (<• the 
irow, ovej turn, pro 
ruin. 

PRO.^U.U. i .;i. irr. intr.. i«. 

lir. §111; to d 
PROTKiiO. . tr., pre-* 

r in front of, Bholti 
•.nan), protect, 
PKc: ui, [turn, tr.,prorteweo,to 

a or chase away. Rcaro, drive away by 
terror, riff. 

frightened. 

]•;;.'•; I NUS, adv., (pr*-tenus, at faros,) for- 
ward, rb.1 ou, conlinu- 
ininterruptodly, it Umtly, forthwith, 
. in the next 

. are, avi. atuin, tr.. pro-;:; 

1 pulse drive 1 

.■a, part., pre i ' 

vnio, to pro 



pear; to originate, arise, to take root, thrive 
grow, increase, be produced ; to succeed, tura 
out, prosper. 

PROYENTUS, us. in., provenio, a coiniug 
forth, growth, increase: an issue, event f BUC- 
od fortune. 

PROVTDEO, ere, *di, visum, intr. and tr., 
pro-vidi . 

i i int. 1 re.-ee; to see hi, look alter: t» 

provide for, take care of ; to prepare. ) 

to perceive, discern. Provision ■ ■•'. provision 

was made. 

PR0Y1NCIA. ae, £, pro-vinco, x 
conquered country governed by a strata 

sent fi. mi Romi i iinciOf 

often ii. • called 

i ingfrom ihr Pyrenees to the Alps, 
and northwari t, c. /Vo, 

•/pina: ' 
1. hi. 

provlncia, of or W- 
longing t" a province, provincial. 
PROV/SUS, a, um, part., provid 

d, got ready. 
PROVOLO, ai'v. avi, atum, intr., pro-vo!o, /• 
rush forth, run for- 
ward, ha rward. 

PROS ap. of proj , .'i :.t, very 

near; e 
PROXIMl'.S. a, um, adj., sup. a/propior, £74. 

1. very near, neighboring, man I. n. ,t. last. 
lUr pro.- 

PRUDENT1A, a-, f., pi d, for 

providens, foresight; prudence, sagacity, dis- 
cretion. 

P17BER or P CUES 

puberty, adult. Subs., Pub 
of mature age. adults. 

PUBLICS, adv., publicus, publicly, in public, 
by public authority, in the name , if the state. 
on the public account, at public expense, witk 
regard to the public, to the public at large or 

-tale. 

PUBLICO, are, avi, atum, tr., publico 

. confi» 
nribo. 
PUB! 
form of pepiii. ,. pup. 

. pub* 

. .ii piiii- 



?6S 



PUER-^QUANTUS 



f p'-i>pri . i \ . gumi in 
-'-poet: reputation, honor: ;i sense ef'honor; 
m cause of shanie, disgrace.-; 

PUER, eri, m., a boy, lad, stripling. A p"~r- 
is, irom boyhood or childhood. 

PUER/LIS, e. adj., puer, of or pertaining to 

* boy, boyish. Pueriti^dtus, boyhood, child. 

\;<. a jist. I rtginally a fist 
quarters; then a fight Oc 
it, engagement, combat, 
i fight. Imptdimentum ad 
in fighting. 

■t. and adj., pugno, fight- 
fights, a combatant. 
i, part., pugno. 
turn, intr., pugr ( a, to fight 
'ugnatur, pass, imp., the 
ght, Or. 2114, 5. 
PULCHER, ....... clirum, ior, errimus. adj., 

fair, beautiful, handsome in shape anil appcar- 
■ii', : beautiful ia character, honorable, glori- 
ous, illustrious. 
PULFIO, onis, m., T. Pulfio, a centurion : 

r. u. 

PXmtfSS, a, am, part., pello, struck ; beaten , 
routed, defeated. 

PULSUS, us, m., pello, a driving forward, Im- 
pelling', impulse, striking, beatiDg, stroke. 

PULYIS, oris, m., dust. 

PUXCTUM, i, n., pungo, a small-hole, pnne- 
ture; a point. 
• PUPPIS, is, f., the stern of a ship. 

PURG^iTUS, a, urn, part., purgo. 

PURGO, are, avi, atum, tr.,' purnm-ugo, to 
make clean, cleanse, purify; to excuse, justify, 
clear, acquit, exculpate. 

PUTATUS, a, urn, part., put... 

PUTO, are, avi, atum, tr., putus, to cleanse, 
to prune ; to weigh, consider, ponder ; to think, 

• ■steem, judge, reckon, imagine, suppose. 

PYRENiEUS, a, uni, adj., Pyreneau. Pyre- 
mci monies, the Pyrenees, a range of lnoun- 
:iiis separating France from Spain. 



Q 



Q, an alibreviation of the pranomen Quin- 

QUA, adv , abl.fem. o/.qui, so. via or parte, 
6a the Side of part on which, where; in what 
way. 

QUADRAG.ENI, ae, a, num. adj., quadragin- 
' i, forty each, forty at a time. 

QUADRAGINTA, num. adj., quatuor, forty. 

QUADR-4TUS, i, in., the Robust, agnomen of 
0. Yolusenus. See Vclusenus. 

QUaDRAGEXTI, ae, a, num. adj., quatuor-- 
•ntum, four hunched. 

'iliaERO, ere, sivi, st'tuni, tr., to seek, Beck 
M'ter, search for, go in search of; to ask, inquire, 



>;;ate; to investigate, search, examine 

int.i. Queerere aliqiiid ex or ah aliqno, to ask 

i -one about anything, make inquiries concerning. 

QUiESTIO, onis, f., quaero, a seeking, inquir- 
ing, searching; an examination, inquiry, inves- 
tigation; a judicial examination, trial, prose- 
cution. Qutestioncm de ali-iuo habere, \o exam- 
[ iue, try, try or question one; — dc ctliguo nego 
'in. to investigate a thing, 

QUiESTOK. oris, m., quaero,, a Quaestor, the 
1 title of a class of Rornan magistrates, some of 
■ whom had the care of the public money, and 
others conducted criminal trials. The .. 
urbanuf or aerarii, was public treasurer, and 
remained in the city ; the quiegtor militaris 
combined the offices of a modern quartermas- 
ter and commissary general, and one was ap> 
j pointed to assist each consul or praetor in com- 
mand of a province. 

QUiESTUS, us, m., quaero, a gaining, acquir- 
ing ;" a means of acquiring a trade, occupation ; 
what is acquired, gain, profit, advantage. Quxs- 
tuspecunise, a gaining or making of money, 
acquisition of wealth. 

QIULIS, e, pron., Or. g 91 ; of what kind or 
sort, what ; as, just a3, such as. 

QUAM, conj., qui, g 203, Rem.- 1,_ how, how ■ 
much, as much as, than. Tam—quam, so— as : 
quam late, very widely. With superlatives, as 
; ; os, quam maximum, as great as pos- 
sible. Quam celerrime potuit, as quickly as he 
could or as possible. Quam diu, see Quamdiu, 
Quam, plures, see Quamplurcs. 

QUAMDIU, conj., quam-diu, as long as. 

QUAMOBREM, conj., quam ob rem, why, 
wherefore; therefore, for which cause or reason. 

QUAMPLETRES, or QUAM PLFRES, adj. 
pi., vefy many. 

QUAMPLURIMUM or QUAM .PLURIMUM, 
as much as possible. 

QUAMPR/MUM. and QUAM PR/MUM, adr. 
quain— primum, as soon as possible, as quickly 
as possible. 

QUAMVIS, adv. and cod j., quam-vis, from 
volo, as much as you will, however much : al- 
though, though, albeit ; however. 

QUAMVIS, pron. See Qut'vis. 

QU^NDO, conj. and adv., when, when? Afl< r 
si. ne, or n'um, ever, any time; as, si quamlo,- 
if ever, if at any time. 

QUANTOPEBE, adv.,. quanto-opero, how 
greatly, how much. TaQfopere— quantop 
greatly — as, as much — as. 

QUAXTUS, a, -um, cor. pron., Gr. §91; now 
great, how much, how important, as gri 
The neuter quantum is often followed of t If • 
partitive. gmitive, Gf ■ §134, Rem. 1. Qudnlo. 
abl., by how much. Quanta opere, see Qkanl- 
iViih (antus exprctsid or implied, ai 
gri at— as ; as much^-as, as far— as.. Qui 



adv., JlfivT, Rem. 3; as much ».■ 
as. 

QUANTUSVI.S, t'avis, tumvis. adj.. qua 
• ml vis froij 11 ], lease, lm^ 

jreat soever, ever so great, hi 

(.JUvtRE, conj. and adv., abl. ol 
»r interrogative, and res. by which i 
whereby; for which reason, on which account 
>vhorofore. why, ott account of which, on what 
account : as !-■... i five, g 210, so 

lhat on tin's account. 

QUARTUg, a, tun. num. adj., the fourth. 

'<\ \S(. :ij.. (uam-si, as if. as it were, just 
as if. 

QUATUQR, ind. num. adj.. tour. 
•tATUOKDi'-OIM. ind. num. adj., quatuor- 
decem, Forfrti 

QUE, . rkiitic conj., Gr. \ 223, and; que-et, it- 
fOi , both — b 

QUEMABMOt)! M; conj. and adv.. qu 

In ■ ner, in what way, hnw; a*. 

in whatever waj . like as just h ■-. 

QTJEROR, i, questua suin, dep. tr. and infer.' 
i ' i omplain aplain. 

QTJGSTUS, i. li'.u. part., quoror. 

QtTESTUS, us, i.. raeror, complain 

•Jlinll 

QUI, quae, quod, pro.reL (!r. |87; who, which, 
that, « 

UP; {168, )>) that, liy how much, the; quo mi- 

Rem, 3; 
that, in order that, n qui, as ohe wh 
iic, in;, much a ■ he. 

Q$tCUMQi id unique, 

i '1. pro. Ur. §87; qui--eumque, quisquo, whoso- 
evor, w!i i " i i-. wlii:-, ever, whatever. All who, 
fvery tug that, Ji vsudlly 

ttands ■ 

QU1I> 

QU/I).\M. qiiaedain, quoddum and quiddam, 
neon., ,■ 

■ 

Quil/EM, oonj , indeed, truly, in truth, e-r- 
iftinly. 
ted by the Itiri 

QDrDQufa) 

'ill I ES, eti ;. Cap- 

■ 

QUIA'Tl H, a, um, iur, huimus, adj., pari, of 

>, qoies, quieted, reduced to % stab- of 

' . calm, tian.juil. |" arcibl. . 

etiU, undisturbed, mot i< i 

i; ijui, 

' i ? that 

ut that, from 




* 269 

hi' no del i> io . 

n ipse situ irtrit- 

mittcd suicide. Quia cliam 



' llOIll plilu 

du from tin m 

■ 

w2 



out, iA<- . 



\ \M. Sec Quisnam. 
£K<.'ONX. uncis, in., quinquc and uncia, 
t\\ elfths of an as, the five spot's 
[I em, after the manner of 
the five points on dice, in quincunx ; as, $ * *. 
IDEOIM, ind. num.adj., tjulnque— dcconi 
fifteen. 
(JUINBTIAM. nc tjuin. 

(>t IXUKYI I. ac.a. num. adj., -de- 

cem, live hundred. 

QU/NI. in', a, num. adj., quinque, i .ch, 

live apiece, five at a tine. 

QTJINQUAGINTA, ind. num. adj., quinque-- 
ajnta, tiny. 

QUINQUE, iud. num. adj., live. 
(>i [NTUS, a, um, num. adj., qninqve, tht 
fifth. 
QU1NTUS, i, m., Quintns, a Romau preeno- 

QTJig or (Jul, quafe, quod or quid, intcrroga- 
i indefinite pro., Gr. g 88 sad 89; who? 

what? any one, any thing, any ; some- 
body, something, some. Ai quit, that no one, 
'■ [ui.i. Quid, what? why? 
,. ,iid r&iqui consilii, what other 
measures. 

QUISNAM and QU/NAM, quaenam, quoi»- 
iiiiiii and quidnam, interrogative prp u (Jr. \ 88, 
quia or qui — nam, who pr%y? which! what? 
what then? 

QUISPIA M, quaepiam, quodpiam and quid- 
piam, ii ine, any body 

I bing, some. 
;r.V?.i. quaoquam, quidquam or quis- 
I 
any. anything where ail Aw 

. tium. 
QUI3QUE, nsdque and quidque. 

[ae, every man, each, all, 

imum 

1. tb» 

I antiquity. 

quldquid <t quicquld, nd. pro., 
: ijui-qui. who: \. i, whatever. Quid- 

' I Bhips, i. n. all the ships 

. - indef. 

] 

ft every . 

i toy whither, 

i « 

•'Ulial. 



p: 



r\ 






270 



QUO MINUS— B£CTE. 



QUO MINUS or QUOMINUS, a 
l.indtrirtg, Gr'. 3193, 11 cm. 5; tlin 
for not, with the Englfah gerundive. 
QUO, abl. of Qui. See Qui. 
QUOAD, conj., quo-ad, as long as, whilst, to 
»ha* times, till, until, Gr. 2 207. 
QUOD, conj.. ace. of qui, Gr. §223, 4. in that, 
that, inasmuch as; since, because, that. 
•o nuod, because, for the rea- 
son. Quod si, Gr. §223, 
then, but if, if however. 
. s, but if not, unli 
iaret, as to his threat. 
qui, what, that which ; to 
as. 
., quom/or quum and jam, 
then, since, as. 
. also, likewise, tefo. 
, for quonquon/rom quisquit, 
t, whithersoever. Qnoquo ver- 
bis. See Quoquovercus. 

QCOQUOVEESUS, adv., quoquo-versus, eve- 
ry way, on every side, in every direction. 

QUOT, ind. cor. pro., Gr. £91, how many,' as 
many as: every. Tot — quot, as many — as. 
'Juot annis or quotannis, every year, yearly. 
QUOTANNIS. See Quot. 
QUOTIDI.-iNUS, a, urn, adj., quotidle. daily; 
bappening every day, ordinary, -common, usual. 
QUOTIDIE, adv., quot-dies, every day, daily, 
day by day. 
QUOTIES, adv., quot, how often ; as often as. 
QUUM and CUM, conj., Gr. §205; when, 
ile, since, as, because, seeing that, whereas. 
iiough. Quuni—tum. not only — but &lso, 
h — and. Quum primum, as soon as. 



B, 



UJDIX, icis, f., a root; radiator radiOesmon- 
s, the foot or base of a mountain. 

K^IDO, ere, si, sum, tr.. to scrape, rub 3mooth, 
shave, polish. 

EL4MUS, i, m., akin to radix, a branch, bough. 
a branch of a stag"s antlers. 

RAPIDITAS, aris, f.. rapidus, swift, rapio, 
.-.wiftness, velocity, rapidity. 

BAP/NA, ao, f., rapio, to carry oil', plunder- 
ing, robbery, rapine, pillage, depredation. 

K.4RUS, a, um, adj., having wide intervals 
I .etweeu its parts, not dense, rare, thin, light ; 
,'-w, uncommon, unfrequent, wide apart, scat- 
toied here and there, rare. liari, in small par- 
ties, here and there, scattered, single. 

RJlSUS,a, sum, part., rado, scraped, smoothed, 
1 i dished, shaved. 

RATIO, onis. f., rcor, a reckoning, account, 

lation, computation; a matter of business,. 

;i transaction; icverence, regard, consideration, 

concern, respect ; a method, mode, system ; a 

m heme, plan; artifice, trick, stratagem; man- 



tier, way, arrangement, disposition, cider; the 
Jpeasoni:ig faculty, reason ; a reason, cause, mo- 
tive. Ratio belli, the science' of wtr, military 
tactics. Habere ratiotiem a'icijm rei, to re- 
gard — care for — be concerned about, i 5 ,; ru- 
tior.c. therefore. Ratio dt.que issw belli, the art 
and practice of war. 

RATIS, is, f., pieces of timber pinned 
er ; a float, ii 

It^tTUS, a, urn, part, and adj., rcor, thinking, 
deeming, judging, believing, supposing: pas- 
sively, thought -over, hence, established, fixed, 
determined. 

RAURACI, orum, m., the Rauraci, a people 
of Gaul, on the northern extremity of Mt. Jura: 
1,5. 

REBELLIO, onis, f., rcbollnm, a renewal of 
war by the conquered party, a rebellion, revolt, 
insurrection. 

REBILUS, i, m. (C. Caninius,) ouo of Ce- 
sar's lieutenants in Gaul : VII, S3. ' 

RECEDO, ere, cessi, cessuin, intr., re-cedoj to 
give back, fall back, retire; withdraw, retreat, 
recede, depart. 

RECENS, tis, adj., that has not lung existed, 
new, fresh, newly done or made, recent; fresh, J 
not tired or fatigued ; raw, inexperienced. 

RECENSEO, ere, sui, sum and si'tum, tr., re- 
censeo, to count over from the beginning ; to 
review, survey, muster ; to count, enumerate, 
number, tell. 

' KECEPTACULUM, i, n., recepto, to re 
recipio, a place to receive or keep things in, a 
storehouse, magazine, receptacle : A place oi're- 
: re.it, shelter. 

RSCEPTUS, us, m., recii> . ng. , 

treat, tho power of retreating; a refuge, p.. 
of refuge. Habere receptum ad aliC[Uf,jn, to li- 
able to retreat to or fail back upon. Reeeptui 
cunere, to give the signal for a retreat ; to sound 
a re treat. 

RECEPTUS, a, um, part., resipio, received. 

RECES.5US, us. m., roc edo, a going bad 
. retiring, reti'eat. 

RECIDO, ere. idi. casum, intr., re-cadi 
fall back, recoil. With dd or in, to come to, 
fall upon, befall. 

RECIPIO, ere, cepi, ceptum, tr., re-capio, to 
take again, get back, retake, regain, recover, 
receive'. Reciperc or recipere se, to betake one'* , 
self, retreat, withdraw, retire, return, come back; 
also, to recover one's seif, recover, recover one's 
strength. To admit of, allow, suffer; to take 
!,;>'. :c's self, admit or receive into. 

RECITO, are, avi, aturn, tr. and intr., re-cito, 
to recite, read out, read aloud. 

RECLIN-1TUS, a, um. part., reel; no. 

RECL/NO, are. avi, aturn, tr., re-clino, to 
bend, to lean or rest on, be::d back, red: 

RECTE, siv., rectus, directly, in a . 






linn; rightly, pi pc •: ■ dul 
safety. 

"I-/"' 

(perpi .. 

regit.*' 

g\ 
river Danube, .■'. . 

H !■'.'. I '! EKO,jxri . :ivi. ntum, tr., re 

11 Br. 
UECrso, ;uc. .wi, atum. intr. and tt\. ro- 
nusa, to mal ;k<<:, de- 

Sony, reject, object . innka oppo ition to, 
be uuwilling or reluctant; to make a defence 
in- excuse. Wits eti refuse 

Hi 
REDACT! S, a, in 
brought. 

REDDITUS, a. um.part., r.-.lilo. resto 
dored. 

i:i:i)l>o. are, tr., ro-do, 

back, restore, return . togivo up, hm, 
deliver; to make, i 

tmpense. .' administer ju 

. . . m, i. part., i odimo 

REDEO, ire, ii, itum, iuti return, 

to 1"' 

I i I . .11, 

compel ; to bring, 

REDIMi y • ' •: , in 

pttTcha , farm. 

iptegro, 

: to re- 
. ..-. begin, i • ■ fill up, 

iempl 

turn. 
B KuffCO, i • bring 

. to draw 

..fi', K 111, ill ;i\. . 

' irlit vr 

W n. 

I 

wed. 

ii. latum, \: i 

. retui 

i 




271 

id 

:', rruil,..- :i;i;i' ■ 
■ 

RKFRlNtJO, p:v. x % \ to 

l< i:i. 
" ill QIO, cro,f 
k w away, ru 
ape. 
I NUS. i, in . (C. Anti 
i - lioutenant.i in Gaul : VI, 
a straight 1 
d action; a ri laud 

country, district. 8 regirme, over agaii op- 
p ; 

EBS&IUS^a, um, adj., rex, of or like a king, 
kingly, rival, princely, n 

RfiON i. ere, av ; , 
num. t,' reign, i ) 

' '. .M. i. nv. i -." al power, I 
or government, ompii 

r, kingdom. 
i, ere, xi, stum, tr., t i keep straight, 
direct; iway, 
control, g ivi'ii. rule. 
REG11EDU ' 

.i cturu. 

iTUS, a. inn, port'., i 

tr., 
Mag back, throtv in return ; t ■ 

back, 1 

ject wil 

;:i.i..ri i'.v a, am, part!, n 

REL£00, are, avi. atliw 

RELK 
hind, U-rt. 

RELIGIO, 
1\ . tin' careful | 

or reUfo, to bind back, m iral obligati m\) t!if 
fear of G 




- 

IlELIQUI/E— REQUIRO. 



cum, V.,- faints, wwoans. Relin juilur, 
ith ut, it remains, the result is. 
RELIQUIiE, arum, f., reliquus, the, l.-iv- 
■lics; the remainder, 

relinquo, Gr. $128, 

■st ; the residue, the 

er flight. Reliquus. 

•■. Reliquum, i. n., 

. Reliqui, the rest. 

It, nothing is left, 

Facere reliquum, 

In reliquum tem- 

e future. .Vi>»7 ad celerilatem sibi 

Iieir utmost speed, 

- r iwer. 

minsum, intr.. ro- 

remain, continue, 

ldure, remain. 

or, remedy, cure. 

remus-ago, a rower. Re- 

migis instituere, to collect rowers. 

REMIGO, are, avi, atum, intr., remix, to row, 
be a rower. 

REM1GRO, are, avi, atum, intr., re-migro, to 
remove, to go hack. romoTO back, return. 

REMINISCOR, i, dep. intr. sChd'tr., {root 
sten, whence' mens, inemini,) to remember, call 
to mind, recollect. 

REMISSUS, a, urn, part, and adj., sent hack 
'like, a bow when unstrung;) let loose; relax- 
ed, languid; careless, remiss. Frigora remis- 
siora, the cold is less, intense, the winters are 
less severe. 

REMITTO, ere. m?'si, missum, tr., re-niitto, 
to send back, let go back, return; to throw or 
oast back ; to slacken, let loose, relax; to remit, 
abate, make an abatement, dispense with ; fo 
■jive back, restore ; to leave off, intermit, cease, 
giv£ oveu omit. Rcmittcrc de aliqua re., to les- 
sen, slacl en, abate any thing. 

REMOLLESCO, ere, intr., rc-raollesco, to 
■jrvu soft, mollis ; to grow or become soft, bo 
mollified; to become effeminate, become feeble 
»r enervated. 

REMOTUS, a, urn. part, and adj., removeo, 
removed, withdrawn , remote, distant, afar off, 
retired. 

REMOVEO, ere, movi, motum, tr., ro-movco, 
to move back, draw-back, take away, set aside ; 
to remove, withdraw, draw off, drive away. 

REMUNEROR, ari, atus sum, dep. tr., .re- 
muueror, munus, to remunerate, reward., re- 
quite, recompense, return a kindness. 
R.EMUS, i. m., an oar. 

R.EMUS. i,,m., a Remian, one/of the Remi: 
il, 6. Remi, orum,m., the Remi, a peoplo of 
BelgicGaul: II, 3. 

_ RENOVO, arc avi, stum, tr., re-nuvo, novus, 
'» remake, r*mew, restore. 
' RENUNTIATUS, a, un\. part., renuncio. 



11EXUNTIO, are, avi, atum, tr., re-nuntio, 
to bring or carry word back ; to report, declare; 
announce, give notice; to proclaim, publish offi- 
cially. Itenuntiatur, it is reported, word il 
brought. 

REl'ELLO, ere, puli, pulsuin, tr., re-pello, to 
drivo or beat back, repel, repulse, drive or turn, 
away, keep off. 

REPENTE, adv., ropens, sudden, repo. to 
crap, suddenly, on a sudden, unawares. 

REPENT/NU8, a, lira, adj., repens, sudden, 
unlooked for, unexpected,. sudden. 

REPEUIO, ire, peri, perfum, tr., r^-par.io. to 
find, meet with, find out, discover (either by 
searching or accident;) to perceive, observe, as- 
-certain, learn, see ; to inVcnt, contrive, Revise ; 
to find, .gain, acquire, procure. 

REPERTUS, a, urn, part , reperio, found, 
found out, discovered. 

REPETO, ere, ?'vi, t'tum, tr., re-peto, to ask or 
apply for again ; to demand again ; to demand 
back,' claim the payment of a debt. Repctere 
poenas ab aliquo, to exact satisfaction from one, 
inflict punishment on one, punish one. 

REPLEO, ere. evi. ctum, tr., re-pleo, obs., to 
refill, replenish, fill up; to restore, refresh ; to 
furnish, supply, make up for. 

REPLiJTUS, a, um, part? and adj., repleo, 
filled, filled up, replenished, full, provided, fur- 
nished, abundantly supplied. 

REPORTO, are, avi, atum, tr., re-porto. t<> 
bring or carry back. 

jREPOSCO, ore, tr., re-posco, to demand 
back, claim; to demand, ask, exact, require. 
Rationem a!> ' , poscere, to' demand a 

reckoning of one, call one to an account. 

REPR-iESENTO, are, avi, atiym, tr., ro-prie- 
sento, to present, prsesens, to represent, lay be- 
fore one; to jay on the spot ; to do before the 
time; to do immediately ,.do or execute with- 
out delary 

REPREHENDO, ere. di, sum. tr., re-prehen- 
do, to hold back, hold fast ; to ca;cli again, lay 
hold of, seize ; to reprove, blame', censure, it- 
buke, find fault with. 
REPRESSUS, a, 11:11, part., reprimoj 
REPRIMO, ere. pressi, prossuni, tr. ie-prenio, 
to press back, keep back, repress, check, re- 
strain, curb, confine, stop, hinder, prevent. 

REPUDIO, are, avi, alum, tr., repudium, « 
divorce, pudet, to cast off, put away, divorce \ 
to reject, refuse, cast off, disown, scorn, disdain. 
repudiate, 

REPUGNO, are, avi. atum, intr., re-pugno, 
to fight'back, fight against, make a resistant-*-, 
resist, oppose, contend against. 
REPULI, etc. See Repello. 
REPULSUS, a, um, part., ropello, dri , 
beaten back, repelled, driven away. . Ab spt 
repulsus, deprived of a hope, disappointed. 
REliUiRO.'ere, siivj-and sii, situm, tr.. i-v- 






RES— HOB UR. 



jucero, to Beek agai r, search 

■ to sock to know, ask or inquire after, to 
nd, 1'1,-nirr, Deed. t'> niifi.-*. look in Tain 

RES, fei, i'.. roor. what 1st! ■ thing, 

mat ter, conci rn ; Riot, reality, truth, 
(«ed, e ico, circumstance, net, meas- 

ure, BUbject, pnrpoe ; . condi- 

tion, situation; interest* ind, rea- 

innn ilitv. Rtx mili- 

■'is rib us, in the ci ti. a] con- 

iix i 'a r .< i •/, my ( i •> :oi n is w iili tho 

'I \ ::i ', ere, idi, issum. ti i ■ :iniio, to 
rut Off, out lo ISO, cut 07 bri 

i > annul, di 

i ii, Itiun, tr. inc., 

■ 

• i ;.. Bl 

IK/BO, . iv. , -,. ptiim, tr., rc-scr 
back or in return, reply by writing, write 
word back, write again ; to oni ill anew, t> re- 
eulisf. Rescriben insfer Boldion 

.inch of sen ■ lior. fie> 

fuum, to trai • valry. 

rUS, a, urn, i 

i strain; 

- 
naiu Bit tin,;: i 

RE! 

down, - i 
iim, bi 
;:r>i-. j 
ping 

I ding. 

■ 
ktand, resist, hold out, ti Id oo1 .■_ ist, make 

tr. apd intr.. 
book nnon ; I 
RESPOND] 

RKSIM I'.l I ' 

r 



republic, government : politics, public 

RESPFO, etc, ui, tr., re-spno, to pit, to *pit 
out, reject, repel, refuse, disapprovi . spurn. 

RESTINCTCS, a,um,par1 quench 

od, extinguished. Ik 

RE3TINGUO, ere,nxi, nctr.m, tr., n-stfn^io. 

aguish, quench, put 
RE3TITI, itato. 

■ oro, in. u\ ir i 
-it up again, to replace a thing in it- I 

n. restore to ' 
pair, rebuild, renew ; to reinstate, u; -, »i\e 

PracKum or pwjnam 
restore tho fight. 

i iTTTi:.-. a, 
co 1. repaired; reston d, renewed. 

RETENTUS, ■•>. uin, part., rctim 
retained, detained. 

Kl'.'i IN'.: '. i ■• oin, tr., re- - .' 

•ii ild or keep back, not 1( ; go, stop, detatn, hin- 
der : tu retain, keop, 

in check, repress. .'. ri quin epi\jiccrtnt, 
to be restrained Grom throwing. 

KETT.MI i, (tun), tr., re-traho, to 

draw nr jiull back, with Ii btfck by 

fftce. drag bark. 
RETUIil 

KK\ KI.l.O, ere, velli. vul.-um, t;.. re-Vcllo, (c 
,:\\ iv. pull or tear ofT, pull 
Up, tear Up. 

ii... 
. tr. nil intr., aud 
. -u- sum, dep. intr., re-vet to, to 
turn back; to come back, return. 
REV! NCIO, ire, vlnxi, vinctum, tr.,ri 

fast, fasten. 
RKVINCT1 - 
REVOCiTtTS, ; . ui i, pari . i ■ 

RETl ■ 

ill : tu withd 

, iroign, mon- 

l;ll fc'Di in lag'- with 

fonr wh< . . 

K1IKI>''N !'..-. urn. ;-.i . i 

i i ne ric tribes 

i ■ 

'. 1. 

' 
', 1. 

i.; i ■ • 
i:/\ i .- 






ROGATUS— SATIS. 



heart of oak. 'Fig. strength of body, robust- 
ness, vigor, haMibood. 
ROGATUS. a, um, part.,' rogo. 
ROGO, are avi, atum, ti\. to ask. interrogate 
*Qp;re. request, demand, inquire. Edgar: mili- 
s-k soldiers whether tkey will 
atk, to administer t,. .them 
. to enlist eoldiPts. 
..me. 

u, adj., (Roma,) o'.'..r belong- 
n. Romanits. i", mJ u Bo- 
■ m, ra.pl., the Romans. 
L.) Roscius. >n of I ' 

. tlic snout or 

. the beak rr b:!i of a bird ; 

I he prow of an 

acta! for the 

ito an enemj ' 

el. 

bramble or blackberry 

■ 

RCTFUS, i, m. Rufus or the Red, a very com- 
mon surname among the Romans. See Sulpicius. 

RrMOR, oris, ra , r.umo, 
"oer again, a repeated saying or Idling : hence, 
* rumor, popular report ; fame, common report. 

■RrrES, is. f., a rock. crag, cliff. 

BUBStTS, adv., re-versas, backward; again 
on the other hand, on the contrary : in mrn: 
again, a second time, afresh, 

RUTi'NI, orum. m,, the Ruteni, a peoplo of 
Celtic Gaul, a part of whom were included i:i 
ike Roman province, and were thence 
" ialcs : I, 4o. 

HUTILUS, i, m.. the Red jnomen, 

Rulilus, (m. Semproniiis.) an offl 
VII. 00. 



S 



S. T. R. and S. P. Q. R.. abbreviati 

man people, and oi Senatus p-pulu.- 
■ :. the Senate and Roman people. 
SABltCOS, i. m. irius 

• SABL-. i- m. Gr, §33, Rem. 1, 
a river of Gallia Belgica : II, 16. 
- . 

pile; I 

SACRAMESTUM, i. n., s'acro, to consecrate. 

crated tbing ; the engagement made by 

1 troops, followed by the military 

oath, jutjurandum; then the military oath itself. 

SACRIFIC1UM, i, n., sacrificii , 
ncer-facio, a :>acriiice. 

S.X;' !ten; ire- 

quently, man parotide s.ncpius 

for ike positive. Minimi 
atly. very rarely. 



S.EPENUMERO, adv.. saepe-numero, often, 
frequently, oftentimes. 

S.KVIO. ire, ii, itum. hitr.. s.tvus, to rage, [>e 
fierce or cruel, be violent. 

SAGITTA, ae. f.', an arrow. 

SAGITTARIUS, i. m.. sa^ltta, an archer, bow- 
man. , • 

SAGULUM, ;. ri. dim., sagum, a soldier!* 
cloak, a soldier's cloak or blanket. 

SAIiTUS, us. m.. salio, a leaping, leap, jump. 

SALTUS, us. m., a wood, thicket. 

SALUM, i, n., sal, salt, the sea; the deep.. 

SALUS, wtis, f.. salvus, safe, safety, pr< 
tion. health, welfare. 

SAMAROBR/YA, ae, f. Samarobriva, a city 
of the Ambiani in Belgic Gaul : V, 2i. 

SANCIG, ire, <vi, or xi, cttum and etum, tr., 
(root sac o/saeer.) to decree, ordain, establish, 
make sacred or inviolable ; to approve, confirm, 
ratify, enforce. 

SANCTUS, a. um. part, and adj., sancio, de- 
creed, established ; held sacred or inviolable, 
holy, divine, sacred. Sanclitm habere, to have 
appointed as sacred or inviolable, to have de- 
creed, fixed, established, ordained. 

SANGUIS, inis, m., blood. 

SANITAS, otis, f., ssnus, soundness of body. 
health; soundness of niind, one's right mind, 
sound judgment, good sense, reason, sanity. 

SAXO, are. avi, atum.tr.. samis, to heal, core, 
restore to health. Fig. to heal, cure, repair, 
correct, make up for. 

SANTO\ES,Jim, and SANTONI, orum, the 
pi :<plo of Gallia Celtica : 1, 11. 

S4NU8, a, um, adj., sound in booy, in health, 
healthy, i I in mind, saw 

.discreet. Prt sano fycere uliquiJ, to 
act like a sober or sane man, wisely, discreetly. 

SANXI. See Sancio. 

SAPfO, ere, t'vi, n., fa have a taste or relish: 
1 > have good taste; to have sense or discern- 
ment, to understand, s,ju Igc rightly; to 
know, .find out. 

[NA, ae, f., sarcio, a bundle, burden, 
load, pack ; baggage carried on the back, a 

k. Legionen 
attack a legion with their knapsacks on. 

SARCIO, i're, .-;a.,i. sai turn, tr., to meed, re- 
pair: to make good* make, amends for, com- 
peusate. repair, make up for, retrieve 1 . 

SARMENTUM, i, n., (Jar sarpimen turn from 
surj ■■>. '■- prune.) a twig, cutting of a vine; 
brushwood, fascines. 

SATIS, indecl. adj.. 3*dbs. and adv., enough, 
sufficient; sufficiently, enough, well enough: " 
tolerably, moderately. Satii -pportune, quite 
i its, pretty large 
, better, more useful or advantage 
.ous. Satiui est, it 'fit 1 ''ere, to be . 

contented or satisfied ; also, to Aeom sufficient.. 
en nigh, sufficient reo- 



S vTISFACIO— SEMEN'fl! 



SATISFACIO, ere, feci, iaHunvt... satis-faoio, 

give satisfaction, satisfy, to make amends, 
nake reparation"; t . > .- 1 ik having 

ivon offenco, uiiiki' an apology, excuse one's 
elf. 

SATISFACTIO. onis, i'., satisfaoi ... n satlsfao 
ion ; amends, reparation; an excuse; plea, 
ipology. 

BAUOnJS, a, imi, adj., wottnded, hurt. 

SAXTJM, i, n., a rock, a large stone, a ■' 
id fragment of rock. 

SC.iE.E. arum, f., aid ladder, stair, a 
waling ladder, ladders. 

SCALDIS, is. in., tlio Scln Idt. a rivci 
la Bolg ca: TI. 

SCAPHA, ;; . f., a -!.in. 

SCKl.i'i;.:'! rs. a, um, i 
lollntcd, wicked, bad, imj i 

..i] : - aci ursed. 

8CELUS, oris, n . . 

crime, enormity. 

80] K" VIA. 

skill, exportn. 

SClSDI 1, ere, scid 
■end, break asunder, soparate by fori e split, 
livid.-; t.> overthrow, d roy, 

BCIO, ire, ivi and ii. (turn, tr.. t'i know, nn- 

. ; know '■■"'• * ■ 

• ; . b« snr- 
irised, 

i i.'.S. i. in., a ,'iv.;. 
V. crag. 
R.PIO, onis, in 

S( 'i' ! " • I, ptnm, i. .. to mark; to 

write. . to make, draw np 

■ 
oerb writt,) to write t >, intimate tn ■■ iihmand 
by letter. 

SCUOBIS and SCRQBS, bis, m.l 
pit) trench 

BO0TUM, i, n.. ■• sbJi Id 

■v.i i 1 with leather. 

SE, etc. SceSui. 

8JPBUM or S£VTJM,1, n., tftUov 

BECIU8. SeeSccns. 

SECliCDO, ere, si. sum, tr., s^claud... I 
Apart, shut out, eclud. . i 
der. 

BECLOTBXty, a, um. part . Inded, 

thai oat, separated) rw 

SI'.CO, are, eui, ctnm, rarely secatum, tr., to 
out, cat off or asunder. 

SECR/JTO, adv., seer'tus. nparate, 
rnt.ly, apart ; Feeretly, privily, in 
I i TI. i. ..ii is. {.. wf>co, a cutting, divil 
goodf retailing; tana booty to bo divided, booty 
^•longing t. . the state. Hpoiln. 
AaSECTOK. »ri. atu.s Hum. 1 ■. | nor, to 



f..l!..v,' eagerly, foil i\i after, atten I, 
to i base, pursue, strive after. 

SECT OH A, a... f., s, eo, a cutting, th ■ 
cutting: a place where anyth ^..i.to 

uEraria ^** 

SEC1". 

I. <f secundum, so. | 

1 lillK . 
DU2 

QUOr,) I (llqv Ji, neawjliw 

to, next : ah ng by : bH.'Va. 

the river. 



'•- 






SEC! (gerundive 

quor,) 

■ 
. down the river. 

' I 

' . i ' i - \ 
with tin 

ingfnev. ,.|| th t, still. 

SEC VI ,S a. in i, ;•;. 

ll 

SKDJ l, uu.n.adj. . 

■ 
..ii ; a Boat, ' 
spttlem ■ . . 

I 
Bension 
or insurrection; .!■ • 

BKDITlOSUS, a. um, adj, sedK 
ti-.:i. turbnlc ■ 

able. ' 

BEDULIUS, i. m. fc'edulin al and 

L 
SEH' M. oram, . 
- 
bank of the Rhone: III. 1. 

SBDDSII, .Mini. ii.v. the ledusi 
Germany : 1 

BJiOES, etis. 1, a rorn-fleld; standing corn, 
growing OOrn : a en p. 

lia Belgica : \ f. 82, 

Kent : V. 28, 

SEQONTIaC: uaci. .1 

]ic.>lil«. of liiitain: V. 21. 

dlla Celtics: 
SEME I 

rmrl, wlieu 01 
soon as. 

tarrf, »ero, a a 



SEMITA— SI. 



tes quam maxima.* facer&&o sow as mucft 
us possible. 
" ] ' " ! 1 T A . ao. f.. se-eo or semi-iter, a narrow 
ith. 
v -, forever, continually. 
lempronius, a Roman 
is. 
icx. a senator, mem- 

•x, a senate;, the sen- 

M, i, n. orsenatoaxon- 
or decree of the senate. 

Id, aged, advanced in 

n or woman. 

., sex, sis each, six. 
he Senonesl, a people of 

town was Agendicurn, 
Denes, or after the OreeJc 

SENTENTIA, at-, ;., sentio, opinion, judg- 
tnent, resolution, mind, purpose, intention, will; 
an expression of opinion, a vote, sentence, judg- 
ment , purport or substance of what is said. 
'7 , ntentiam, to give one's opinion. In 
itia permanere, to remain in, persist in, a- 
Hide by one's opinion. Dicere in earn sententiam, 
to speak to this purport or effect. 

SENTIO, ire, sensi, s'ensum, tr., to discern by 
the .-'uses, be sensible of, perceive, feel ; to un- 
derstand, perceive, find out, know, be sensible 
oraWre; to experience, prove; to think, judge, 
imagine', suppose, entertain an opinion or senti- 
ment. Idem sentire, to be of the same opinion. 

SENTIS, is, m., a brier, bramble, thorn. 

SEPARvlTIM, adv., separo, separately, apart, 
severally. 

SEPAJMTUS, a, um, adj. and part,, separo, 
separate, distinct, particular. 

SEPARO, are, avi, atum, tr., so, apart and 
paro, to sever, separate, part, disjoin, divide. 

SEPES, is, f., a hedge. 

SEPTEM, ind. num. adj., seven. 

SEPTEMTRT ONES,um,pl. m. septem-triones, 
the seven plough-oxen, the seven stars which 
form the constellation called Arctos, the Bear, 
Charles's Wain ; also, the North Pole, the North. 
Sub ieptemtrionibus. in tho northern regions, in 
a high northern latitude. A septemtrionibus 
on the north. . , 

SEPTIMUS, a. um, num. adj., 6cptem, the 
seventh. 

SEPTINGENTI, ac, a, num. adj. septem-een- 
tum, seven hundred. 

SEPTAGINTA, indecl. num. adj., seventy. 

SEPULTJ7RA, ae, f., sepelio, to bury, the act 
of burying; burial, interment, sepulture; a 
funeral ; funeral rites, obsequies. 

SEQUANA, ae, in., the Seine, a river of 
France : I, 1. 

SEQUANUS, a. nm, adj., of the Sequani. Se- 



quauian. Subs.., a Sequanian. Sequani, 
m,, thp. Sequani, a people of Gaul living along 
the Seine and sejn rated from tile Hclvetii I 
Mr. Jura : I, 1. 

SEQTJOR, i, ctttus sum, dep. tr., to gynr con- 
after, follow, attend, wait upon : to :>eek for. 
rfeek in attain, pursue, court; to appreve, agre. 
with; to happen, fall out, occur. 

SERMO, onis, m., eero, to connect, common 
discourse, talk, speech, conversation. 

SERO, serin- scrissime, adv., scrus, late', U«> 
late. 

SKI! \ ate, si ", i, satum, tr., to sow, plant. 

SERTOIUUS. i. m. (Q.) a Roman general 
/III, 20. 

SERV/LIS, i-. adj.,servu3, of or pertaining to 
a slave, servile. .'■' ri'ilis tumultus, the servil 
war, au insurrection of slaves, under Sparticun. 
In madum servil cm, after the manner of or lik* 
slaves. 

SERVIO, fro ivi, 'mm. intr.. servus, to be 
slave, serve, obey, be subservient to, have r - 
gard to, pay attention to, devote one's self to. 

S !•'!'. Y 1TUS. utis,£, servus. slavery, servil ud 
e subjection. 

SERflTlUS, i, m. Sorvius, a Roman pr»f 
riomen. See Gallia. 

SERVO, are. avi, atum, tr.. to save deliver, 
keep unharmed, protect, preserve; to obsorv i, 
keep, maintain, uind, hoed : to guard, watc 
observe. Survmfi fidem,, to perform one's proi 
ise, keep die's word. 

SERVUS, i hi., a slave, b mdman, servant. 

SESE. See Sui. 

SESQUIPED^lIS, c adj.. sesqui, half . 
v.n/i.'.'i, .and pedalis, pes, of a foot and a halt 
Lij/nrt sesquyspejdalia, piles or posts a foot and - 
half thick or Bquare. 

SESUTII, orum, ra., the Sesuvii, a people pi 
Gallia Celtica : II, 34. 

SEC, couj., sive, whether Seu — seu or, Si1 
whether — or; implying do«W, either — or: I.;' 

SEVERITAS, atis, f., sevcrus, severe* gravitr. 
sternness, seriousness, severity, harshness, rigi I - 
strictness. 

S.EYUM, i, n. See Sebum. 

SEYOCO, are, avi, atum, tr., t% apart a 
voco, to call apart or aside, take or draw aaid*. 
take to one side. 

SEX, ind. num. adj , six. 
SEXACrlNTA, ind. num. adj' sex, sixty. 

SEXCENTI, ae, a, num. adj., sex-centum, s - 
hundred. 

SEXDECIM or SEDECIM. ind. num. adj.. 
sex-decem, sixteen. 

SEXTIUS, i, m. Sextius. SeeBaculus; «£.-■ 
T. Sextius, one of Ca;sar's lieutenants : VI, 1. • 

SI, conj., if, whether, il perchance. # Si quo 
if an j r , if any one, whoever. Siinodo, if onl. 
provided. Si quo, if any whither, if any plate, 
Si quanda, if at any time. Before si, whethc 






tllBI-SIVE. 



after tiopestfl, cstpiriori 4c, wo must in English 
supply to MS, ' i;. ■•'■i.rtuiii, nr the like. 

SIBI. Sue Sui. 

SIBUZ^TES, inn aiid'inm, in., the Sibuzati , 
.; people of A^ujtnuiH : til, 27. 

y iC,- adv., ipi'uuociial root i,) so, thus, iii such 
a manner, to such b degree > ■"■; ui. ^o that, 
so as. 

SiCAMBKI, oruiu, m., the Sicambri, a pow- 
erful German people) livir: ; near the l.'bij: !Y, 
16. 

SICC1TAS, utis, f., siccus dry, dryntsa, want 
of moieture; drought, dry weather, want of rain. 

SICl'T, '•■■!,;.. fir-iit. just as, as, as it were, 
like. 

SICUXI, coin;., sic -iiti. See Sicut. 

S./DUS, eris, d , a constellation; star. 

8IGAMMU, or SUGA&tfiRI, or SICAMBKI, 
.•mm. ta, Bee Si :imi>ri. 

SItJXIFliH, era, erum, adj., slgnum-fero, 
boaring a sign . /• image. Subs, a standard- 
bearer, ousign. 

SlGNltflCATIS, onis, i.. aignifico, a pointing 
out, indication, signification, intimation, declar- 
ation, expression, inaik, sign, token. Xymji- 
oalione Jtti-ti, notice being given. 

SlliXltjC. >. ai 6, avi.atum, tciignum- facio, 
to make sign.-; to give notice, signiiy, indicate, 

mtiniate, show, declare, express ; to gi»e prool 
or evidence, b/ignificulur, imp., pro .1 i 

an intimation is afforded. 

blij.M M, i, n.. a mm k, token, sign; a statue, 
image; a signal; a watch-word, Htgnurn miii- 
signum, a standard, banner, Sag; 
by uiUiiiyioy. troops, lore-.-. C.nj'ri. .; yiia in 
WittM locum, to Unite the standard.-., concentrate 
the forces, i'-rri: ttym <. t ■ bear <,r advance the 

slaudaids, to march. Oare su/mbm, to give a 
■dguai, to give the signal fol battle. 

biL <N't S, i. in. IM.J Silanus, one ofCmsar's 
lieutenants : VI, 1. 

.- . i..... l 1 1 M, i. ii., sileo, to be siluit, a being 
silent; silence, quietneae. ijUentity ubl., in si- 

lllice. BlieiltiV. 

BXlalUS, i, in. (T.) Silins. r\ man i nt by Cas- 
par to the Vein ti to obtain supplies: 111, 7. 

BJ i/VA, au, t, a wood, toiest. 

SfLVEST^H and MM r.MulS, e, adj., silva, 
in a «ooi! ui :■■: •-., woody, wooded. 

8IMII.1X • . i iike. iirii milling, similar. 

SIMI i.l i i. DO, mis, I., mollis, Ilk Hum, re- 
semblance, suuilaiity. 

M Mt.L, adv., similis, together, ut once; at 
the sau.o lime ; as soon as, as soon as ever. — 
.fimul— nmul, not— only, hut— also, both— and. 
•S«mttl uc or cbjur, as soon as. 

BlMtLAChl M, i, n. aiiuulo, a likeness, form, 
image, picture, flguic ; an < tog), statue. 

8iJ4ULATQLE. See Wft 

SI Ml I.A'l lo, onis, f., siuiulo, a pre t">ndnifc to 
h« a bat one is Dot; ton: I teeming, 



guise 



feigning, a pretence, feint, disguise, deceit; 
imitation, false or assumed appearance, insin- 
cerity, hypocrisy. &'ni«iu(to Uineris, pre- 
tence of pursuing a journey. %l 

S1MUI..ITU.S, ii, ii m, part., simAh^jji^lcnd. 
ed, feigned. SimulaUi euniaUui, nnde 
Of friendship. 

SIMULA*, ore, avi, atnm, tr., atmilis, to make 
like, to imitate; to pretend a thing to be whai 
it is not : I p foign, pretend, coiiutanfcit. assume 
falsely, simulate . ' ^\ 

S1MULTAS, utis. 1.. simul, UI aev\< 
the same tiling by two part es a i -am 
/'cmv, rivalry, contention, jculoiw* 
malice nr enmity. ret gi udge, dfUPHJNKha- 
tied, enmity, hatred, aiiiinoMly. 

BIN, coio;., si-nc, but if, if however, .si,, 
autrtn, but if. 

SIXCA'KE, adV., sinccrus, sincere, siti-cera — 
as of honey without wttx; uprightly, honestly, 
sincerely, plainly, frankly, iiigci,uoii»,y. 

S1.\E. prep with aid., without. 

BIXG1LLATIM. See Singulatim. 

SIX JUL. IK IS, o, adj., siagulus, one at a time 
lone, solitary, only, a nglo, Beparato; singular. 
excellent, matciiiev-.. remarkable, extraordinc 
ry. Ubi tinyplaret cgredunte* cvuipcxcmnt, 
disembarking one ai a time, single individuals 
disembarking. 

8IMJLL.1T1M, adv., Biugulnsj one by one, 
singly, iudiv, dually, severally 

SliSGOLUS, a. urn, num. adj., (ir. gG^ ; {used, 
by Cx.;ur only in pi. ) .-ingle separate, I 
ore se, arate From another; onebyone,eai 
ery, one at a time, individual ; unedistubuure- 
ly, one to each, in u)i?i«» tiliffuios, yearly, an- 
nually. SinyuUctiut 

sinyuli siiiyuUit Uejfiytrani, whom they had se- 
lected Individually, every man "MleoUugj on.-. 
l-.T cjp.ii-.., / pita .inyutu Uutnb- 

uit, one to each soldier through the wnole army. 
ISTaH, tra, tru yy uncertain,) 

■ the iult. F,y. siuiM- i, unlucky, ad- 
itrary, hurnul, poi u 

:■,-. the Irii 
Ira, at the left, on I 

MX l - -versus, to- 

the left hand, to .ho left. 

BINO, ere, sivi, sit urn tr., to pot or set down; 
to permit, suffer, aU< w, give mm i 

. k i (jUA.xi^i, il < m i . H »; MJ tune. 

Siyb'li and S1({U1, skjux, i njuwd and siquio, 

wwiy n gnu, (si sun mde/intU <i"".) 

Or. 4 Si»; il u,,\ oue, il any , m Ins ■ 

.Si </ou tc. lalfiiir ..r pal '■• II in any way or bj 

any mean*) 11 perhaps, if perchance, if anj 

M duo, it «".»• whltber, il i • auy place. 
BITUi • • j.1 po 

til 1011. 

!-l \T. ion . ,i ' . K.ibT 



278 



give — sive or .»ii, whether — or, I 
doubt t'.< implied. 



SOCER— STABIL1TAS. 



ler — or uhtn' 



80CER. 



m., a father-in-law. 



nersbip, as- 
followship ; 
alliance. 
ted, associa- 
e; an ally. 



If.,) comfort, 

Gallic re- 
vice of some 



- accustomed 



ited to the 

, loneliness, 
•:o; a desert, 
wilder 

SOLLERTIA, ae. f., (sollers, sollus-totus, and 
ars.) ingenuity, sagacity, quickness, shrewdness, 
skill, dexterity. 

SOLLICITATIO, onis, f., sollicito, an exciting, 
instigating ; a soliciting, tempting, importun- 
ing ; instigation. Sollicitationibus periclihiru 

ifind by trial. 

SOLLlClTylTUS, a, «m, part., sollicito, 
moved, tempted, instigated. 

SOLLICITO, are, avi, atum, tr., sollns, the 
voluile, and cito, to move violently, stir, shake, 
agitate ; to allure, eatice, invite, to tempt, in- 
stigate, stir up, urge on. 

SOLLICITUDO, inis, f., (sollicitus, anxious, 
sollers-totuB, and citus,) solicitude, fcnxiety, dis- 
quiet, trouble. 

SOLUM, i, n., tho basis, foundation or lowest 
part of any thing; a bottom, floor; the soil, 
ground. 

SOLUM, ndv., 6olus, only, alone, merely. 

SOLUS, a, um, adj., Gr. §56; alone, only, un- 
accompanied ; by one's self, all alone, solitary, 
unfrequented, deserted. 

SOLVO, ere, 6olvi, solutum, tr., to loose, un- 
tie, unbind. Solvere navem or simply solvere, 
to loose, a ship, to put to sea, set sail. 

SOMNUS, i, m., sleep, slumber, repose, rest. 

SON IT US, us, ex., sono, a sound, noise, din : 
from 

SONO, are. tri, itum, intr. and tr., eonus, to 
make a noise, sound, resound. 

SONUS, i, in., a sound, noise. ' 

80KOU, oris, f., a sister. Ee matre soror, a. 
* kail-sister, sister barn of the same mother. 

SOUS, tis, f., aero, lot, chance, fortune; a 
casting of lots. 

SOTMTES, ium, m., tke. Sotiates, a people of 
Aquitania: III. 20. 

SPATIUM, i, n., pateo, room, open ground, 
•■pace, extent, duration, length, interval, Spa- 
ium loci, distance. SpaUmm diet, the space of 



a day, a day, an interval or space of time. T^an, 
tarn multitudiriem. inUrfecerunt, quantam din 
spatium, — as the length of tho day allowed; ai» 
there was daylight remaining. 

SPECIES, ei, f., specie. In *&>, a form, Jlgure, 
fashion, shape, appearance; a pretext, show 
semblance, colon? pretence. Ad speciem, to 
appearance. Ii&ipeciem, in appearance. Sun- 
ma species, the general appearance. Specie, un- 
der the appearance of. 

SPECT0, are, avi, atum, tr. freq.. specie tu 
t,v/-e intently at; to look nr gaze upon; to 
view; to lie « spectator of; to look to or to- 
wards; io be turned or lie towards; to point, 
tend or incline towards ; to face; toste. observe, 
mark, regard, consider, hotice. heed, care for; 
to seek, look for. expect, wait for. Nnn hoatem 
(esse) ai'ciorcm, se.d rent tpect&K, that the enemy 
was not an adviser but merely -an observer of 
fact". 

SPECULATOR, oris, jn.. sjieculor, a spy, scout, 
explorer. 

SPECU1.ATORIUS, a, um, adj., speculator, 
^belonging to spies or scouts. Spe.culutoria nu- 
vigia, spy-boats, vessels ol observation. 

SPECULOR, ari, atus sum, dep. tr. and intr- 
(specula, a watch lower, specio,)to view, recon- 
noitre, observe, spy out, examine, look around, 
explore. Speculandi causa venire, to come as 
a spy. 

SPEKvlTUS, a, did, part., spero, hopod for. 
expected, longed for. 

SP£ltO, are, avi, atum, tr., to hope, trust, 
expect, look for, hope for. 

SPES. ei, f., a loskiug for, uwaiting (either 
with desire or dread ;) hope, expectation ; con- 
fidence ; expectations, prospects. In spem veni- 
re, to entertain or conceive the hope. 

SPIRITUS, us, m., spiro, tn breathe, a breath- 
ing nr blowing ; a breath, a breath of air ; the 
spirit or soul ; spirit, elevation of mind, energy, 
courage; haughtiness, pride, arrogance, haugb- 
ty demeanor. Tantns spiritas, such lofty *irs. . 

SP0LI.4TUS, a, um, part., spolio, plundered, 
despoiled. 

SPOLIO, are, avi, atum, tr., spoliuci, spoil. 
to strip, bereave, deprive of, rob, plunder, pil- 
lage. 

SPOL1UM, i, n., the skin stripped ofT a beast : 
spoil taken from an enemy, plunder, pillage, 
booty, prey. 

SPONS, tis, f., Gr. §61; spoudeo, a pledging 
of one's self freely, free will. Sponte tua or 
Bimply tponte, of bis own free will, of one's own 
accord, voluntarily, freely ; by oue's self alone, 
without anyone's aid. 

STABILIO, ire. ivi, t'tum, tr., stabiliser*, 
sto, to make steadlast, firm, stable or sure ; to 
prop, support ; settlej fix. 

STABILITAS, atis, f., stabilis,./Sr«, sto, nrm- 
ness, stability, steadiness. 



%. 









8TATIM-SUBLICA. 



ETATTM, adv., sic, firmly, constantly. steadK 
ly ; on the cpot. immediately, toithwith, 
ftraif.htw.iy. 

STATIO, onis. f„ sto, the net of standing; a 
■day, journey; i>. station, post, outpost, sentry, 
pic'; it. guard. In stations, on guard. 

aTATiVDS. a, uni, adj., sto, standing, stand- 
lug still. SUttiva entire, a sanding camp, sta- 
tion, quarters, 

6T.ATU0, ere, ui, utum, tr., sto, to rauee to 
• stand, to set up, raise, erect ; to put, place, es- 

tablish.; to maintain, judge, think, coin lode. 
be of opinion'; to resolve, determine) ordain^ 
decree : to give tentence. p»-.« sentence or judg- 
ment on any one. 

ST \Tri5 A. <••• r. sto, stature, height of body. 

ST.nTf'-. 08, in., sto. a standing; ifhta'.e, sta- 
tion, condition, situation. 

STIMULUS, i, m.. (root BTIO of is-slign, Eng- 
lish .'tick.} any sharp pointed thing; a goad ; a 
• harp pointed instrument concealed beneath the 
Stirface of the ground to annoy an enemy's cav- 
alry. Fig., .in incitement, instigation, induce- 
ment, incentive, motive, a spur. 

BTIPENDIAIUU8. a, urn. a<ij., stlpendlum, 
tributary, paying tax. stipendiary. Stiptndia- 
Hi. tubs., tributaries. 

STTI'KNDHJM. i, D., (sli|w, a orr.tri'nitiim. 
and pernio.) the pay of soldiers; a tribute, tax. 

BTIl'KS. it is. m., a stake fixed in the ground, 
the trunk of a tree; a stake, post, lop;, stock. 

STIRI'S. pis. m. and f.. the root of* tree; the 
trunk or body of a true Fig., the origin <>r 
foundation of a thine.; a stock, family, race, 
lineage. 

STO. stare, stcti^stntun, intr., to stand, stand 
rtrm. Btand still, remain standing; to remain, 
abide, tie; to make a stand, hold out; maintain 
ono"s ground, persevere, persist ; agreoto, abide 
by. stand to. 

BTRAMENTUM. i. n., sterno. In tpmut. that 
which serves fcr spreading, straw, Utter, thatch; 
* a horse-ei,>th, pannier, pack-saddle. 

8TREPITUS, us, m„ gtrepo, a wild and con- 
futed noise, a rattling, clattering, clashing, din; 
clamor, shouting, uproac 

STRINGO, ere insi, ictum, tr., todrawtight, 
other, constrain, hold fast, Stringrrr 
gtadium, to draw nr umheath theeword. 

■ ere, s . cturo, tr.. to pile up, join 
together, build erect, 
-triiet. 

BTUDKO. ere, ul, studi'vi once, Intr., 
t'>. api nltivatc, 

!>»y particular attention to; take delight in 
Jfia pursue, l>" bent un aiding; to desire, aim, wish, 
!>e anxious; tistpdy. .Y..n> r-<nu tlwln , to 
deliglll lutiom; I,, 

change of government; to plot ararolutioc in 

imprrii; itudtl 
%■ ftbange in the j. iverument 






216 



STTJDIOSE, miv., Studlusu*. utrtfjonx stndi- 
um, carefully, attentively, studiously, earnestly, 
zealously. — • 

STUD1UM, I, n„ care, atterMon, djfcrcnce ; 
eagerness, zoal, fondness, desire, inclination; 
attachment, devotion, regard, affection} love: 
pursuit, employment; study. 

S*ULT1TIA, m, f. stultus. fnjf\Uh, f .lly.fool- 
ishifpss, imprudence. 

SUB, prep, with ace or.-L Dr. J \ n \ 3 un- 
der; beneath. Sub montr or r'*m, at th.^'oot 
of. At, during; toward', i..ar by, ah 'U' on 
S.ih ipta prqfectionr, at the Moie i r 'inf. 
away. Sub nculis, under the even. e th« 

eyes, Sub lurrm, about sun-rise. 

"SUBACTUS, a, urn. part., siibign. 

PUBDOLUS, a, um, adj., sub-doluH, cunning. 
ftrafty, deceitful, subtle. 

SURD/CO. ere, xi, ctnm, tr., sib-duco, to 
draw from beneath, to draw np. to draw off, 
take away, lead off, remove, withdraw. SulxJn- 
tert iwiw, to draw ships ashore. 

SUBDUCTIO. onis, f., subitum, the act of 
drawing np. Ad suMucti-mcs, for drawing np 
on land. 

SUBDUCTUS, a, um, part., subduco, drawa 
up; withdrawn, removed, rescued. 

SUBEO, ire, ii, itum. irr. intr. and tr.,sub-e<s 
Or. §2:13; to go nr come under, enter; to go to 
or into, approach, advance, draw near, come up 
to; to encounter, undergo, sustain, endure, 
suffer. 

SUBESSE. etc. See Subsum. 

SUBF08SUS, a, um, part., subfodio or ouffe- 
dio, undermined. 

SUBIQO, ere, fgi, actnm, tr., sub-ago, to 
bring under, to force, compel, constrain, oblige: 
to drive; to reduce, subjugate, subilit". 

SUBITO, adv., all. <\f snbitus, suddenly, un 
sxpectedly, on a sudden, hastily. 

SUBITUS, a. um, adj., subeo. sudden, unei- 
p rted. 

SUB.TECTUS. a, am, part., sul.jicio. 

SUBJIOIO, ere. jeei. jectum. tr.. sub-jncio, to 
throw uinler or below, put. lay nr set under; to 
drive under; to expose, subject, make liable, to 
throw from under. Intrr cttrros mUit'/ur muta- 
nt* nr trOffuUll Utbjicitbant, discharged their 
javelin* and darts from the opening between 
the w.i K ,ms ami wheels. 

FUilLslTUS, a. um, part, and adj.. sustollo. 
lifted up, raiwd ; elevated, proud, haoghty, el»- 
n 1 puffed op; taken away, i emu ved. 

BUBLBTATU3, a, um, pari inblevo 

SUBLEVO, urr. nvi. atum. ii . sab leva, t«> 
lilt [ram beneath, ra,-,- or hold up, suppui t ; to 
list, aid; to eai , lighteu. lessen, dimin- 
ish. .SabU-rvi" ■ s'l sell uj to rise, 

SUULICA, SB, f.. a »tnk«"i ww<leapHa«irtii<n 



280 



SUBLUO— SUM. 



into the grmnd. for building on; a pile of a 



bridge. 






-luo, to wash, to 
; or base of. 
par 1 ., subminis- 
■ : ni 

i .im, tr., sub-min- 

L ,i: ,. tr in to furnish, afford, 

im. tr.. sub-mittq. 
to scud after, to 

- 

ubmoveo. removed 
lodged, sontaway, 

•turn, tr., sub-mov- 
n ive out of the way, 

r.,sub-ruo, to throw 

■ „._.., s . lino; to pulldown, 

overthrow, overturn, demolish, destroy. 
SUBSECtfTUS, a, urn, part., from 
SUBSEQUOR, i,««tus«um, dcp. tr., .sub-se- 
quor, to follow forthwith, soon or near after, 
pursue closely, conio after, follow. 

SUESIDIUM. i. a., subsideo, to sit below, the 
third line of battle stationed in resertfc in rear 
of the principes ; a body of troops in reserve ; 
a reinforcement, aid, help, succor, assistance, re 
tief, defence ; a remedy. Ad omncs casus mib- 
.tidia comparare, to 'prepare resources, make 
provision tor every emergency. 

SUBS/DO, ere. S'di, ses>nm, intr., sub-si'do, 
to tightj to sit down, crouch down : to sink down. 
settle, subside; to remain, stay, stay behind. 

SUBSISTO, ere, stiti, tr. and intr., sub-sisto, 
to stand, to stop, stay; to remain, abide; to 
stand still, halt; to resist, withstand, hold out 
against. 

SUBSUM, esse, fui, irr. intr., sub-sum, to be 
under, among or behind, to lurk underneath, 
be within ; to be near, imminent or at hand. 
Subesse mille pasuum, to bo a mile off. 

SUBTRAHO. ere, xi, ctum, tr., sub-traho, to 
take away from beneath or secretly, take away 
below, remove, withdraw, carry off. 

SUBYECTIO, onis. f., subveho, a carrying, 
conveying transporting. 

SUBYEHO, ere, xi, ctum, tr., sub-veho, to 
carry or bring up, convey in a ship ; to carry, 
convey. 

SUBVENIO, t'ro, Teni, venture, intr., sub- 
venio, to come to oueV assistance, assist, aid, 
heljk succor, relieve. 

SUCCEDO, ere, cessi, cessuni, intr., sub-crdo, 
to go or come unto or into, to come up from 
below, to mount, ascend ; to go or come up. ap- 
proach, advance ; to follow close upon ; take or 
come into the place of, reliove ; to border upon ; 
to succeed, turn out well, be successful. In ttu- 
ii/mem succedere, to mount guard iu one's place 



SUOCENDO. ere di. sum. tr„ snb-canrto, obs„ 
to set fire to, set on fire, kindle, burn. 

SUCCENSUS, a, urn, part., succendo, sot <.;» 
fire, lighted, burnt. 

SUCCESSUS, us. m , Ruecdci, a coming tip to : 
an approach; a prosperous event; prosperity, 
success. 

SUCC/DO. ere, cYdi, cr'stim," tr., sub-credo, t 
cut off below : cut down, fell. 

SUCC/SUS, a, urn, part,, snecido, felled, cut 
down. 

SUCCUMBO, <?rc, cubni. cubitnm, intr.. sub 
cubo, to fall or sink under, lie under, fail, faint. 
yield; to lose courage, submit, succumb, sur- 
render. 

SUCCURRO, ere, curri, eursum, intr.. sub- 
curro, to run under; to run or hasten to; to 
run to ono's assistance, succor, aid, help. 

SUDES, is. f., a stake ; a pilo driven into the 
ground. 

SUDOR, oris, hi., sweat. Fig., pains, exertion, 
toil, labor, fatigue. 

SUESSI ONES, um, the. Suessiones, a peopli 
of Gallia Belgica: II. 3. 

SDjBVUS, a, urn, adj., of or belonging to the 
Suovi; Suevian. Suevus. i, »i., a Sueviau. Sue.- 
vi, orum, in., the Suovi, a nation of Oermany: 

i. y-. 

SUFF1CIO. ere, f<ci, fectum, tr. and intr . suh- 
facio, to put under or among, imbue, tinge; -to 
substitute, put iu the placo of another! to sup- 
ply, fjitrnish ; to suffice, bo sufficient or euough, 
be able. 

Sl'FFODIO, ere, fodi, fossuni, tr.. sub-fodio, to 
dig under, undermine ; to stab below. Equox 
auffodere, to stab under the belly. ' 

SUFFOSSUS. a, urn, part., suffodio. 

SUFFRAGIUM, i, n., sub-frango, a vote or 
suffrage anciently given on brolen pieces of stone 
or earthenware. _ 

SUGGESTUS, us. m., Mggero, to pitt. under, 
any elevated place made of earth or other ma- 
terials heaped up; a tribunal; a stage or scaf- 
fold, pulpit, elevated seat. Pro sugjetv, on the 
stage or. tribune 

SUI, pro., Gr. gTS; of himself, herself, itsolt 
or themselves. 

SULLA, ts, m., Sulla or Sylla, a Roman fami- 
ly name L. Cornelius Sulla, a distinguished 
Roman general, the rival and conqueror of_Ma- 
rius : I. 21. 

SULVICIUS, i, m., 6. Rufus Sulpieius, one of 
Ctesar*s lieutenants i IV. 22. 

SUM, esse, fui, irr. intr., Gr. glOO; to be; to 
exist, live; to 6tay, remain, continue, abide. 
With two datives, Gr. g Ul, to be, serve, afford. 
Est mild, I have, Gr. g 143. Xiki est in anviw, 
I purpose, intend or design, it is my intention. 
With a genitive. Gr. gl33, to be the part, prop- 
erty, etc.; to be consistent with, become, be- 






281 



■ 

>art. pi in ;i] 

itmd in 

■ ■ - 

' 

r war. ' ' admin? 

; i 

Hie war. 5 ho whole 

amy. the in i 

hull, G ml tali 

up. r.f t upei u 
. ■ ■ ii t, chief, 

mi i ii . most ira- 

: 

aicnt ; tl 

; wild ■ ■ . :,i. i', «.. the 

m 

I under- 

iflict punish- 
Olo n, . 

j . expd'.l- 

endid. 
mo, i 
sumptu, at i 

upon. 

v 1110. 

uly. 

me;' ! 

atum, tr. anil kiti 

; . xci 1. surmount, 
me ; In i .p.i jui r. ranquisn, huhduo; to be 
go .,■ climb over, i i 

niiive. liv« i 

Sliri.i;.-..! sosstnn, tr. mi 

iipi-i-M-.H- ■. to all ii i» >d ; to be superior to, tor-' 

nprt .ii from ..r duclino battle. 

8UfK ..iii'.. coper-sum, to 

■ ; 
tus or i 



re, »'vi, itura, intr., Rib 
be near or at hand, bo in store dx be Mipplicd. 

might 
ity of cm ii. 

l.i'MKNTIJM. i, n., suppleo? /: i . 
a rupply. Biting up; supplies, ; 
recruits. 

■i.. BUb-Vl|^ 
.i.r.r. 
, 'LICATIO. r,nis, f., ^ ,ppU- 

ub-plico, a gupplicalife. soli nm I 

i:«r,e'r 
ui' a suppliant, humbly, huluni.-i 
autly. "«'' 

8UPPMCIUM, i. n., supplico, 
the knees, cither in prayi /■ or in r« mum punitK 
■ i: ,, ...v. ;i supplication, entreaty; ii Sup- 
plicatory sacrifice ; a punishment, torture, tor- 
ment. 

! UPPORTO, are. avi. atum, tr.. BOli-porto, to 
carry, couvey, import, bring up foi 
SUPRA, adv. and prep, with oci 
ie. above, overj upou ; be I'm 

' i i . in. tak< ii up, 

...... . upon. 

SUSCIPIO, are, ccpi, ceptum, tr., Biib-capio, 
r lift up, receive, catth up; to under- 
take, take in hand, enti r upon; eug igo In. . S '<'M 
. ;.' take upon one's self, undertake. 
ECTUS, a, uni. part, and adj., i 
suspicious, tli picion, suspc 

•in. part., BUspicor. 

i:n, intr. and tr. 

Up (.,' upv. . 
• 
[CIO, onis, ;.. . 
truil : ground nf suspicion, i 
i 

.illi of 

. 

ari, atuB suiri p. ;r.. s.u 

5UST1 . up- 

, to lustain, uphold i. ■; ■■ . i. ni 

■ 

to endure, hi Id nut. i 

.' 
(I i 14, i>. JBjjr* ii a" < 
■• 

INK ' 'ii . t tun. t< ntnni, tr., tnh or 

1-UlMJIII .. 

... Mlli-tnllO, 

- r lilt up, I i 

irr>. I 

-. a. um, poM. and i 

■ i . Jit«.Uf,s 






XL' 



*82 



T— TEMPESTAS. 



(U, theirs. Sui, p!., one's part }. people, coun- 
trymen, friends, soldiers, etc. Sua., n.pl., one's 
property, effects, p' ssessions. 

w T 

m of the prxnom&t Titus. 
' ■■:, i, n., taberna, a hut, a 

I'ot tab, whence taberda, a 

picture; a table't covered 

on ; a writing book. 

f., tabulo, covering with 

. planking, boarding, floor- 

n., tabulo, to cover "joitlt 
ry in o buildings a board- 

ini, tr. and intr , to bo ai- 
••: b, say nothing; to be silent 
iiir ;, keep secret. 

T a, um adj., taceo, silent, saying 

.„i..i.i S noiseless. 

TALliA, as, f., a slender rod, staff, stick, bar ; 
a stake. Tulea fr.rrea, pieces of iron used by 
the ancient Britons for money.. A stake of a 
■out in length buried in the ground, and armed 
Willi iron hooks to obstruct the progress of 
cavalry ; a kind ot caltrop. 

T.tLIS, e, adj., such, of this or that kind. 
such like. 

TAM, iidv., so, so much, so very. 

TAMEN, conj., notwithstanding, nevertheless, 
yet, however ; at least. It introduces the com- 
plement if a concessive sentence. , 

TAMESIS, is, m., th» Thames : V. 11. 

TA.YUTSI or TAMEN ETSI, conj., though, 
although albeit • 

TANDEM, adv.. turn and demonstrative suf- 
fix dem. it length, at last, finally. Quid tan 
dem f what then ? what pray ? 

TANGO, ere, tetigi, tactuui, tr., to touch ; to 
be contiguous, border upon. 

TANTjl'ERE. adv., tanto-opere, so much, so 
greatly, to such a degree. 

TANTULUS a. um, adj. dim., tantus, so little. 
rto s.uall, so trifliu j;. 

TANTUM, adv., tantus, Gr. §150, Rem. 3, so 
much, to such an extent, so far : only, alone. 
merely. 

TANTUMMODO, adv., tautum-modo, only, if 
only, provided only. 

TANfU.xD^M, adv., tintus-dem, Gr. § 15C. 
dem. o, just so, much, just so far. ,, 

TANTUS. a, um, adj.. Gr. §91; tam, so great, 
so much, such ; so little, so small. Its comple- 
ment is ut or quantus. Tunti esse, Gr. £137, to 
be of so great value, bo prized so highly, be so 
highly esteemed. 'Panto optre, see TauUipere. 
Tantus — quantus, as great — as; as much— as; 
».s far — as. Tantu.ui p.Uebat — juantuin. loci aaes 



occupirc patemt, extended as far as the- space 
which a Hue of battle could occupy. Ta.ntu.in, 
n.. is'oftsn follmved by the r/em't.ix, Gr. J 134, 
Rem. l.-i 

TARBELLI, oruni, m., tho Tarbelli, a people 
of Aquitania: III. 27. 

TARDvlTUS, a, um, part., tardo, retarded, 
hindered, stopped, delayed, checked. 

TARDE, ius, issime, adv., tardu", slowly, tar- 
dily. 

TARDO. are, avi, atum, intr. and tr., tardus, 
to be slow, to loiter ; to make slow, retard, 
stop, delay, impede, hinder. 

TARDUS, a, um, a'lj.,slow, tardy, sluggish, 
slack. 

TARUS.tTES. ium, m.. the Tarusates, a peo- 
ple of Aquitania: III. 23. 

TASGETIUS, i, m., Tasgetius, a king of tho 
Carnutes: V. 25. 

TAURUS, i, pi., a bull. 

TAXIMAGDLUS, i, m., Taximagulus, a king 
of Kent: V. 22. 

TAXI'S, i, f., the yew tree. A poisonous de- 
coction was made from the berries. 

TE. See Tu. 

TECTOSAGES, um, m. : VI. 24." See tolas, 

TECTUM, i, n., tego. the covering or roof of 
a house ; a house, dwelliug. 

TECTUS, a, um. adj. and part., tego, covered; 
protected, defended, safe. 

TEGIMENTUM or TEGUMENTUM, i, n., 
tego, a covering. Settlor um by/imeiila, the 
leathern covers or cases of shields, protecting 
them from dust and injury. 

TEG 3, ere, texi, tectum, tr.. to cover ; to hv' ■ . 
conceal, disguise ; to defend, protect. 

T&'L/UM, i. n , a missile weapon ; a dart, j i 
el in, spear. Opposed foarma defensive weopotiA 

TEMERAR1US, a. um, adj., imprudent, in- 
considerate, rash, indiscreet, headstrong. 

TEMERE, advt, happening by chance, acci- 
dental; by chance, at random, rashly, thought- 
lessly, fi olisldy; easily, readily. 

TEM.:UITAS,atis, f„ temere, rashness, in- 
considerateuess. temerity, imprudence. 

TEMO, "iiis. nj.j the beam of a plough or 
wagon, to the end of which the yoke was tied; 
the pole or tongue of a chariot. 

TEMi'ERASTIA, se, f., tenipcro, mode.sty, 
moderation, temperance, discreetness, sobriety, 
abstinence, Self control;' self-government. 

TEMl'UR.-lTUS. a. um. part, and adj., tempe- 
r ■. coin-p* tempe.ratior, tempered, moderated; 
moilerate, temperate, sober, mild. 

TWMi'ER. >, are. avi. atum, tr. and intr., tem- 
pus, a pio-e cut "if, a pin-lion, to temper, mingle ' 
various things in due* proportion ; to mitigate, 
soften, modify : to Itioder ito, restrain ; to ab- 
stain, lel'rain fuibcar. jfj^j^rum silii, to gov- 
ern one's sell', moderate : iSr restrain one's self. 

TEMt'EnTA.-s, utisj f. tempus, time ; a season 



CMPUS— TOLLO. 



2?S 



time with reference to tin-, weather; stormy,! Ti 



imigh "/• boisterous weather; a r-toiiu or tem- 
pest, hurricane, tornado. 

TESll'U;v. oris, ii.. rout te* in cut, a portion 
or period ;»i time, tame, space of time ; a season. 
Omni t.iir.pnir. always, ever. An occasion, op- ten or much affright alarm. If- in tiMnture, 



earthy. 

TKllllKO, ,iv. nl, itntii. tr., to affrighl. alarm 
frighten, terrify ; to scare away, to detwhi w 

TKItKlT,). are, tr. freq . tern o, to u-riifty of-' 



porfunity. Ad L mpus, in time, at the appoint- 
ed time, promptly, in good season, seasonally. 
Cnu tempore., aX once. teiupvre exdust 
want of time. 

TKNCH . il/::u. arum, m., the Tcnulnh-n:, a 
people of Germany: IV. 1,4. 

TIOM) >, ere, teiciidi. leusum :• ltd ton turn, tr. 
and intr.. to stretchout. extend; to go, advance. 
Utadere tabemaculuiit, or simply temUre, to 
spread or pitch a tent, encamp. 

TKNKliU.i;. arum, f., darkness, Obscurity, 
(loom. 

TENKO, ere, ui. tentum, tr. ana intr., tend", 
o hold, hold fast, keep ; to possess-, hold, have, 
occupy, gain possession of, gain; to guard* de- 
fend,. maintain ■. t , • continue, extend; I" I;..; 
possession of, to retain, preserve; to detain, re- 
*train. check'. 2»:ner< st eastris, to remain shut 
up; to continue in. i liquo, to be in 

one's |iOsseS8ion. Ciic-uuiventum teneri, to be 
snrrouuded. Locum Imnc. to beep on 
remain at one's p ist, hold one's position, main 
tain one's ground. 

TiCX ,.K. era, eru n, ». !j . . 
young. 

'1 i..\T.n 1 ,S, ii, urn, part., tried, proved. 

TK.NTO. are, avi, atuui, tendo, tr., to I 
amine, luj., to try. attempt; to prove, put to 
the test, tempt, sound; to attack, assail; to 
prove, ce ,i,i , i i.u ler. Ii, U ce to revolt. 

T...N l ; . -. ii . simus, adj , i . 
•Jo, drawn out line, linn, slender, fine; little, 
small, poor, scanty, moon, . •«, deli- 

cate. 

TKNUITAS. litis, f., tennis, thin 
tenuitj | poverty . .-: means.' 

Tri.NLili'j idv., te ins, thinly, sU 

ri 1 1 1 ■ , y . Atai worked down 

thin. 

'J i. it adv.. tros, three times, thri id 
1..U...-, *- l » -- adj., t'io, to Tv.li, tap 
smooio. louudi 

Tf.li.li . Ill, i. n., the bai k of a M&fl or beast. 

Verba. I'ott lergum, bchinu 

hind, in tko reef. Ab Urgv, (turn 

behind. 

'i ii, •■ : a. . a, adj., ter, ties, throe, three by; 

iiu. i 

'l i.i. \..o. I iLe earth in opposea 
TkguvvMi i land U> muter, -a cuoatry, 

region territory, laud. 'Jtriu: or or bus terra- 



to alarm greatly, to nil with liar. 

TURKOK. oris, in., terreo, i : it rear, tenor, 
fright, dread. ,"\ 

TKUTIO, adv., tertius, lor he thrVd time. 

ThltTfUS, a. urn. bird, 

tin- third. 

TKSTAM l'.XTUM. i. n.. • ^ 

tis, a testament or last will. 

TESTIMONIUM, i. D., testis, a . Ay 

y 
evidence, proof. But testimonui, to be roof: 

Gr. 1 144. , 

IK8T1S, is. m_ and f.. a witness, eye Witness. 
spectator. 

TfrTMiO. inis, f., teste, a fheU, a tortoise; 
itirs, a U'tu'lo i coverhig 

by the shields of soldiers lie! I oyer their heads 

to protect t In- 1 ii -t i . -m falling darts, ete. ; alto, a 

ing orehcdfoi the protection of 

'-rs. 

TEUTOMATOS, i. ia..-'i'i in. -in, it us. a m of 01- 
lovico king of the NitobrigM : VI] 

'l'Ki; i'o\ i orum, or TKUTpN fciS, um, ni.,the 
: TetitotH's. a German nation who in habit i I Kt < 
land and Kinieu. islands at the entrance ui tin 
Baltic: J. 3S. 

TtX S lego. 

TI..I Sec Tu. 

'I'l ;.\U.\l. i, n., tego, building material, tim 
ber tor building; a st.ck of timber, a beaut, 

TldUK/.M. oiurn. :n., the Tigurini the in- 
llllbltliuts, .. /'.;/ li'mui ; 1. 1 -. 

Tll.U / \ I 8, : ( um. a l| 7 JU ">n- 

foni cantons into n liich Helvetia 
l 1U. 

TIMi.'i- n. ni. tr. and ii .. to [ear, be 

afraid oi. appi eln ad, < tu 

• •(y of any person or thing, be 
i or alarmed lor or about. 

TI.MIIi;.. adv.. tiinidii.. I 

<. um, adj.. nun i, . i ful, t dnt 

timid, afraid, cowardly. 

I1M0U, oris, in., [um.. eusibn, 

dread, alarm, anxiety, ali'iight, pauie. Amor 

dly fear, « hiiu . ... gi i ei dlr 

i apprehension, such as hravu uiou ma; 

lee|. 

I'l rUIUUd, i. iii. Titurius (lj .- 

I I I'l.S. i, in. TltUS, a ii >.n 1. 1 ,• 



rum, the emu. the world, ftrra UaUia, the tuli, I itly, - 

count i .. •■. n.iiil. ii ib 1 

Tu.hH f, m.. T. Torra'idius, n man ind out, hold <>ui. ^ 

lo the Uuelli tor sjapplle*: ILf. i IMI.I. i. are, u. [ruut tol tficuct 

■ 



2S4 



TOLO \ IRaNSVJSRWUS 



iif'i • tiike up ; 



id u[,: t^j TRANSDOj ere; did 
to take away, See Trado. 

: iriwtii toHerc, ] 'KAN: ;, ii'V:.(. ... . xi, cttlin, tr.{ trail- 
■:,- tollere, to : Ur. gl62, Rein. :>; to bring or carry over", Ii td« 

I costey over or through, trail port, trim 
town of tlu: i load, carry. 
o Carumua: J TRANS DUCTUS, si, u n 

i TRAXSKO, ire, ii, itu.n. ii I ti'.* (h 

t of Toulouse: §111; trans-eo. to ■. or ; i - o\iHt or beyond 

| pass, cross. Truhsilvr viU<> is fcrdable 

a }s, inhftbi- i to desert, go or pasj.ow I i pas 

J away, pass: 

'..a war- j TRANrir^RO, ferre. bull, i t.r.. 

larts, etc.; the trans-itero, to carry or c . ovorjcj trail*- 

• a / ■ pe, con!; fer, tin p. .; 

TRANSIT GO, ere. : 

■ :.., to parch, to fix; to i-nn or drive i . .. . ; t.-jlix, stab 
1 jiiei i' . 

TRANSFIXTJ8, a, um, pa* . tra;is-f;'gi , pier 
-demote many, ced, transfixed. 

IJKANSF.ODld er ti\, traira- 

50, all fodio, to pierce thrptagh .. i isfii,thrusl ii: 

us TftANSiKRSDIOR ., sum, dep- 

lind intr., trans-gra ■ . , 

■;. .... , ■: 08 -. 

TRANSGRSSSUS, rredior 

\ •<-" PUS, us, It '.,- [ran 

■ i 

DUS.'us. ui ..... ■. ■ .■ .i.u. 



i.«.ltor, rafter 
dm 






TKABS, trains, l 
TRACTiJS. iv. mi). 
rawiHj drawn away. 
TRA! TUS. ui, m., traho. a !'r v 

. <■: !:. . ,. extent; a tract. 

region*, country, distrii t. territory. 
TRADITIJS a, um, 

■• : .. . ■ I ; own,.' c. 

T\ ' 00. ere. didi, diti . to give 

d aver, consigs 
e 
■ 

..... 
down, 
i 

. 
' TKA 

.>. aorl I'javclii 
, TR.V.i 

TKAJ1U10, ere, jeei, jectuin, t:<, 
to»throw or cast over, fling beyond; lu pierce, 
penetrate, transfix, run or thrust through; to 
trans on . carry over. 

TUA..QU1LL1TAS, «tis, f.. tra.quillus, traw- 
.fail, quietness, ttillness, calmness, tranquillity; 
-«lm,..-.s of l he »o;i , a calm. 

Tli \NS, prep, with aec , on the farther side 
.f; LeA uud, over, it U often opposed to ct's. 
T. arts Uhrnum, on the oihei ; ide of the Rhine. 
f. e. in the Mile farthest from the writer, on the 
easjtei n t,ide. 

Stl^AN'SALPiNUS, a, um, adj. trans-Aipi'nus, 
Uj.H. beyond the Alus, Transalpine. 

T. ANSUENDV, ere, di, sum, tr., trans-scan- 
do, U> climb; .to climb or go over, pass, cioss. 



1 



!' ■:...!... 

part., trjf 
TRANSJ1CI0 iocturn', 

j icio. Sei I 

' : i , . . 



, - 

; . I. 

i 
... 

: 

■ ■ . 

' AWSNMTO, are I eq 

I :",!:> »Wi m, ii ■ ; 1 svv im ove: 
aingi 
TRANSl'ORTMTU.S. a, um, trausj car 

ried over, transpoi le '■. 

TRANSPORTO, are, avi. ar;: i tr. ti . '-por 
to, to carry from one place t.i another, trans- 
port, carry or convey over. 

TRANSRUENjINUS, a. um, adjj trans-Rhc 
w nunus, of the Rhine, on the other si>te of th«- 
Rliin... Trantrhettani, <■, .. , ise living 

beyond the Rhine. > 

TRANSTRUM. i, u.. a 1 ■ ■ fu rok 

ers in >i ship. 

TRANSVRIIO, ere, vexi. . ti afld 

veho, to carry, convey trr brilig over, tiai 
MiANSYfiRSuS, a, um, a'Jj., traiuveiio, Ij 



TKKBlUS— UBl. 






Atrn.tnraed aoroea, athwart, crostt St .Jr. tnins- ; TIlfSTi.H wrrnw'ul, <1ej 

_».,* rnmOTViTT i _.. *■ ■ ■ • -t_ - 



»erpo. td)Hqufl 

XRBBIC8 i. m. (M.) Trabtaa Galta 
lent by Ofaaar 1 the CuriotoUtea for n 

ni. v. 
TRSRi Nil l iC.) Trcti 

knight : VI, 

' . •, ■ s ■ . ■ ■ 

three )>' 



TRISTltTIA, *e, f. I 

TKUNCUS, i, tn., »ho tru 
a tree. 

■ 

ac, f. u tn. . 

rt>, tultweand r»tiw «uni ik-p., to 
' ".. louk at, l> 



TKI >t, ntiim, ii I 

•'fir/i '. for fear, hui 



irn in .1 sti 

to tremble for 
fear, In afraid or rAiuciI. Trepidatut 

f trepidation, 
• i Hlnni) or fear. 

aairi. adj„Oi 

Ailj 
a, belonging u> the Tio 

I ;v ti iti..rr of Galliu Hel- 



' NGI, orum, ■ • be T>.'?i.. 

TULLUS, i, in. (C. VoIcatiiiR.) Tullu* 

■ 
tin bridge which he I 

vi, 2a. 

TUM, 
in tin place next; then, at I 

xim,. ami < fttm <l<- 



TKU I 

:ii-»r | TL'.M'.'i.TIJOIt. : : tUKUlltUB, 



proper- 
"ribuni 

tttUtllr< ! 01 rii:l',l:. Hili. 

td unity increased with the 

I ! 
TKii 

DUUM, i. !>.. i 
TUU.NNII 

. 






:;:'(. be in nu uproar 

TUMI >.. ttimnljtn«8n9,tumu2ttta, 

tumult«i 

TIM. 

umtuotion, fA-.lit i hi, iuhur- 
■■ -i . 
T0MULU8, i. in. tam 
hill ich, n 
TUN<\ adv., then, at thai 
TUK.M A, »<•. f., a ti ningat 

first thirty, and afterwarde thirty two men. 

SI, orum, n 
Turonea, h !«• >ple ■ 

• ■•. .1 -1 »i mod. 
an«cemly; shiiuefu 

! l'i:il;i Iv. tu 

' 

TUKi 



I parts 






. 



< 



ITMI— VACATtO. 



where, in what or which plnce ; whin 
■ 
i UBlt, or am, m., the Dbii, 'a people of Ger- 
• tho bank? of the Rhino : 1.5^. 
OUB, ;tdv., ubi, wherever, ever) 
■■ re. 

I um, (top, tr., to chastise, 
, • on, roTo:;.' 
VIA. y, any one. 

i i .T Ij., corap., Ur. #74, 1. 

lit a, ulti-u" farther, on tho 

, fttMber Gaul beyond tho A! 
■ 

., -a'5j., (xup. of ulterior, far- 
:. most remote, wont distant; bind- 
in 'If.,- reaT. 
Ul.TRA, adv. and prep, with ace, (ail. o/ul- 
t, farther. 

I ' .!■:<-., to 

to the farther sidu. Uilri 
que, back and forth, to in 1 I 
Other aid ,*'.«. with >ut i' Bi 
from this Hide, hence, voluntaiilj 
*coord. Ultrn .;y run- 

nitrg togel , 

ULL . .'i>wling 

>.-r yulo 

gethor- 
all at on '-lie linio, along with, tu- 

jpther h il h. 
UNDj uoutial root n, 

■ what place 
which place, fi Pom which. 

I .\ DEC1M, "'■' 
<de>e i. 

UNDKCIM1 ii. adj., m I 

the eli 4 

ONDEQUADRAC i to ■ .i.i., Or. 

ji*. 4 : i ty-nihe. 

UND1QU ;•;.. adv., u 
• 

. of the 
Auoric tribes inhabiting the wi 
11,34. 
D-SI1 ni, adj. una; I 

I; j)Z., all. 
■ 

i 
ifNUS, a, uui, uuiii. udj 

I; 
■ 
to a man all rithuui • lucum, 

only, a- 

urbi, of or pertaining to 



URBS, urMa, f., (akin to .:•>';»,) a city, the 
city, f. e. R me. 

URliEO, <re, ursi, <r., to press upon, press 
hard or close upon, urge, drive, impel ; to prow 
hard, bear down, op: 

URU:?. i, m., a kin.) of wild ox, probably the 
buffalo. 

l.'SH'KT-ES, uin, m., the Usipotcs, a pa 

y : IV, 1, 4. 
USl'f^lTUS, a, urn. adj., usitor, Una, uiuaV 
accustomed, ordinary, common, customary. 

USQUE, adv., all the way, without stop, even, 
as far as. Vkpte en, so fur, to such ,i '.egroe. 
UoVS, a, um, part., utor. 
CSVS, us, m.°, tttor, ufe; exercise, practice; 
Hkill, experience; advantage, , lofit, benefit; 
need, necessity, occasion . / su we»ii«, • 
pen, fall out, occur, 

veniut. if occasion oil - ir »ji 

Bsefnl, advantageous, profitable. 

: ..if one; 

UT1, conj.. (pfonqfhial root 9,} as. like 

if; in order that, t iat, ap that) 

Yi'on, 

(though. With verbs <</ / 

that not, li,. £193, Rem. 2, b. Ut qui. 

UTER, utra, mm.: K.niial 

root u w be •.-■'.quis,) whetbi ol .he 

theolbi 
ever ol 

que, uoth the 

. 
lit uti ■: these. Uterqt 

. . •'. ii ight 
Ul'l. See Ut. 
Utor! 

' ij. ut t, useful, profitable, ad- 
vantageous. 

UT1L1TAS, atis, f., utilis, usefulness, prolit. 
ad van' ■ 

:. i. nsus sun. 9, Rem. 

C ; to employ one's self with a thil 
use, in- . ploy, exeicidc. manage; to 

. aii, to ad*pt a plan 
ditiou. 
UTI!:. i : 

■ . 
UTR1M, adv. and conj.. utor, 

Ds it is omit ed in translation, in 
qn si oi • 

, id is followed in the 
lumber of tho quest 

nsurt. 



V 



. YACATIO, onis, i'. 

ity. 



VACO— VENItJ. 



:;- 



VACO, arc, iiv!, nfnm. Intr., to he empty, be 
f^ee froib want, he without; to be cv 
lie waste, lie Uocutti rated. b( nijoccupiedwuit- 
inh.i 1 

V 401 pt y, va- 

cant i without a pos- 

• • 
YADUM. i l 
go; hence a s!i.i!K iw place in a i 
a ford, Hliial. 
VAU.trtis, a. an part, 
YAG/.VA. <- sheath of a 

• 
VAGOR, ari, atus mm, dcp., vapns, -min-ifr- 
troll, ramble, 

YAH 
rvftf. l0. 

YALKO. <rr. ul, inl 

Willi) ; to 
to have 
• 

: ■ 
imp.; it 

VAI n:irs Kv-ntil*. 

'■ of the 
. >CO JYv- 
■ rux. 

-hief of 
:. 
VALX1 i hody, 

healii; 
▼ALUS a id VALLKS is, t, a valley, 

VALLUJ: 

■it. bi.l- 

1 

Rhine I 

(L.) Yarenua, a Roman 
■v in Gaul . I 

VA&IU8 a, am, i ij pim, liffi ront. di- 

vorso, changeable, manifold; ol 

n, on.,, part , vaato. laid «a«ie, 
ted. 
VAftTO, arr, a>i, atnoi, tr. v* to to lay 

», raTage, dtTastate, dost 
VASTUS, a. uin, adj., (ak tmpty, 

t, «-ji.'.te, 

oU, f., vatidn*r. to prcphtty 



I frnn ■ 
ing; adivinai 
VE, ontliti.- coti.i., Gr. $l£i. 2 

paid foi freight; duty on got>da i;i>,>urt. 
! ry -u ■ . 

I : 
■ 
oualy. 

.11, 7. 
VKLA yNl, oi-uin i,i . th< 

• 
a town 11,11. 

\ . i ■ Vol... 

I 

II, I. 

VKI. 

iptd. 

. lum from ■ 
sail. 

.is if. 

■ 

'..Hi. 

V&MDO, ere, didi, iJitum, tr., rsnani 
sell, vend, let or exj 
Y£NKXI, orum, ni.. tu« 

tnbca in th<- weatarn | 

VliNKIiA, ao, i., K.dm, Veuetia, tit 
tej of thai . f Celtic Gaul 

taiuiu* ti 

from veoio. | 
indulgence; 
givencM; t favor, kindness. 

a, ar 

tet' pi. 

o, so 
pUti i at m 



TITO— VICIES. 



: .■. er of a person : to Hur- 

■ frequently. 

wind. 
i.. the Spriuj 

urn, in., th< 1 ragti, a people 

' ' ' . - 

. 
. etia : I, 27. 

•i. >.- 1 ; pi., v. >i'(] i, r.xprea- 
I cak, discourse. 
. , igis, in. 

: VII, 4. 
, . in troth, 
ri, itua sum, dep.tr. and intr., to 

revon afraid of, apprehen 

bat not 

vr le-v not ; v ■ With 

(m- or 
Concern ! about. 

\ LUNCJS, ... illuunux, 

trverni: VII, 

t*. to ben 

,. !' ! 

■ of thy 

\Ei .lili.i, like the 

ikely, probable. 

> ... ! ' • , ; ■'. IU ■ . 

: i. adv. and <-oi>j.. wri. . 

rover. 
iin, in., the Yeromaudui, 
Ilia llclgic-a: II, 4. 

ir. freq,, vorto, to 
i . change ; toe: 

• baoge, 
ite. disturb, i 

. each in,tur; 

aent; forema 

v.upieri. 
sugageil. I. 'j lied, ex. . 

VEKSIWl and VERSUS, . 
aoc.. vejto, toward? or towa 

■>ri'n; as, a/' -fei lowuidw 

n. As » prep, it uainilty .-^uti'di aiturita t 
«ue. 

50S,us, m., vtito. aturnfagof I). 
;i iiue, row ; >> line 
V tiltS US, a, uu», part., v.-nd 

f tU« j 

whu seat iaformat 

on l^esiegc-d 



m 



V'E;: TO, *re, ti, sum, tr. trad Intr., to turn, 

turnaround; to cluing*, alter, taint form. Vcr- 

h back, ran uway. 

VEKUPOCTlUf. . m. Verndoctioa, a chicr 

uf the II or to Cajwar : 

1,7. 

V.ERUS. a, true, rea ".'nuiiiD: 

right, filling, pj • .• ; t ii jn»t, iii., 

pioper. fOtrum, i, n.,.tbe truth, truth. 
VEIir/TOM, i, n., veru, i 
lin. 

-NTIO, ouia, :. Vosontio, the chief 
town of the i 
VESP1 

dug 
VEj-TEK. tra, trut 
yours; of you. 

VESTI UUM. i. n., a foo: 
• 

JSwi- 

| 
I 

\ I.I 

■ 

VETO 

i it» old stati ■ 

■'.',! . t . 

VETi ri ler; ol 

I | 

en. liar.. , 

VlvVll.l.UM, i n, 
andard; the . 
general n teul 

VEX . .: ue; to 

trouble, molest, vex. i 

postage, path ; the street in a 

Via i-,Uui,' * 
i 

to jouraey or mi 
. • lays march or ji 
Vi.l'I'OK, oris, ui., via, a traveller. 

■ :, a, num. adj.. viginti, twenty 61 

I ■ B, a, uui. nu 

V X ■■. I, etc iit-e Vinco. 

hr., viginti, twtiitj . i ; .. ■ 
two tliouaaud. 






viciNr: vs— voLrxiA'- 



YICINITlS, «Us, f.. fio/nm. ntar- 
ior«. 

v turn*, 
vcnw.v, *e, r., vMioo. .1 ■»,. ,'!i, vi.-iij^ 

tWT. 

FOb- 

.inn 



u<A rf», 



iiUhM. 



. 
maid, damsel, .eirl. 

virgula, v 
V] 11/ C 



■ 



l|jfRvi;>ki'. n 
'/&■'■ I 

- 

s— bound— . 

i. atnni. tr. an 

. 

■ 
iu ii>h. inllict punishment, i 

Yo I! Tf I 

VINEA. a«, f.. bc porti as, » 

' Witll TMl.- 

he walls of towns wereaas 

* VTO I 

Tiri, m., ft ;u , 

. a iiimi of 



* .')'i?!J /■■ 



' "'.lalitie'J 

v/sus 

I 

V'/\ i Hum, iatr., f.> 1 i \ 

. 
VIS adv, 
difficult 

so that hardlj 

■i^m of 

i,. 

VadAu,;,. T»:. 

.m, rn., tlif 






I 












. ] 

I 1 

inturily. 






ru. 

i. m, Vosegus, acl 
.Jans i 

return, (r.«i. 
rtorl 



is; to tai 

■ 









■